History of the United States Virgin Islands
The United States Virgin Islands abbreviated USVI, is a group of islands and cays in the Caribbean to the east of Puerto Rico. Consisting of three larger islands (Saint Croix, Saint John, Saint Thomas plus fifty smaller islets and cays, it covers 133 square miles. Like many of its Caribbean neighbors, its history includes native Amerindian cultures, European exploration followed by subsequent colonization and exploitation, the enslavement of Africans; the United States Virgin Islands are located in the Lesser Antilles of the Eastern Caribbean, the United States Virgin Islands are approximately 50 islands and cays, the largest of which are St. Croix, St. Thomas and St. John, respectively; the population of the United States Virgin Islands forms a complex society with multiple diverse ethnic groups:Virgin Islanders, Eastern Caribbean islanders, Puerto Ricans, French, Americans and Asians. At least one writer feels the ethnic cultural practices and institutions that remain and the influence of the mainland United States have made the society more pluralistic than given it any common Virgin Islands identity.
Early inhabitants of the Virgin Islands included the Ciboney and Island Caribs. The first documented Europeans to visit the islands arrived with Christopher Columbus; the islands were occupied by several nations over the next century, including England, the Dutch Republic and Denmark. In 1733, the Danish West India Company purchased Saint Croix from the French and brought together Saint Thomas, Saint Croix, Saint John as the Danish West Indies. Danish trading posts were set up on the islands, trading in sugar and other goods. Sugar cane cultivation was a major economic activity for many years, with slaves used as one of the labor sources. However, following increasing humanitarian awareness, laws against slavery and a slave rebellion in 1848, the governor Peter von Scholten freed the last slaves the same year; the islands were purchased from the Danish by the United States in 1917 under the Treaty of the Danish West Indies. Although not much is known about the Guanahatabey people who inhabited the islands during the Stone Age, archaeological evidence seems to indicate that they were hunter-gatherers.
They left few other artifacts behind. Experts at canoe building and seamanship, the Arawaks migrated from the Amazon River Valley and Orinoco regions of Venezuela and Brazil, settling on the islands near coasts and rivers; these peaceful people excelled at farming. They grew cotton, maize and guava as well as a variety of other fruits and vegetables; the Arawaks developed intricate cultural lives. For recreation, they held organized sporting events, they valued artistic endeavors, such as cave painting and rock carving, some of which have survived to the present. Religion played a large role in their daily lives, through ceremonial rituals they asked their gods for advice to help them through troubled times, their civilization flourished for several hundred years until the Caribs invaded. While the Caribs came from the same area as the Arawaks and may have been distantly related, they did not share the Arawaks' friendly nature. Not only were they fierce warriors, they feasted on their adversaries.
Their bloodthirsty reputation spawned the English word cannibal, derived from the name the Spanish gave them, Caribal. Whether or not they ate their victims, the Caribs did destroy numerous Arawak villages. By the mid-15th century, the Caribs had slashed the Arawak population from several million to a few thousand, but the Caribs were no match for the Europeans who came. Blown off course during his 1493–1496 voyage, Christopher Columbus landed on Saint Croix continued his explorations on Saint Thomas and Saint John, he gave the islands their original Spanish names. The collection of tiny islets and rocks dotting the sea around them reminded Columbus of Saint Ursula and her 11,000 virgin martyrs, inspiring the name Las Once Mil Virgenes; the first encounter Columbus had with the Caribs erupted into a battle. When Columbus and his crew decided to move on to other islands, they kidnapped six Arawaks to guide them. Although Columbus left without founding a colony, many more battles between the Spanish and Caribs followed over the next century.
The French and Danish colonizers finished the job. They tried to convert the Caribs and Arawaks to Catholicism and Lutheranism, which failed, they enslaved the native populations to work on plantations. With tobacco having been cultivated on the islands, it made a good cash crop. On, coffee and cotton were grown. Diseases, coupled with murder and slavery, took a large toll on the Caribs. Several groups of Arawaks committed mass suicide rather than submit to foreign rule. By the late 17th century, the Arawaks had vanished and few Caribs remained; the Virgin Islands were raided by Spanish from Puerto Rico seeking slaves. With only a small population on the islands, there was a great demand for labor; the trans-Atlantic slave trade to the islands began in 1673. The difficult conditions and inhumane treatment slaves were subjected to bred discontent. Moravian Brethren missionaries from Herrnhut Saxony, arrived in St. Thomas in December 1732. Distrusted by the slave holders, they won their confidence. In 1733 a long drought followed by a devastating hurricane pushed slaves in St. John to the breaking point.
