South Boston is a densely populated neighborhood of Boston, located south and east of the Fort Point Channel and abutting Dorchester Bay. South Boston, colloquially known as Southie, was once a predominantly working class Irish Catholic community, but is nowadays a hot spot for the millennial population. South Boston contains Dorchester Heights, where George Washington forced British troops to evacuate during the American Revolutionary War. South Boston has undergone gentrification, its real estate market has seen property values join the highest in the city. South Boston has left its mark on history with Boston busing desegregation. South Boston is home to the St. Patrick's Day Parade, a celebration of the Irish-American culture and the Evacuation Day observance Geographically, Dorchester Neck was an isthmus, a narrow strip of land that connected the mainland of the colonial settlement of Dorchester with Dorchester Heights. Landfill has since increased the amount of land on the eastern side of the historical neck, widened the connection to the mainland to the point that South Boston is no longer considered separate from it.
South Boston gained an identity separate from Dorchester, but the two were annexed by Boston in pieces, from 1804 to 1870. During the American Revolutionary War, George Washington placed a cannon on Dorchester Heights, thereby forcing the evacuation of British troops from Boston on March 17, 1776; the British evacuated Fort William and Mary for Halifax, Nova Scotia. Fort William and Mary was replaced with a brick fortification known as Fort Independence; that fort was replaced by a granite fortification prior to the American Civil War, still stands on Castle Island as a National Historic Landmark. Edgar Allan Poe was stationed at Castle Island for five months in 1827 and was inspired to write The Cask of Amontillado based on an early Castle Island legend. In 1874, South Boston came to close attention when 14 year old Jesse Pomeroy murdered two children: 10-year-old Katie Curran and 4-year-old Horace Millen, found on a marsh in Dorchester Bay after being mutilated with a knife, he became the youngest person in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to be convicted with first-degree murder, earning the nickname "the Boston Boy Fiend."
During the 1970s, South Boston received national attention for its opposition to court-mandated school desegregation by busing students to different neighborhoods. In the early 21st century, property values in the City Point neighborhood near Castle Island, rose to the level of some of the highest in the city; the City Point area of South Boston, labeled "East Side" by realtors, has seen a major increase in property values due to its close proximity to downtown Boston and gentrification. The "West Side" of South Boston known as the "lower end" by lifelong residents, though slower to begin the gentrification process benefits from the proximity to not only downtown but the popular South End. Additionally, the West Side is home to the first green residence in Boston — the Macallen Building, featured in the movie The Greening of Southie; the City of Boston is investing in the West Side through developments like the ~150,000-square-foot mixed use building being developed by the Boston Redevelopment Authority on West Broadway.
The 1865 Harrison Loring House is a Second Empire brick mansion located in South Boston. It was used as a private residence until 1913. At that time it was purchased by the Roman Catholic Church to use the space as a convent; the house located at 789 East Broadway was designated a Boston Landmark in 1981. It is associated with Harrison Loring, who owned and operated one of the first South Boston shipyards; the history behind the South Boston Saint Patrick's Day Parade is General Henry Knox brought 55 cannons captured at Fort Ticonderoga. In March, the troops positioned the cannons on Dorchester Heights, they had cut down trees to cannon size, hollowed them out and blackened them over fire to look like cannons. Surprise was just around the corner. On March 17, 1776, orders were given that if you wished to pass through the continental lines, the password was "St. Patrick"; the British left Boston. Evacuation Day was declared a holiday in the City of Boston in 1901. In celebration, the city hosted a parade based in South Boston.
A monument to the historical event was completed in Dorchester Heights in 1902. Major George F. H. Murray served as Chief Marshall for the parade in 1901; the state of Massachusetts recognized Evacuation Day as a holiday in Suffolk County in 1938. The Saint Patrick’s Day Parade is both a celebration of the Irish-American culture in Boston and the Evacuation Day victory; the City of Boston sponsored the event until 1947, when Mayor James Michael Curley gave authority to the South Boston Allied War Veterans Council. Politicians and local celebrities have participated in these annual Saint Patrick’s Day Parade for years. In 1958 Senator John F. Kennedy rode with Jacqueline Kennedy in the parade; the Kennedy family were well known as participating in this parade. Robert F. Kennedy marched in 1968, Ted and Joan Kennedy marched in 1970; the N. A. A. C. P entered a float in the Saint Patrick’s Day Parade in 1964. In the mid-1960s the Harvard’s Irish Society joined the march. Irish nationalists unofficially marched in the Saint Patrick's Day Parade in the 1970s.
