Treaty of Troyes

The Treaty of Troyes was an agreement that King Henry V of England and his heirs would inherit the French crown upon the death of King Charles VI of France. It was signed in the French city of Troyes on 21 May 1420 in the aftermath of Henry's successful military campaign in France, it forms a part of the backdrop of the latter phase of the Hundred Years' War won by the French at the Battle of Castillon in 1453, in which various English kings tried to establish their claims to the French throne. The treaty arranged for the marriage of Charles VI's daughter Catherine of Valois to Henry V, made regent of France and acknowledged as successor to the French throne; the Dauphin Charles VII of France was disinherited from the succession. The Estates-General of France ratified the agreement that year after Henry V entered Paris; the French king Charles VI suffered bouts of insanity through much of his reign. Henry V had delivered a crushing defeat to the French at Agincourt. In 1418, John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, whose political and economic interests favoured an agreement with the English, occupied Paris.

One year he was murdered by his Armagnac opponents during what he thought was a diplomatic meeting with the Dauphin Charles on the bridge at Montereau. His son Philip the Good formed an alliance with the English and negotiated the treaty with the English King. Isabeau of Bavaria, Charles VI's wife, whose participation in the negotiations was formal, agreed to the treaty disinheriting her son, hoping that if the dynasties were joined through Henry V the war could be ended and leave France in the hands of a vigorous and able king. There had been earlier rumours that the Queen had an affair with her brother-in-law Louis, Duke of Orléans; these rumours were gladly taken up by Louis' main rival, John the Fearless, who had had the Duke of Orléans assassinated in 1407. The Burgundians promoted the rumor. However, such a statement could not be registered in a treaty without offending the honor of the King of France. Thus, the disinheritance of the dauphin, with respect to the French throne, was based on his "enormous crimes," as he was accused of having ordered the assassination of John the Fearless.

Charles' disinheritance received further legal sanction after he declared himself regent for Charles VI in rivalry to the regency declared by Henry V. The Dauphin was summoned to a lit-de justice in 1420 on charges of lèse-majesté; when he failed to appear, a Parisian court in 1421 found Charles the Dauphin guilty of treason and sentenced him to disinheritance and banishment from the Kingdom of France, losing all privileges to land and titles. The treaty was undermined by the deaths of both Charles VI and Henry V within two months of each other in 1422; the infant Henry VI of England became King of both England and France, but the Dauphin Charles claimed the throne of France upon the death of his father - though he ruled only a region of France centred on Bourges and was derisively referred to as the "King of Bourges" by his opponents. The terms of the Treaty of Troyes were confirmed once again at the Treaty of Amiens, when Burgundy and Brittany confirmed the recognition of Henry VI as King of France and agreed to form a triple-defensive alliance against the Dauphin Charles.

The course of the war shifted in 1429, following the appearance of Joan of Arc to command the Valois forces. They lifted the siege of Orléans and fought their way to Reims, traditional site of French coronations, where the former Dauphin was crowned as Charles VII of France. In 1435, Charles signed the Treaty of Arras with the Burgundians, in which they recognized and endorsed his claims to the throne; the military victory of Charles VII over Henry VI rendered the treaty moot. A final attempt at the French throne was made by Edward IV of England in 1475, but he agreed to peace with Louis XI in the Treaty of Picquigny; the kings of England continued to nominally claim the crown of France until 1801, though this was never again pursued. Their last territory on the French mainland, the city of Calais, was lost to France in 1558

Operation Dawn (1967)

Operation Dawn, code-name Fajr in Arabic, was an Egyptian military operation planned to strike the Israeli Air Force, in the prelude to what would become the Six-Day War. The Egyptian attack plan was to involve strategic bombing of major ports, the Negev Nuclear Research Center near Dimona and cities. Arab armies would attack cutting Israel in half with an armoured thrust from northern Sinai via the Negev desert. Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser had provoked Israel when he closed the Straits of Tiran on May 22, 1967, he was intent on reversing previous military defeats. The Egyptian army mobilized in the Sinai desert, was poised to launch what Nasser called "the operation that will surprise the world"; the operation was set to take place on May 27, 1967. Abdel Hakim Amer, an Egyptian general, planned the operation. According to the Israeli diplomat Michael Oren, Operation Dawn was called off after Nasser was informed by the Soviet Union that the United States was aware of the plan. Israel sent urgent messages to the United States on May 25, 1967, saying an attack from Egypt was imminent.

Israel invaded on June 5, 1967. The White House ordered an intelligence assessment. Israeli prime minister Eshkol wrote on a copy of one of the urgent messages transmitted to the United States "All to create an alibi". According to John Quigley, there is thin evidence that there was any Egyptian plan to attack Israel that would have been carried out; some Israelis claimed that they knew from "Egyptian uncovered documents" that there was an Egyptian plan to attack and cut off Negev, capture Eilat, make occupied land contiguous to Jordan. Six Day War site information on early stages of the war - Operation Dawn

Reclamation Street

Reclamation Street is a street stretching from Jordan to Mong Kok, Hong Kong. As its name suggests, it was built on the reclaimed western shore of the Kowloon Peninsula. Reclamation Street is on a north/south axis and runs parallel to and west of Nathan Road, it starts at the junction with Nanking Street in the south and ends in the north at the junctions of Lai Chi Kok Road and Prince Edward Road West in the Prince Edward area. The street is located between Canton Road on the west and Shanghai Street on the east. It's interrupted in two locations, is thus made up of three sections - The Jordon section in the south, the middle section in Yau Ma Tei and the Mongkok section in the north. For the most part, Reclamation Street is closed to public traffic; the street features one of the largest if not longest fresh produce markets in Hong Kong. Being an old services district, the street is lined with old residential buildings no more than 5 storeys high. Most of these buildings are walk-ups, they have no elevators.

At the street level, there's a wide range of wholesale and service type businesses - workshops of one sort or other, ship chandlers and other related small businesses. The wholesale Yau Ma Tei Fruit Market and the former Yaumati Theatre are located at the street's junction with Waterloo Road; the herbalist store Sang Sang, located at house number 66 on this street, was a site of the Detour in the seventh leg of the reality TV show The Amazing Race 2. List of streets and roads in Hong Kong Google Maps of Reclamation Street Kinoshita, Hikaru. "Chapter 2: The Street Market as an Urban Facility in Hong Kong". In Miao, Pu. Public places in Asia Pacific cities: current issues and strategies. Springer. Pp. 71–86. ISBN 978-0-7923-7083-3. Scenes and views of the market on Reclamation Street