Members of the Akwamu
The Panama Canal is an artificial 82 km waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean. The canal is a conduit for maritime trade. Canal locks are at each end to lift ships up to Gatun Lake, an artificial lake created to reduce the amount of excavation work required for the canal, 26 m above sea level, lower the ships at the other end; the original locks are 34 m wide. A third, wider lane of locks was constructed between September 2007 and May 2016; the expanded canal began commercial operation on June 26, 2016. The new locks allow transit of larger, post-Panamax ships, capable of handling more cargo. France began work on the canal in 1881, but stopped due to engineering problems and a high worker mortality rate; the United States took over the project in 1904 and opened the canal on August 15, 1914. One of the largest and most difficult engineering projects undertaken, the Panama Canal shortcut reduced the time for ships to travel between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, enabling them to avoid the lengthy, hazardous Cape Horn route around the southernmost tip of South America via the Drake Passage or Strait of Magellan.
Colombia and the United States controlled the territory surrounding the canal during construction. The US continued to control the canal and surrounding Panama Canal Zone until the 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties provided for handover to Panama. After a period of joint American–Panamanian control, in 1999, the canal was taken over by the Panamanian government, it is now operated by the government-owned Panama Canal Authority. Annual traffic has risen from about 1,000 ships in 1914, when the canal opened, to 14,702 vessels in 2008, for a total of 333.7 million Panama Canal/Universal Measurement System tons. By 2012, more than 815,000 vessels had passed through the canal, it takes 11.38 hours to pass through the Panama Canal. The American Society of Civil Engineers has ranked the Panama Canal one of the seven wonders of the modern world; the earliest mention of a canal across the Isthmus of Panama occurred in 1534, when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, ordered a survey for a route through the Americas that would ease the voyage for ships traveling between Spain and Peru.
Such a route would have given the Spanish a military advantage over the Portuguese. In 1668, the English physician and philosopher Sir Thomas Browne speculated in his encyclopaedic endeavour Pseudodoxia Epidemica - "some Isthmus have been eat through by the Sea, others cut by the spade: And if policy would permit, that of Panama in America were most worthy the attempt: it being but few miles over, would open a shorter cut unto the East Indies and China". In 1788, American Thomas Jefferson Minister to France, suggested that the Spanish should build the canal since it would be a less treacherous route for ships than going around the southern tip of South America, that tropical ocean currents would widen the canal thereafter. During an expedition from 1788 to 1793, Alessandro Malaspina outlined plans for its construction. Given the strategic location of Panama and the potential offered by its narrow isthmus separating two great oceans, other trade links in the area were attempted over the years.
The ill-fated Darien scheme was launched by the Kingdom of Scotland in 1698 to set up an overland trade route. Inhospitable conditions thwarted the effort and it was abandoned in April 1700. Numerous canals were built in other countries in the late early 19th centuries; the success of the Erie Canal in the United States in the 1820s and the collapse of the Spanish Empire in Latin America led to a surge of American interest in building an inter-oceanic canal. Beginning in 1826, US officials began negotiations with Gran Colombia, hoping to gain a concession for the building of a canal. Jealous of their newly obtained independence and fearing that they would be dominated by an American presence, the president Simón Bolívar and New Granada officials declined American offers; the new nation was politically unstable, Panama rebelled several times during the 19th century. Another effort was made in 1843. According to the New York Daily Tribune, August 24, 1843, a contract was entered into by Barings of London and the Republic of New Granada for the construction of a canal across the Isthmus of Darien.
They referred to it as the Atlantic and Pacific Canal, it was a wholly British endeavor. It was expected to be completed in five years. At nearly the same time, other ideas were floated, including a canal across Mexico's Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Nothing came of that plan, either. In 1846, the Mallarino–Bidlack Treaty, negotiated between the US and New Granada, granted the United States transit rights and the right to intervene militarily in the isthmus. In 1848, the discovery of gold in California, on the West Coast of the United States, created great interest in a crossing between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. William H. Aspinwall, the man who won the federal subsidy for the building and operating the Pacific mail steamships at around the same time, benefited from this discovery. Aspinwall's route included steamship legs from New York City to Panama and from Panama to California, with an overland portage through Panama; the route between California and Panama was soon traveled, as it provided one of the fastest links between San Francisco and the East Coast cities, about 40 days' transit in total.