In 1972, Irish Republican Aid Committee members protested violence in Northern Ireland by carrying a coffin draped with the Irish tricolored flag. The Boston chapter of the Irish Northern Aid Commission marched with black armbands and a sign reading "England Ge
Public Garden (Boston)
The Public Garden known as Boston Public Garden, is a large park in the heart of Boston, adjacent to Boston Common. It is a part of the Emerald Necklace system of parks, is bounded by Charles Street and Boston Common to the east, Beacon Street to the north, Arlington Street and Back Bay to the west, Boylston Street to the south; the Public Garden was the first public botanical garden in America. Boston's Back Bay, including the land the garden sits on, was mudflats until filling began in the early 1800s; the land of the Public Garden was the earliest filled, as the area, now Charles Street had been used as a ropewalk since 1796. The town of Boston granted ropemakers use of the land on July 30, 1794, after a fire had destroyed the ropewalks in a more populated area of the city; as a condition of its use, the ropewalk's proprietors were required to build a seawall and fill in the land, now Charles Street and the land bordering it. Much of the landfill material came from Mount Vernon a hill in the Beacon Hill area of Boston.
Gravel and dirt were brought from the hill to the landfill area by handcart. By 1804, a gravity railroad had been constructed to bring material from the top of the hill to the marsh. In February 1824, the city of Boston purchased back the land granted to the ropemakers, for a cost of $50,000; the next year, a proposal to turn the land into a graveyard was defeated by a vote of 1632 to 176. The Public Garden was established in 1837, when philanthropist Horace Gray petitioned for the use of land as the first public botanical garden in the United States. By 1839, a corporation was formed, called Horace Gray and Associates, made the "Proprietors of the Botanic Garden in Boston." The corporation was chartered with creating. Nonetheless, there was constant pressure for the land to be sold to private interests for the construction of new housing. While most of the land of the present-day garden had been filled in by the mid-1800s, the area of the Back Bay remained an undeveloped tidal basin. In 1842, the state legislature created The Commissioners on Boston Harbor and the Back Bay, in order to determine how to best develop the land.
The City of Boston petitioned the state to grant control over the basin, in hopes of generating significant revenue from any developments that would be built after filling it in. When the state commission rejected Boston's petition, the Boston City Council threatened to sell the garden to housing developers, which would have reduced the desirability of the area for the upper class elite that the state was hoping to attract; the conflict between the City of Boston and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts was resolved when the Tripartite Indenture of 1856 was agreed to by both parties and passed a general vote of citizens 6,287 to 99. In the agreement, Boston gave up its rights to build upon the Public Garden. In October 1859, Alderman Crane submitted the detailed plan for the Garden to the Committee on the Common and Public Squares and received approval. Construction began on the property, with the pond being finished that year and the wrought iron fence surrounding the perimeter erected in 1862.
Today the north side of the pond has a small island, but it was a peninsula, connected to the land. The site became so popular with lovers that John Galvin, the city forester, decided to sever the connection with the land; the 24 acres landscape was designed by George F. Meacham; the paths and flower beds were laid out by the city engineer, James Slade, the forester, John Galvin. The plan for the garden included a number of fountains and statues, many of which were erected in the late 1860s; the most notable statue is that of George Washington, done in 1869 by Thomas Ball, which dominates the western entrance to the park facing Commonwealth Avenue. The signature suspension bridge over the middle of the pond was erected in 1869. Gas lamps were used to light the garden at night, but in 1883, construction of electric lamps was begun. There was concern over the use of electric lamps, as it would require wires to be run through the garden, some members of government feared that it would harm the aesthetics of the place.
