SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Treaty of Union

The Treaty of Union is the name now given to the agreement which led to the creation of the new state of Great Britain, stating that England and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain", At the time it was more referred to as the Articles of Union. The details of the Treaty were agreed on 22 July 1706, separate Acts of Union were passed by the parliaments of England and Scotland to put the agreed Articles into effect; the political union took effect on 1 May 1707. Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland, last monarch of the Tudor dynasty, died without issue on 24 March 1603, the throne fell at once to her first cousin twice removed, James VI of Scotland, a member of House of Stuart and the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots. By the Union of the Crowns in 1603 he assumed the throne of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Ireland as King James I; this personal union lessened the constant English fears of Scottish cooperation with France in a feared French invasion of England.

After this personal union, the new monarch, James I and VI, sought to unite the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England into a state which he referred to as "Great Britain". Acts of Parliament attempting to unite the two countries failed in 1606, 1667, 1689. Beginning in 1698, the Company of Scotland sponsored the Darien scheme, an ill-fated attempt to establish a Scottish trading colony in the Isthmus of Panama, collecting from Scots investments equal to one-quarter of all the money circulating in Scotland at the time. In the face of opposition by English commercial interests, the Company of Scotland raised subscriptions in Amsterdam and London for its scheme. For his part, King William III of England and II of Scotland had given only lukewarm support to the Scottish colonial endeavour. England was at war with France, hence did not want to offend Spain, which claimed the territory as part of New Granada. England was under pressure from the London-based East India Company, anxious to maintain its monopoly over English foreign trade.

It therefore forced the Dutch investors to withdraw. Next, the East India Company threatened legal action, on the grounds that the Scots had no authority from the king to raise funds outside the king's realm, obliged the promoters to refund subscriptions to the Hamburg investors; this Scotland itself. The colonisation ended in a military confrontation with the Spanish in 1700, but most colonists died of tropical diseases; this was an economic disaster for the Scottish ruling class investors and diminished the resistance of the Scottish political establishment to the idea of political union with England. It supported the union, despite some popular opposition and anti-union riots in Edinburgh and elsewhere. Deeper political integration had been a key policy of Queen Anne since she had acceded to the thrones of the three kingdoms in 1702. Under the aegis of the Queen and her ministers in both kingdoms, in 1705 the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed to participate in fresh negotiations for a treaty of union.

It was agreed that England and Scotland would each appoint thirty-one commissioners to conduct the negotiations. The Scottish Parliament began to arrange an election of the commissioners to negotiate on behalf of Scotland, but in September 1705, the leader of the Country Party, the Duke of Hamilton, who had attempted to obstruct the negotiation of a treaty, proposed that the Scottish commissioners should be nominated by the Queen, this was agreed. In practice, the Scottish commissioners were nominated on the advice of the Duke of Queensberry and the Duke of Argyll. Of the Scottish commissioners who were subsequently appointed, twenty-nine were members of the governing Court Party, while one was a member of the Squadron Volante. At the head of the list was Queensberry himself, with the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, the Earl of Seafield. George Lockhart of Carnwath, a member of the opposition Cavalier Party, was the only commissioner opposed to union; the thirty-one English commissioners included government ministers and officers of state, such as the Lord High Treasurer, the Earl of Godolphin, the Lord Keeper, Lord Cowper, a large number of Whigs who supported union.

Most Tories in the Parliament of England were not in favour of a union, only one was among the commissioners. Negotiations between the English and Scottish commissioners began on 16 April 1706 at the Cockpit-in-Court in London; the sessions opened with speeches from William Cowper, the English Lord Keeper, from Lord Seafield, the Scottish Lord Chancellor, each describing the significance of the task. The commissioners did not carry out their negotiations face in separate rooms, they communicated their proposals and counter-proposals to each other in writing, there was a blackout on news from the negotiations. Each side had its own particular concerns. Within a few days, England gained a guarantee that the Hanoverian dynasty would succeed Queen Anne to the Scottish crown, Scotland received a guarantee of access to colonial markets, in the hope that they would be placed on an equal footing in terms of trade. After the negotiations ended on 22 July 1706, acts of parliament were drafted by both parliaments to implement the agreed Articles of Union.

The Scottish proponents of union believed that failure to agree to the Articles would result in the imposition of a union under less favourable terms, English troops were stationed just south of the Scottish border and in northern Ireland as an "encouragement". Months of fierce debate in both capital cities and throughout both kingdoms followed. In Scotland, the debate

Carolina Invernizio

Carolina Maria Margarita Invernizio, better known just as Carolina Invenizio, was an Italian novelist. She had a large popular success between late 1800s until her death. Invenizio was born in the daughter of an official of the Kingdom of Sardinia, she long credited her date of birth as 1858, but in 1983 after long researches in the municipal registers she resulted to be born in 1851. In 1865 she moved with her family to Florence. Invenizio made her writing debut with the short story Un autore drammatico. In 1877 she published her first novel, Rina o L'angelo delle Alpi. Invernizio wrote about 150 novels and 20 collections of novelle, as well as four books of fiction for children. Influenced by feuilleton literature, she had an enormous popular following with her novels characterized by sensationalist and gothic themes, she was badly received by critics, Antonio Gramsci referred to her as an "old trooper" and a "honest hen" regretting these remarks. In 1881, aged 30 years old, Invenizio married a Bersaglieri lieutenant, Marcello Quinterno, at 35 years old she had her only daughter, Marcella.

She followed her husband during his deployments, moving among other cities. Carolina Invernizio on IMDb

3rd Regiment "Granatieri di Sardegna"

The 3rd Regiment "Granatieri di Sardegna" was a unit of the Italian Army based in Orvieto in Umbria. The regiment is part of the Italian army's Granatieri infantry corps and was last operationally assigned to the Mechanized Brigade "Granatieri di Sardegna"; the regiment was disbanded on 30 April 2002. The unit was raised for the first time in 1849 for the First Italian War of Independence: named 3rd Regiment "Guardie" and filled with reserve units the regiment was disbanded the war's end. On 1 December 1926 the regiment, now named 3rd Regiment "Granatieri di Sardegna", was raised again. In 1935 the regiment's I Battalion participated in the Second Italo-Ethiopian War. On 7 April 1939 the entire regiment was airlifted to Albania as spearhead for the Italian invasion of Albania; the unit remained in Albania and fought in the Greco-Italian War, where it earned a Gold Medal of Military Valour When Italy and the Allies signed the Armistice of Cassibile the regiment was forced to surrender to superior German forces on 8 September 1943.

During the 1975 army reform the II Battalion of the 80th Infantry Regiment "Roma" became the 3rd Granatieri Battalion "Guardie". The battalion was assigned the war flag of the 3rd Regiment "Granatieri di Sardegna" and joined the Mechanized Brigade "Granatieri di Sardegna" as the brigade's recruits training battalion. On 21 July 1992 battalion was elevated to 3rd Regiment "Granatieri Guardie" without changing composition or size. In 1997 the regiment left the "Granatieri di Sardegna" brigade and joined the army's Training Brigade. On 30 April 2002 the regiment was disbanded and its war flag transferred to the Shrine of the flags in the Vittoriano in Rome. Mechanized Brigade "Granatieri di Sardegna" Granatieri Association: 3° Reggimento "Granatieri di Sardegna"