Nearly all the gold, shipped out of California went by the fast Panama route. Several new and larger paddle steamers were soon plying
Rear Admiral Robert Edwin Peary Sr. was an American explorer and United States Navy officer who made several expeditions to the Arctic in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He is best known for claiming to have reached the geographic North Pole with his expedition on April 6, 1909. Peary was born in Cresson, but was raised in Portland, following his father's death at a young age, he attended Bowdoin College joined the National Geodetic Survey as a draftsman. Peary enlisted as a civil engineer. In 1885, he was made chief of surveying for the Nicaragua Canal. Peary visited the Arctic for the first time in 1886, making an unsuccessful attempt to cross Greenland by dogsled, he returned in 1891 much better prepared, by reaching Independence Fjord conclusively proved that Greenland was an island. He was one of the first Arctic explorers to study Inuit survival techniques. On his 1898–1902 expedition, Peary set a new "Farthest North" record by reaching Greenland's northernmost point, Cape Morris Jesup.
He reached the northernmost point of the Western Hemisphere, at the top of Canada's Ellesmere Island. Peary made two further expeditions to the Arctic, in 1905–06 and in 1908–09. During the latter, he claimed to have reached the North Pole. Peary received a number of awards from geographical societies during his lifetime, in 1911 received the Thanks of Congress and was promoted to rear admiral, he served two terms as president of The Explorers Club, retired to Eagle Island. Peary's claim to have reached the North Pole was debated in contemporary newspapers, but won widespread acceptance. However, in a 1989 book British explorer Wally Herbert concluded that Peary did not reach the pole, although he may have been as close as 60 miles, his conclusions have been accepted, although disputed by some authorities. Robert Edwin Peary was born on May 6, 1856, in Cresson, Pennsylvania, to Charles N. and Mary P. Peary. After his father died in 1859, Peary's mother settled in Portland, Maine. After growing up in Portland, Peary attended some 36 miles to the north.
He was a member of the Delta Kappa Phi Beta Kappa fraternities while at college. He graduated in 1877 with a civil engineering degree. Peary lived in Fryeburg, from 1878 to 1879. During that time he made a profile survey from the top of Fryeburg's Jockey Cap Rock; the 360 degree survey mountains visible from the summit. His boyhood friend, Alfred E. Burton, suggested; the survey was cast in bronze and set atop a granite cylinder, erected to his memory by the Peary Family in 1938. A hike of less than a mile leads visitors to the monument. After college, Peary worked as a draftsman making technical drawings in Washington, D. C. at the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey office. He joined the United States Navy and on October 26, 1881, was commissioned as a civil engineer, with the relative rank of lieutenant. From 1884 to 1885 he was assistant engineer on the surveys for the Nicaragua Canal, became the engineer in charge; as reflected in a diary entry he made in 1885, during his time in the Navy, he resolved to be the first man to reach the North Pole.
In April 1886 he wrote a paper for the National Academy of Sciences proposing two methods for crossing Greenland's ice cap. One was to trek about 400 miles to the east coast; the second, more difficult path was to start from Whale Sound at the top of the known portion of Baffin Bay and travel north to determine whether Greenland was an island or if it extended all the way across the Arctic. Peary was promoted to the rank of lieutenant commander on January 5, 1901, to commander on April 6, 1902. Peary made his first expedition to the Arctic in 1886, intending to cross Greenland by dog sled, taking the first of his own suggested paths, he was given six months' leave from the Navy, he received $500 from his mother to book passage north and buy supplies. He sailed on a whaler to Greenland, arriving in Godhavn on June 6, 1886. Peary wanted to make a solo trek but a young Danish official named Christian Maigaard convinced him he would die if he went out alone. Maigaard and Peary set off together and traveled nearly 100 miles due east before turning back because they were short on food.
This was the second-farthest penetration of Greenland's ice sheet at that date. Peary returned home knowing more of. Back in Washington attending with the US Navy, Peary was ordered in November 1887 to survey routes for a proposed Nicaragua Canal. To complete his tropical outfit he needed a sun hat, so he went to a men's clothing store. There he met a black man working as a sales clerk. Learning that Henson had six years of seagoing experience as a cabin boy, Peary hired him as a personal valet. On assignment in the jungles of Nicaragua, Peary told Henson of his dream of Arctic exploration. Henson accompanied Peary on every one of his subsequent Arctic expeditions, becoming his field assistant and "first man," a critical member of his team. In 1891 Peary returned to Greenland, taking the second, more difficult route that he had laid out in 1886: traveling farther north to find out whether Greenland was a much larger landmass extending to the North Pole, he was financed by several groups, including the American Geographic Society, the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences.
Members of this expedi
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands
Saint Thomas is one of the Virgin Islands in the Caribbean Sea and, together with Saint John, Water Island and Saint Croix, a former Danish colony, form a county and constituent district of the United States Virgin Islands, an unincorporated territory of the United States. Located on the island is the territorial capital and port of Charlotte Amalie; as of the 2010 census, the population of Saint Thomas was 51,634 about 48.5% of the US Virgin Islands total. The district has a land area of 32 square miles; the island was settled around 1500 BC by the Ciboney people. They were replaced by the Arawaks and the Caribs. Christopher Columbus sighted the island in 1493 on his second voyage to the New World; the Dutch West India Company established a post on Saint Thomas in 1657. The first congregation was the St. Thomas Reformed Church, established in 1660 and was associated with the Dutch Reformed Church. Denmark-Norway's first attempt to settle the island in 1665 failed. However, the Danes did resettle St. Thomas in 1671, under the sponsorship of the Glueckstadt Co. the Danish West India Company.
The first slave ships arrived in 1673, St. Thomas became a slave market; the island became a Danish crown colony in 1754, was granted free port status in 1764. The land was divided into plantations and sugarcane production became the primary economic activity; as a result, the economies of Saint Thomas and the neighboring islands of Saint John and Saint Croix became dependent on slave labor and the slave trade. In 1685, the Brandenburgisch-Africanische Compagnie took control of the slave trade on Saint Thomas, for some time the largest slave auctions in the world were held there. Saint Thomas's fine natural harbor became known as "Taphus" for the drinking establishments located nearby. In 1691, the primary settlement there was renamed Charlotte Amalie in honor of the wife of Denmark's King Christian V, it was declared a free port by Frederick V. In December 1732, the first two of many Moravian Brethren missionaries came from Herrnhut Saxony in present-day Germany to minister to them. Distrusted at first by the white masters, they soon won their confidence.
From 1796 a small Jewish community developed in Charlotte Amalie. It established a historic synagogue, Beracha Veshalom Vegmiluth Hasidim, the oldest synagogue in continuous use anywhere in the United States or its external territories; the first British invasion and occupation of the island occurred in 1801. The islands were returned to Denmark under the terms of the Treaty of Amiens. Fire destroyed hundreds of homes in Charlotte Amalie in 1804; the second British occupation of the island occurred from 1807-1815, after the Invasion of the Danish West Indies, during which they built Fort Cowell on Hassel Island. While the sugar trade had brought prosperity to the island's free citizens, by the early 19th century Saint Thomas was in decline; the continued export of sugar was threatened by hurricanes and American competition. Following the Danish Revolution of 1848, slavery was abolished and the resulting rise in labor costs further weakened the position of Saint Thomas's sugar producers. Given its harbors and fortifications, Saint Thomas still retained a strategic importance, thus, in the 1860s, during the American Civil War and its aftermath, the United States government considered buying the island and its neighbors from Denmark for $7.5 million.
However, the proponents of the purchase failed to gain legislative support for the bid. As the islands were poorly managed by the Danes, a local islander, David Hamilton Jackson, was instrumental in persuading the Danish to allow the US to purchase the islands of Saint Thomas, Saint John, Saint Croix. In 1915, he traveled to Denmark and convinced the King of Denmark to allow freedom of the press in the islands, he began the first newspaper in the islands, known as The Herald. After this, he organized labor unions among the islanders for better working conditions; the islands now have an annual celebration in November to honor the legacy of David Hamilton Jackson. In 1917, Saint Thomas was purchased by the United States for $25 million in gold, as part of a defensive strategy to maintain control over the Caribbean and the Panama Canal during the First World War; the transfer occurred on March 31, 1917, behind Fort Christian before the barracks that now house the Legislature of the U. S Virgin Islands.
