Whitehall is a city in Trempealeau County, United States, along the Trempealeau River. The population was 1,558 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Trempealeau County. Whitehall is situated on the former Green Bay and Western Railroad midway between La Crosse and Eau Claire. Whitehall was started in 1860 or 1861, in an area known as Old Whitehall about a mile from the center of the current city, by Ole Knudtson, he came to Whitehall June 25, 1860, opened a hotel and blacksmith shop. The proprietors of the town site were Mr. Georges. A post office called Whitehall was first established in 1861; the city was named by Benjamin F. Wing after White Hall and Whitehall, New York; the Green Bay railroad was built through the valley of the Trempealeau River in 1873. "The tracks were laid through the wheat field, now Whitehall, on Sept. 2, 1873.... Where the courthouse now stands, the harvesters were gathering wheat.... On New Year's Day, 1874, the first passenger train passed Whitehall on regular schedule.
That same day the lumber was unloaded for the first depot..." Whitehall was incorporated in 1887. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.80 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,558 people, 665 households, 382 families residing in the city; the population density was 556.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 741 housing units at an average density of 264.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.9% White, 0.4% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 1.5% from other races, 0.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.2% of the population. There were 665 households of which 27.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.8% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 42.6% were non-families. 36.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.92. The median age in the city was 42 years. 23.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.8% male and 51.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,651 people, 693 households, 415 families residing in the city; the population density was 991.2 people per square mile. There were 733 housing units at an average density of 440.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city- typical for its locality- was 99.64% White, 0.12% African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 0.06% from other races, 0.06% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.30% of the population. There were 693 households out of which 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.3% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.0% were non-families. 35.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.95. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.7% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 26.3% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, 21.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $33,958, the median income for a family was $48,047. Males had a median income of $28,643 versus $21,332 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,743. About 4.1% of families and 7.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.3% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over. Whitehall Official Website Whitehall Chamber of Commerce
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system. Its source is Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota and it flows south for 2,320 miles to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 32 U. S. two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. The main stem is within the United States; the Mississippi ranks as the fifteenth-largest river by discharge in the world. The river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana. Native Americans have lived along its tributaries for thousands of years. Most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies; the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the native way of life as first explorers settlers, ventured into the basin in increasing numbers.
The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, the early United States, as a vital transportation artery and communications link. In the 19th century, during the height of the ideology of manifest destiny, the Mississippi and several western tributaries, most notably the Missouri, formed pathways for the western expansion of the United States. Formed from thick layers of the river's silt deposits, the Mississippi embayment is one of the most fertile regions of the United States. During the American Civil War, the Mississippi's capture by Union forces marked a turning point towards victory, due to the river's strategic importance to the Confederate war effort; because of substantial growth of cities and the larger ships and barges that replaced steamboats, the first decades of the 20th century saw the construction of massive engineering works such as levees and dams built in combination. A major focus of this work has been to prevent the lower Mississippi from shifting into the channel of the Atchafalaya River and bypassing New Orleans.
Since the 20th century, the Mississippi River has experienced major pollution and environmental problems – most notably elevated nutrient and chemical levels from agricultural runoff, the primary contributor to the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. The word Mississippi itself comes from Misi zipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe name for the river, Misi-ziibi. In the 18th century, the river was the primary western boundary of the young United States, since the country's expansion westward, the Mississippi River has been considered a convenient if approximate dividing line between the Eastern and Midwestern United States, the Western United States; this is exemplified by the Gateway Arch in St. Louis and the phrase "Trans-Mississippi" as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, it is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, such as "the highest peak east of the Mississippi" or "the oldest city west of the Mississippi". The FCC uses it as the dividing line for broadcast call-signs, which begin with W to the east and K to the west, mixing together in media markets along the river.
The Mississippi River can be divided into three sections: the Upper Mississippi, the river from its headwaters to the confluence with the Missouri River. The Upper Mississippi runs from its headwaters to its confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri, it is divided into two sections: The headwaters, 493 miles from the source to Saint Anthony Falls in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The source of the Upper Mississippi branch is traditionally accepted as Lake Itasca, 1,475 feet above sea level in Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, Minnesota; the name "Itasca" was chosen to designate the "true head" of the Mississippi River as a combination of the last four letters of the Latin word for truth and the first two letters of the Latin word for head. However, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. From its origin at Lake Itasca to St. Louis, the waterway's flow is moderated by 43 dams. Fourteen of these dams are located above Minneapolis in the headwaters region and serve multiple purposes, including power generation and recreation.
The remaining 29 dams, beginning in downtown Minneapolis, all contain locks and were constructed to improve commercial navigation of the upper river. Taken as a whole, these 43 dams shape the geography and influence the ecology of the upper river. Beginning just below Saint Paul and continuing throughout the upper and lower river, the Mississippi is further controlled by thousands of wing dikes that moderate the river's flow in order to maintain an open navigation channel and prevent the river from eroding its banks; the head of navigation on the Mississippi is the Coon Rapids Dam in Minnesota. Before it was built in 1913, steamboats could go upstream as far as Saint Cloud, depending on river conditions; the uppermost lock and dam on the Upper Mississippi River is the Upper St. Anthony Falls Lock an
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Winona County, Minnesota
Winona County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2018 census, the population was 50,873, its county seat is Winona. Winona County comprises MN Micropolitan Statistical Area; the name of the county is said to derive from a Dakota legend about a woman, betrothed to a warrior she did not love. Rather than marry him, she is said to have leapt to her death from a rock now called "Maiden's Rock" on Lake Pepin; this is colloquially known as the Winona legend. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 642 square miles, of which 626 square miles is land and 15 square miles is water. Airport Lake - Winona Bartlet Lake - Winona Bollers Lake - Goodview Hunters Lake - Winona Lake Goodview - Goodview Lake Winona - Winona Rileys Lake - vast majority in Winona, west edge in Goodview Mississippi River - forms county's eastern border with Wisconsin Whitewater River - flows northeast from the western side of the county Interstate 90 U. S. Highway 14 U. S. Highway 61 Minnesota State Highway 43 Minnesota State Highway 74 Minnesota State Highway 76 Minnesota State Highway 248 Winona Municipal Airport - Max Conrad Field Wabasha County Buffalo County, Wisconsin Trempealeau County, Wisconsin La Crosse County, Wisconsin Houston County Fillmore County Olmsted County Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge As of the census of 2018, there were 51,461 residents.