But as electric lighting replaced gas lighting, vandalism of the garden – such as the theft and destruction of its flowers – was a growing concern, electric lighting was installed throughout. A flagpole stands today on the eastern side of the garden, close to Charles Street and just south of the main entrance there; the original flagpole was struck by lightning and destroyed in 1918, in 1920 the city appropriated $2,500 for construction of a new one. In 1982, the city granted an additional $25,000 for improvements to the flagpole. A circular granite bench was installed around the pole, with the work being done by the Friends of the Public Garden. On January 6, 1913, the City Council placed the garden, along with the Boston Common, under the direct management of the Public Grounds Department of the city; that department declared walking upon the grass of the Common or garden to be illegal, arrests were made for that offense until at least the 1960s. Today, sitting on the grass is permitted except for specific sections of the lawn where a posted sign forbids access.
In 2008 an automated sprinkler system
Government Center station (MBTA)
Government Center is an MBTA subway station in Boston, Massachusetts. It is located at the intersection of Tremont and Cambridge Streets in the Government Center area, it is the rapid transit Blue Line. With the Green Line platform having opened in 1898, the station is the third-oldest operating subway station in the MBTA system; the station served Scollay Square before its demolition for the creation of Boston City Hall Plaza. The station was closed on March 22, 2014 for a major renovation, which included retrofitting the station for handicapped accessibility and building a new glass headhouse on City Hall Plaza; the new accessible station was reopened on March 21, 2016. The northern section of the Tremont Street Subway opened on September 3, 1898, with a station at Scollay Square; the station had an unusual platform design. The three-sided main platform served northbound and southbound through tracks plus the Brattle Loop track, one of two turnback points for streetcars entering the subway from the north.
The last of those, the Eastern Massachusetts Street Railway, used the loop until 1935. On June 10, 1901, Main Line Elevated trains began using the through tracks through the Tremont Street Subway, while streetcars continued using the Brattle Loop; the main platform was divided into separate sections for northbound and southbound elevated trains, each with separate staircases and ticket takers, with sliding platform sections to meet the high-level doors on the El cars. Passages under the Brattle Loop were built from each side to the Brattle Loop platform, which had its own staircases and ticket takers for streetcars. On July 9, 1904, streetcar passengers began paying fares to the streetcar conductors and the streetcar ticket office was repurposed for southbound El passengers. On December 30, 1904, the East Boston Tunnel opened for streetcars from Maverick Square in East Boston to a one-track stub-end terminal at Court Street next to Scollay Square. A passageway was built connecting the two stations.
On November 30, 1908, Elevated trains moved into the parallel Washington Street Tunnel and the through tracks returned to streetcar operations. The separated platform areas were kept. In 1912, the BERy began an extension of the East Boston Tunnel west to Bowdoin. Court Street station was abandoned and the passageway closed on November 15, 1914; the floor of the station was removed and the tunnel angled down through the former station to allow for the extended tunnel to proceed under the existing Scollay Square station. Scollay Under opened on March 18, 1916, an island platform with staircases to Scollay station; the 1898-built main platform was extended during the project to accommodate expected loads of transferring passengers. On April 18, 1924, the East Boston Tunnel including Scollay Under was converted from low-platform streetcars to high-platform third-rail-powered rapid transit. A portion of the low streetcar platform remained east of the new high platform; the northbound entrance was closed on November 24, 1917, forcing all passengers to use the southbound Tremont Row entrance.
The station was renovated in 1928 with the removal of the original entrance kiosk, new lights, improved fare collection equipment. Eastern Massachusetts Street Railway service to Brattle Loop ended on January 13, 1935, though some BERy streetcars continued to use it; the Metropolitan Transit Authority replaced the BERy in 1947 and continued to reduce streetcar services. The last Brattle Loop service was discontinued in 1952; the northbound platform was extended over the loop in 1954 to allow two 3-car trains of PCC streetcars to board simultaneously. Boston City Hall Plaza replaced Scollay Square in the early 1960s. Scollay Square station was wholly renovated, the northbound tunnel was realigned to accommodate the foundation of Boston City Hall; the work drastically altered the shape of Brattle Loop and provided a new northbound-to-southbound turnback loop. The stairways to the lower level were relocated, a fare lobby was built in a low brick structure at the surface; the 1963-built headhouse was described as resembling a bunker or a cave by MBTA management.