The baccalaureate service for the transfer was held at the St. Thomas Reformed Church as it was identified as the American church in the Danish West Indies; the United States granted citizenship to the residents in 1927. The U. S. Department of the Interior took over administrative duties in 1931. American forces were based on the island during the Second World War. In 1954, passage of the U. S. Virgin Islands Organic Act granted territorial status to the three islands, allowed for the formation of a local senate with politics dominated by the American Republican and Democratic parties. Full home rule was achieved in 1970; the post-war era saw the rise of tourism on the island. With cheap air travel and the American embargo on Cuba, the numbers of visitors increased. Despite natural disasters such as Hurricane Hugo and Hurricanes Luis and Marilyn, the island's infrastructure continues to improve as the flow of visitors continues. Hotels have been built from the West End to the East End; the island has a number of natural bays and harbors including Magens Bay, Great Bay, Jersey Bay, Long Bay, Fortuna Bay, Hendrik Bay.
Passenger ships dock and
Citizenship of the United States
Citizenship of the United States is a status that entails specific rights and benefits. Citizenship is understood as a "right to have rights" since it serves as a foundation of fundamental rights derived from and protected by the Constitution and laws of the United States, such as the right to freedom of expression, due process and work in the United States, to receive federal assistance; the implementation of citizenship requires attitudes including allegiance to the republic, an impulse to promote communities. Certain rights are so fundamental; these include those rights guaranteed by the first 8 Amendments. However, not all U. S. citizens, such as those living in Puerto Rico, have the right to vote in federal elections. There are two primary sources of citizenship: birthright citizenship, in which a person is presumed to be a citizen if he or she was born within the territorial limits of the United States, or—providing certain other requirements are met—born abroad to a U. S. citizen parent, naturalization, a process in which an eligible legal immigrant applies for citizenship and is accepted.
These two pathways to citizenship are specified in the Citizenship Clause of the Constitution's 1868 Fourteenth Amendment which reads: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. National citizenship signifies membership in the country as a whole. State citizenship may affect tax decisions and eligibility for some state-provided benefits such as higher education and eligibility for state political posts such as U. S. Senator. In Article One of the Constitution, the power to establish a "uniform rule of naturalization" is granted explicitly to Congress. U. S. law permits multiple citizenship. A citizen of another country naturalized as a U. S. citizen may retain their previous citizenship, though they must renounce allegiance to the other country. A U. S. citizen retains U. S. citizenship should that country's laws allow it. U. S. citizenship can be renounced by Americans who hold another citizenship via a formal procedure at a U.
S. Embassy, it can be restored. Freedom to work. United States citizens have the inalienable right to work in the United States. Certain non-citizens, such as permanent residents, have similar rights. For example, they may be deported. Freedom to leave the United States. United States citizens have the right to leave the United States freely. Certain non-citizens, such as permanent residents, have similar rights. Unlike permanent residents, U. S. citizens do not have an obligation to maintain residence in the U. S. – they can leave for any length of time and return at any time. Voting for federal office in all fifty states and the District of Columbia is restricted to citizens only. States are not required to extend the franchise to all citizens: for example, several states bar citizen felons from voting after they have completed any custodial sentence; the United States Constitution bars states from restricting citizens from voting on grounds of race, previous condition of servitude, failure to pay any tax, or age.
Many states and local jurisdictions have allowed non-citizens to vote. Citizens are not compelled to vote. Freedom to stand for public office; the United States Constitution requires that all members of the United States House of Representatives have been citizens for seven years, that all senators have been citizens for nine years, before taking office. Most states have similar requirements: for example California requires that legislators have been citizens for three years, the Governor have been a citizen for five years, upon taking office; the U. S. Constitution requires that one be "a natural born Citizen" and a U. S. resident for fourteen years in order to be President of the United States or Vice President of the United States. The Constitution stipulates that otherwise eligible citizens must meet certain age requirements for these offices. Right to apply for federal employment. Many federal government jobs require applicants to have U. S. citizenship. U. S. citizens can apply for federal employment within department.
Jury duty is only imposed upon citizens. Jury duty may be considered the "sole differential obligation" between citizens. Military participation is not required in the United States, but a policy of conscription of men has been in place at various times in American history, most during the Vietnam War; the United States Armed Forces are a professional all-volunteer force, although both male U. S. citizens and male non-citizen permanent residents are required to register with the Selective Service System and may be called up in the event of a future draft. Johns Hopkins University political scientist Benjamin Ginsberg writes, "The professional military has limited the need for citizen soldiers." Taxes. In the United States today, everyone except those whose income is derived from tax-exempt revenue (Sub
The German Empire known as Imperial Germany, was the German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when the south German states, except for Austria, joined the North German Confederation. On 1 January 1871, the new constitution came into force that changed the name of the federal state and introduced the title of emperor for Wilhelm I, King of Prussia from the House of Hohenzollern. Berlin remained its capital, Otto von Bismarck remained Chancellor, the head of government; as these events occurred, the Prussian-led North German Confederation and its southern German allies were still engaged in the Franco-Prussian War. The German Empire consisted of 26 states, most of them ruled by royal families, they included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, one imperial territory. Although Prussia was one of several kingdoms in the realm, it contained about two thirds of Germany's population and territory.
Prussian dominance was established constitutionally. After 1850, the states of Germany had become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron and railways. In 1871, Germany had a population of 41 million people. A rural collection of states in 1815, the now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire was an industrial and scientific giant, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science than any other country. By 1900, Germany was the largest economy in Europe, surpassing the United Kingdom, as well as the second-largest in the world, behind only the United States. From 1867 to 1878/9, Otto von Bismarck's tenure as the first and to this day longest reigning Chancellor was marked by relative liberalism, but it became more conservative afterwards. Broad reforms and the Kulturkampf marked his period in the office. Late in Bismarck's chancellorship and in spite of his personal opposition, Germany became involved in colonialism. Claiming much of the leftover territory, yet unclaimed in the Scramble for Africa, it managed to build the third-largest colonial empire after the British and the French ones.
As a colonial state, it sometimes clashed with other European powers the British Empire. Germany became a great power, boasting a developing rail network, the world's strongest army, a fast-growing industrial base. In less than a decade, its navy became second only to Britain's Royal Navy. After the removal of Otto von Bismarck by Wilhelm II in 1890, the Empire embarked on Weltpolitik – a bellicose new course that contributed to the outbreak of World War I. In addition, Bismarck's successors were incapable of maintaining their predecessor's complex and overlapping alliances which had kept Germany from being diplomatically isolated; this period was marked by various factors influencing the Emperor's decisions, which were perceived as contradictory or unpredictable by the public. In 1879, the German Empire consolidated the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary, followed by the Triple Alliance with Italy in 1882, it retained strong diplomatic ties to the Ottoman Empire. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, Italy left the alliance and the Ottoman Empire formally allied with Germany.
In the First World War, German plans to capture Paris in the autumn of 1914 failed. The war on the Western Front became a stalemate; the Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. However, Imperial Germany had success on the Eastern Front; the German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917, contributed to bringing the United States into the war. The high command under Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff controlled the country, but in October after the failed offensive in spring 1918, the German armies were in retreat, allies Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, Bulgaria had surrendered; the Empire collapsed in the November 1918 Revolution with the abdications of its monarchs. This left a postwar federal republic and a devastated and unsatisfied populace, which led to the rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazism; the German Confederation had been created by an act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris.
German nationalism shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848, called Pan-Germanism, to Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck's pragmatic Realpolitik. Bismarck sought to extend Hohenzollern hegemony throughout the German states, he envisioned a Prussian-dominated Germany. Three wars led to military successes and helped to persuade German people to do this: the Second Schleswig War against Denmark in 1864, the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, the Franco-Prussian War against France in 1870–71; the German Confederation ended as a result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 between the constituent Confederation entities of the Austrian Empire and its allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia and its allies on the other. The war resulted in the partial replacement of the Confederation in 1867 by a North German Confederation, comprising the 22 states north of the Main; the patriotic fervour generated by the Franco-Prussian War overwhelmed the remaining opposition to a unified Germany in the four stat