Tree fern

The tree ferns are the ferns that grow with a trunk elevating the fronds above ground level. Most tree ferns are members of the "core tree ferns", belonging to the families Dicksoniaceae and Cibotiaceae in the order Cyatheales; this order is the third group of ferns known to have given rise to tree-like forms. The two others are the Marattiales, a eusporangiate order that the extinct Psaronius evolved from, the order Polypodiales where the extinct genus Tempskya belongs. In addition to those families, many ferns in other groups may be considered tree ferns, such as several ferns in the family Osmundaceae, which can achieve short trunks under a metre tall, ferns in the genus Cibotium, which can grow ten metres tall. Fern species with short trunks in the genera Blechnum, Cnemedaria, Cystodium, Lophosoria, Sadleria and Todea could be considered tree ferns in a liberal interpretation of the term. Tree ferns are found growing in tropical and subtropical areas, including cool to temperate rainforests in Australia, New Zealand and neighbouring regions.

Like all ferns, tree ferns reproduce by means of spores formed on the undersides of the fronds. The fronds of tree ferns are very large and multiple-pinnate, their trunk is a vertical and modified rhizome, woody tissue is absent. To add strength, there are deposits of lignin in the cell walls and the lower part of the stem is reinforced with thick, interlocking mats of tiny roots. If the crown of Dicksonia antarctica is damaged, it will die because, where all the new growth occurs, but other clump-forming tree fern species, such as D. squarrosa and D. youngiae, can regenerate from basal offsets or from "pups" emerging along the surviving trunk length. Tree ferns fall over in the wild, yet manage to re-root from this new prostrate position and begin new vertical growth, it is not certain the exact number of species of tree ferns there are, but it may be closer to 600-700 species. Many species have become extinct in the last century as forest habitats have come under pressure from human intervention.

Location of species Lophosoria Metaxya Sphaeropteris Alsophila Nephelea Trichipteris Cyathea Cnemidaria Dicksonia Cystodium Thyrsopteris Culcita Cibotium Flora Technical Note No. 5: Identification and management of tree ferns from Tasmania Forest Practices Authority Tree Fern from the San Diego Zoo website

Strongheart (film)

Strongheart is a 1914 American action Western silent black and white film directed by James Kirkwood Sr. produced by Henry B. Harris, written by Frank E. Woods and starring Henry B. Walthall, Lionel Barrymore, Blanche Sweet and Antonio Moreno; the film was supervised by D. W. Griffith, it is based on the four-act play by William C. de Mille, it was produced by Henry B. Harris at the Hudson Theater on 30 January 1905 for 66 performances with Robert Edeson; the melodrama Braveheart is a remake of Strongheart. Antonio Moreno as Frank Nelson Blanche Sweet as Dorothy Nelson, Frank's Sister Henry B. Walthall as Soangataha / Strongheart Gertrude Robinson as Molly Livingston Tom McEvoy as Dick Livingston, Molly's Brother Lionel Barrymore as Billy Saunders Alan Hale Sr. as Ralph Thorne William J. Butler as Manager of the Opposing Team W. C. Robinson as Team Assistant James Kirkwood Jack Mulhall as In Stadium Crowd Strongheart on IMDb

Gamber, Maryland

Gamber is an unincorporated community located in Carroll County, United States. Gamber is located at the intersection of Maryland routes 32 and 91, near the border of Carroll and Baltimore counties, it is an unincorporated area four miles northwest of the Liberty Reservoir and six miles southeast of Westminster. The Owings Mills station of the Baltimore Metro SubwayLink in nearby Owings Mills, Baltimore County, is a 15 minute drive by car from Carrolltowne and provides subway access to downtown Baltimore. There is no bus link between Gamber/Eldersburg and nearby Randallstown in Baltimore County, in part due to longstanding opposition to inter-county public transit from Carroll County officials and residents