Government Center station was dedicated on October 28, 1963, though the new loop was not activated until November 18, 1964, when the Commonwealth Avenue line was extended from Park Street to Government Center. Despite the new name, several tiles mosaics reading "Scollay Under" and "S" were still extant and uncovered over the years. On August 26, 1965, as part of a wholesale rebranding of the system, the MBTA designated the remaining streetcar routes as the Green Line and the East Boston Tunnel line as the Blue Line. In 1968-69, a "Phase I" modernization added false ceilings, fluorescent lights, other aesthetic upgrades. In the late 1970s, Mary Beams - an artist at Harvard's Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts - painted 19 murals which were placed along the wall behind the Brattle Loop. Although intended to be temporary, they received protective covers in the late 1980s and remained in good condition until the 2014 closure. On February 11, 1983, the Green Line "E" Br
Metro Line M1 (Budapest Metro)
Line 1 is the oldest line of the Budapest Metro. It is known locally as "the small underground", while the M2, M3 and M4 are called "metró", it is the third oldest underground after the London Underground and the Mersey Railway, the third rapid transit rail line worldwide of any type to use electric traction, the first on the European mainland. It was built from 1894 to 1896. Line 1 runs northeast from the city center on the Pest side under Andrássy út to the Városliget, or City Park. Like Line 3, it does not serve Buda. Line 1 is the oldest of the metro lines in Budapest, having been in constant operation since 1896; the original purpose of the first metro line was to facilitate transport to the Budapest City Park along the elegant Andrássy Avenue without building surface transport affecting the streetscape. The National Assembly accepted the metro plan in 1870 and German firm Siemens & Halske AG was commissioned for the construction, starting in 1894, it took 2,000 workers using up-to-date machinery less than two years to complete.
This section was built from the surface. Completed by the deadline, it was inaugurated on May 2, 1896, the year of the millennium, by emperor Franz Joseph. One original car is preserved at the Seashore Trolley Museum in Kennebunkport, United States; the line ran underneath Andrássy Avenue, from Vörösmarty Square to City Park, in a northeast-southwest direction. The original terminus was the Zoo, it had nine underground and two overground. The length of the line was 3.7 km at that time. It was able to carry as many as 35,000 people a day. 1896: Gizella tér - Artézi fürdő 1973: Széchenyi fürdő - Mexikói út Tremont Street Subway, Boston's first underground railway tunnel and the first one built after Budapest's Line 1
Arlington station (MBTA)
Arlington is a station on the light rail MBTA Green Line. Located at the southwest corner of the Boston Public Garden at the corner of Arlington and Boylston Streets at the east end of the Back Bay neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. Arlington was not part of the 1914-opened Boylston Street Subway. After the success of the original Tremont Street Subway in 1897–1898, there was a push to extend the tunnel under Boylston Street towards Kenmore Square. During 1913 tunnel excavations near the present-day site of Arlington station, remains of ancient fish weirs built by Native Americans were found 30 feet below street level, their age has been estimated as between 3,600 years. Businesses in the Back Bay neighborhood along Boylston Street between Clarendon and Tremont Streets became worried about loss of income due to being bypassed by an uninterrupted 4,000-foot tunnel between Boylston and Copley stations, completed in 1914, they lobbied for an infill station near Arlington Street, but were rebuffed by the Boston Elevated Railway and the state legislature.
In 1915, with the backing of Boston mayor James Michael Curley, they succeeded in getting legislative approval for a new underground station. After delays caused by World War I, Arlington station opened in 1921, remained in continuous use through its first major renovation, in 1967; the Berkeley Street entrance was closed on January 3, 1981 as part of extensive cutbacks that including closing Bowdoin and Symphony. The MBTA wanted to improve its graphic design in the early 1960s, so they hired Cambridge Seven Associates graphic designers to make it easier for people to understand. Arlington was used as their pilot project for testing modernization ideas, including the "lollipop" sign, the colored walls and signage distinction between "inbound" vs "outbound", the high-contrast photographs on the walls, the colored bands along the wall and above the entrances. At the platform level, the wall at the inbound end of the station was painted with "warm" colors red and orange, while the outbound end was painted with "cool" colors blue and green.
In 2006, the MBTA announced that it would again renovate Arlington and Kenmore stations, to upgrade for handicapped accessibility and general station maintenance. On November 22, 2006, the main entrance to Arlington station closed for extensive construction and was not scheduled to re-open until March 1, 2008; until completion, all access to Arlington station would be through long–closed alternative entrances at the corner of Boylston and Berkeley Streets. On May 31, 2009, the temporary Berkeley Street entrances were reverted to emergency-only exits, the long-awaited renovated main entrances on Arlington Street reopened for public use. Panels of artwork were added to the station at the platform level. Designed by Ross Miller, these panels explain and celebrate the ancient Boylston Street Fishweir, discovered during excavations in the vicinity. Casual observers may not notice that several images of modern Native Americans have been concealed among the tangled sticks of the fish weirs pictured on the panels.
Still structured as it was when opened, Arlington has two tracks with two side platforms. In normal service, there are three entrances and exits, all at the intersection of Arlington Street and Boylston Street on the southwestern and northwestern corners of that intersection. All entrances serve both the inbound and outbound platforms since they connect to a common mezzanine where there is only one row of faregates. Unlike several other underground stations on the Green Line, there is a free crossover at the station, allowing passengers to reverse direction without paying an extra fare. In particular, inbound passengers on the Green Line "E" branch must travel past Copley station into Arlington station to reverse direction or to travel outbound on any other Green Line branch; as of December 2016, the MBTA is considering reopening the Berkeley Street entrance and adding elevators for accessibility. MBTA - Arlington Description of Arlington Station renovations Arlington Street entrance from Google Maps Street View
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Canal Street Incline
The Canal Street Incline was the transition between subway and elevated railway on the Green Line streetcar line and the Orange Line rapid transit line in the northern part of downtown Boston, United States. The initial four-track portal and incline opened on September 3, 1898 as part of the final section of the Tremont Street Subway; the right-of-way had been used by the Boston and Maine Railroad on its approach to its Haymarket Square terminal. All the tracks terminated on the surface at Causeway Street, from which streetcars could run east to points including the Charlestown Bridge or west to points including the Charles River Dam Bridge and Longfellow Bridge. A surface station, North Station, was provided between Causeway Street. On June 10, 1901, the two outer tracks were connected to the newly opened Charlestown Elevated; the outer tracks through the entire subway were converted for rapid transit operation, only the inner tracks carried streetcars, which at this end had to turn around at Scollay Square via the Brattle Loop.
On November 30, 1908, the Washington Street Tunnel opened, using the two eastern tracks at the portal, two new tracks were built to the west, with the subway connection shifted west. All four Tremont Street Subway tracks once again carried streetcars; the Lechmere Viaduct was connected to the two outer tracks via the Causeway Street Elevated on June 1, 1912. This configuration would remain for 63 years, within the period of time that the Boston Garden indoor sports venue was built in 1928, just north of the westward-running section of the Causeway elevated tracks; the last routes to use the center streetcar tracks and continue along Causeway Street were the 92 and 93, both running through Charlestown to Sullivan Square. The tracks through Charlestown were kept for a while longer for access to Everett Shops; the Charlestown Elevated last operated April 4, 1975, the modern MBTA Orange Line's Haymarket North Extension opened April 7, including a new tunnel connected to the Washington Street Tunnel.
After several periods of reconstruction, the lower level North Station platform and loop was permanently closed March 27, 1997 for work on the new Green Line tunnel. The Green Line tracks connecting the subway to the elevated were soon relocated to the former Orange Line portal for the same reason; these tracks were last used June 25, 2004. A new portal now connects the Tremont Street Subway directly to the Lechmere Viaduct. Changes to Transit Service in the MBTA district