The racial makeup of the county was 94% White, 1% African American, 2% Asian, 2% Hispanic or Latino, below 1% from other races, 1% from two or more races. The male population accounted towards 25,307 members of the Winona county, whereas female accounted towards 26,154; as of the census of 2000, there were 49,985 people, 18,744 households, 11,696 families residing in the county. The population density was 80 people per square mile. There were 19,551 housing units at an average density of 31 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.80% White, 0.77% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 1.87% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.53% from other races, 0.81% from two or more races. 1.37% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 41.8 % were of 9.9 % Polish and 7.4 % Irish ancestry. There were 18,744 households out of which 30.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.30% were married couples living together, 7.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.60% were non-families.
28.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.80% under the age of 18, 18.60% from 18 to 24, 25.10% from 25 to 44, 20.50% from 45 to 64, 13.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 95.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,700, the median income for a family was $49,845. Males had a median income of $31,926 versus $23,406 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,077. About 5.60% of families and 12.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.80% of those under age 18 and 9.30% of those age 65 or over. In 2016, Winona County planning commissioners voted to approve new permits for existing commercial dog breeding operations known as "puppy mills", despite overwhelming evidence of animal cruelty and neglect.
Due to the high number of kennels in the county, Winona county has earned the dubious title "Puppy Mill Capital of Minnesota". The United States Office of Management and Budget has designated Winona County as the Winona, MN Micropolitan Statistical Area; the OMB designated Winona, Minnesota as the principal city of the µSA. The United States Census Bureau ranked the µSA as the 582nd most populous Core Based Statistical Area of the United States as of July 1, 2012. Winona County is represented in the Minnesota House of Representatives by Rep. Steve Drazkowski, Rep. Gene Pelowski. Winona County is represented in the Minnesota Senate by Sen. Jeremy Miller. Winona County is located in Minnesota's 1st Congressional District, represented by Rep. Jim Hagedorn. Homer Ashton Enterprise Grover Whitewater Falls Beaver National Register of Historic Places listings in Winona County, Minnesota DeLorme's Minnesota Atlas and Gazetteer Winona County Winona County Health and Demographic Data
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Buffalo County, Wisconsin
Buffalo County is a county located in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,587, its county seat is Alma. The county was organized the following year. Buffalo County, founded in 1853, is named for the Buffalo River, which flows from Strum to Alma, where it empties into the Mississippi River; the Buffalo River obtained its name from the French voyager Father Louis Hennepin, who named it Riviere des Boeufs in 1680. The first permanent settlement was established in 1839, located in; this settlement was named Holmes' Landing after a family who traded with the Sioux and Chippewa. Buffalo County was settled by Swiss and Norwegian immigrants who were drawn to the area by the growing lumber industry, fertile soils, access to the Mississippi, available land. By 1848, a second community was established called Twelve Mile Bluff, now known as Alma. Agriculture developed during the 1850s on top of the ridges where natural prairies and oak savannas occurred, which made working the land much easier.
With the lack of good roads, settlement remained along the Mississippi River, where farmers could ship their grain on steamboats. The development of the Northern Rail from Winona, allowed for development away from the river, by 1890, farmers were transporting their goods predominantly by rail; the Civil War gave a boost to the local economy with the rising demand for wheat, the main crop of the county. The postwar period brought a large influx of settlers. With the price of wheat falling, farmers turned to dairy farming, by the 1880s, local creameries had started to appear. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 710 square miles, of which 672 square miles are land and 38 square miles are covered by water. Pepin County – north Eau Claire County – northeast Trempealeau County – east Winona County, Minnesota – south Wabasha County, Minnesota – west As of the census of 2000, there were 13,804 people, 5,511 households, 3,780 families residing in the county; the population density was 20 people per square mile.
There were 6,098 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.69% White, 0.12% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.08% from other races, 0.46% from two or more races. 0.62% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 44.3% were of German, 22.1% Norwegian and 8.8% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. 96.9 % spoke 1.6 % Spanish and 1.1 % German as their first language. There were 5,511 households out of which 30.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.90% were married couples living together, 6.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.40% were non-families. 27.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.10% under the age of 18, 6.90% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, 16.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 100.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.40 males. Alma Buffalo City Fountain City Mondovi Cochrane Nelson Gilmanton Waumandee Anchorage Bohri Savoy Springdale Chauncey H. Cooke, American soldier in the U. S. Civil War National Register of Historic Places listings in Buffalo County, Wisconsin Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge Biographical History of La Crosse and Buffalo Counties, Wisconsin. Chicago: Lewis Publishing, 1892. Curtiss-Wedge, Franklyn. History of Buffalo and Pepin Counties Wisconsin. Winona, Minn.: H. C. Cooper, 1919. Kessinger, L. History of Buffalo County, Wisconsin. Alma, Wis.: 1888. Buffalo County government website Buffalo County map from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation