Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England, 128 miles north of London, 45 miles northeast of Birmingham and 56 miles southeast of Manchester, in the East Midlands. Nottingham has links to the legend of Robin Hood and to the lace-making and tobacco industries, it was granted its city charter in 1897 as part of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee celebrations. Nottingham is a tourist destination. In 2017, Nottingham had an estimated population of 329,200; the population of the city proper, compared to its regional counterparts, has been attributed to its historical and tightly-drawn city boundaries. The wider conurbation, which includes many of the city's suburbs, has a population of 768,638, it is the second-largest in The Midlands. Its Functional Urban Area the largest in the East Midlands, has a population of 912,482; the population of the Nottingham/Derby metropolitan area is estimated to be 1,610,000. Its metropolitan economy is the seventh largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $50.9bn.
The city was the first in the East Midlands to be ranked as a sufficiency-level world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Nottingham has an award-winning public transport system, including the largest publicly owned bus network in England and is served by Nottingham railway station and the modern Nottingham Express Transit tram system, it is a major sporting centre, in October 2015 was named'Home of English Sport'. The National Ice Centre, Holme Pierrepont National Watersports Centre, Trent Bridge international cricket ground are all based in or around the city, the home of two professional league football teams; the city has professional rugby, ice hockey and cricket teams, the Aegon Nottingham Open, an international tennis tournament on the ATP and WTA tours. This accolade came just over a year. On 11 December 2015, Nottingham was named a "City of Literature" by UNESCO, joining Dublin, Edinburgh and Prague as one of only a handful in the world; the title reflects Nottingham's literary heritage, with Lord Byron, D. H. Lawrence and Alan Sillitoe having links to the city, as well as a contemporary literary community, a publishing industry and a poetry scene.
The city has two universities—Nottingham Trent University and the University of Nottingham—both of which are spread over several campuses in the city, with a total university student population of over 61,000. The city predates Anglo-Saxon times and was known in Brythonic as Tigguo Cobauc, meaning Place of Caves. In modern Welsh it is known poetically as Y Ty Ogofog and Irish as Na Tithe Uaimh "The Cavey Dwelling"; when it fell under the rule of a Saxon chieftain named Snot it became known as "Snotingaham". Some authors derive "Nottingham" from Snottenga and ham, but "this has nothing to do with the English form". Nottingham Castle was constructed in 1068 on a sandstone outcrop by the River Leen; the Anglo-Saxon settlement was confined to the area today known as the Lace Market and was surrounded by a substantial defensive ditch and rampart, which fell out of use following the Norman Conquest and was filled by the time of the Domesday Survey. Following the Norman Conquest the Saxon settlement developed into the English Borough of Nottingham and housed a Town Hall and Law Courts.
A settlement developed around the castle on the hill opposite and was the French borough supporting the Normans in the castle. The space between was built on as the town grew and the Old Market Square became the focus of Nottingham several centuries later. Defences, consisted of a ditch and bank in the early 12th century; the ditch was widened, in the mid-13th century, a stone wall built around much of the perimeter of the town. A short length of the wall survives, is visible at the northern end of Maid Marian Way, is protected as a Scheduled Monument. On the return of Richard the Lionheart from the Crusades, the castle was occupied by supporters of Prince John, including the Sheriff of Nottingham, it was besieged by Richard and, after a sharp conflict, was captured. In the legends of Robin Hood, Nottingham Castle is the scene of the final showdown between the Sheriff and the hero outlaw. By the 15th century Nottingham had established itself as a centre of a thriving export trade in religious sculpture made from Nottingham alabaster.
The town became a county corporate in 1449 giving it effective self-government, in the words of the charter, "for eternity". The Castle and Shire Hall were expressly excluded and remained as detached Parishes of Nottinghamshire. One of those impressed by Nottingham in the late 18th century was the German traveller C. P. Moritz, who wrote in 1782, "Of all the towns I have seen outside London, Nottingham is the loveliest and neatest. Everything had a modern look, a large space in the centre was hardly less handsome than a London square. A charming footpath leads over the fields to the highway. … Nottingham … with its high houses, red roofs and church steeples, looks excellent from a distance."During the Industrial Revolution, much of Nottingham's prosperity was founded on the textile industry.
Nottingham Castle, a castle in Nottingham, England, is located in a commanding position on a natural promontory known as "Castle Rock", with cliffs 130 feet high to the south and west. In the Middle Ages it was occasional royal residence. In decline by the 16th century, it was demolished in 1649; the Duke of Newcastle built a mansion on the site, burnt down by rioters in 1831 and left as a ruin. It was rebuilt to house an art gallery and museum, which remain in use. Little of the original castle survives, but sufficient portions remain to give an impression of the layout of the site; the first Norman castle on Castle Rock was a wooden structure of a motte-and-bailey design, begun in 1068, two years after the Battle of Hastings, on the orders of William the Conqueror. This wooden structure was replaced by a far more defensible stone castle during the reign of King Henry II, of an imposing and complex architectural design, which comprised an upper bailey at the highest point of the castle rock, a middle bailey to the north containing the main royal apartments, a large outer bailey to the east.
For centuries the castle served as one of the most important in England for nobles and royalty alike. In a strategic position due to its location near a crossing of the River Trent, it was known as a place of leisure, being close to the royal hunting grounds at Tideswell, the "Kings Larder" in the Royal Forest of the Peak, close to the royal forests of Barnsdale and Sherwood; the castle had its own deer park in the area to the west, still known as The Park. While King Richard I was away on the Third Crusade, along with a great number of English noblemen, Nottingham Castle was occupied by supporters of Prince John, including the Sheriff of Nottingham. In the legends of Robin Hood, Nottingham Castle is the scene of the final showdown between the Sheriff and the heroic outlaw. In March 1194, an historic battle took place at Nottingham Castle, part of the returned King Richard's campaign to put down the rebellion of Prince John; the castle was the site of a decisive attack when King Richard besieged it after constructing some siege machines similar to those used on crusade.
Richard was aided by Ranulph de Blondeville, 4th Earl of Chester, David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon. The castle surrendered after just a few days. Shortly before his 18th birthday, King Edward III, with the help of a few trusted companions led by Sir William Montagu, staged a coup d'état at Nottingham Castle against his mother Isabella of France, her lover, Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March. Both were acting as Regents during Edward's minority following their murder of his father Edward II at Berkeley Castle. William Montagu and his companions were accompanied by William Eland and overseer of Mortimer's castle, who knew the location of a secret tunnel which would take them up to a locked door higher up in the castle to a locked door. In the dark of night on 19 October 1330, Montagu and his companions entered the tunnel, climbed up to the door, which had now been unlocked either by Edward III or a trusted servant, overpowered Mortimer, killing Mortimer's personal guards. Mortimer was led out of the tunnel and arrested, along with Queen Mother Isabella.
Mortimer was sent to the Tower of London, hanged a month later. Isabella of France was forced into retirement at Castle Rising Castle. With this dramatic event the personal reign of Edward began. Edward III held Parliaments. In 1346 King David II of Scotland was held prisoner. In 1365 Edward III improved the castle with a new tower on the west side of the Middle Bailey and a new prison under the High Tower. In 1376 Peter de la Mare, speaker of the House of Commons was confined in Nottingham Castle for having'taken unwarrantable liberties with the name of Alice Perrers, mistress of the king'. In 1387 the state council was held in the castle. Richard II held the Lord Mayor of London with Aldermen and Sheriffs in the castle in 1392, held another state council to humble Londoners; the last visit recorded by Richard II was in 1397. From 1403 until 1437 it was the main residence of Joan. After the residence of Joan maintenance was reduced. Only upon the Wars of the Roses did Nottingham Castle begin to be used again as a military stronghold.
Edward IV proclaimed himself king in Nottingham, in 1476 he ordered the construction of a new tower and Royal Apartments. This was described by John Leland in 1540 as:'the most beautifulest part and gallant building for lodging... a right sumptuous piece of stone work.' During the reign of King Henry VII the castle remained a royal fortress. Henry VIII ordered new tapestries for the castle before he visited Nottingham in August 1511. By 1536 Henry had the castle reinforced and its garrison increased from a few dozen men to a few hundred. In 1538 the Constable, the Thomas Manners, 1st Earl of Rutland, reported on the need for maintenance. A survey in 1525 stated that there was much'dekay and ruyne of said castell' and'part of the roof of the Great Hall is fallen down; the new building there is in dekay of timber and glass'. The castle ceased to be a royal residence by 1600 and was rendered obsolete in the 16th century by artillery. A short time following the outbreak of the English Civil War, the castle was in a semi-ruined state after a number of skirmishes occurred on the site.
At the start of the Civil War, in August 1642, Charles I chose Nottingham as the rallying point for his armies, but soon after he departed, the castle rock was made defensible and held by the parliamentarians. Commanded by John Hutchinson, they repulsed several Ro
Mansfield is a market town in Nottinghamshire, the main town in the District of Mansfield and Mansfield Urban Area. Nestling in the Maun Valley surrounded by hills, it lies 12 miles north of Nottingham in a urban district, most of whose 106,556 population live in Mansfield, with Market Warsop a secondary centre, it is adjacent to the urban area of Sutton-in-Ashfield. Mansfield is the only major sub-regional centre in the county, covering an area of 30 square miles, it is the county's one local authority area directly to elect its Mayor. The district has been influenced by its industrial past of coal mining and textiles, which thrived into the 1990s. Today's Mansfield has 20.2 per cent of its working-age population seeking key out-of-work benefits. The population has fallen over the last century along with this industrial base, despite some diversification. Settlement in the Mansfield area is known to date back to Roman times, with a villa discovered in 1787 by a Major Rooke between Mansfield Woodhouse and Pleasley and a cache of denarii coins found near King's Mill in 1849.
After the end of Roman occupation, the early English royalty are said to have stayed there, with the Mercian Kings having used it as a base for hunting in the nearby Sherwood Forest. The Domesday Book compiled in 1086 has the settlement recorded as Mammesfeld whereas in market-petition documents of 1227 the spelling had changed to Maunnesfeld. By the time King Richard II signed a warrant in November 1377 granting the right for tenants to hold a four-day fair every year, the spelling had changed again to Mannesfeld. There are remains of the 12th-century King John's Palace, in Clipstone, between Mansfield and Edwinstowe, in an area, a retreat for royal families and dignitaries in the 14th and 15th centuries, for its location in Sherwood Forest and famed fresh air and exclusiveness. Access to the town was via a small horse-drawn carriageway from the city of Nottingham, was en route to Sheffield. On West Gate within the town centre, a commemorative wall plaque marks the point, thought to be the centre of Sherwood Forest 2013.
A tree has been planted nearby. Access to the town between the 16th and 17th centuries was via several stable yards; the Harte, the Swan, the Talbot, the White Bear, the Ram and the White Lion were known to date from medieval times. Several timber-framed cruck buildings were demolished in 1929 and another in 1973, documented by a local historical society during its demolition and was dated at around 1400 or earlier. Other Tudor houses in Stockwell Gate, Bridge Street and Lime Tree Place were demolished to make way for developments before they could be viewed for being listed properties; the majority of buildings remaining are from the 17th century onwards. Like most of the UK, Mansfield experiences a Temperate oceanic climate; this brings in a narrow temperature range, an spread of rainfall, low levels of sunshine, breezy conditions throughout the year. The closest weather station to Mansfield for which records are available is the Warsop, located in Meden Vale, about seven miles to the north.
The absolute maximum temperature record for the area stands at 34.6 °C, recorded in August 1990. In a typical year the warmest day should reach 28.9 °C, 12.72 days should reach 25.1 °C or higher. The absolute minimum temperature record for the area is −19.1 °C, recorded during January 1987. Rainfall averages 634mm annually, with 113 days reporting in excess of 1 mm of rain. All averages refer to the observation period 1971–2000. Mansfield has a large market square with surrounding commercial and retail centre including a museum, the Palace Theatre and numerous restaurants, fast-food outlets, pubs and night clubs. On 6 April 2010 a town-centre Business Improvement District was established with offices based in the old Town Hall in the Market Place, financed by a 2 per cent additional levy on the rateable value of nearby businesses; the Mansfield BID operates to a five-year business plan with a rolling yearly operational plan. Before the end of its tenure in 2015, over 560 shops and other town centre businesses were canvassed in late 2014 to vote on the first continuation period, dubbed a BID Ballot.
Mansfield District Council as an electoral services provider contracted out this procedure at a projected cost to council tax payers of £8,000. A 55 per cent turnout participated in the ballot with 77 per cent vote to continue the BID for a further five years; the BID provides additional services and delivery of projects to enhance the town centre as a shopping destination, including enabling events to attract visitors and raise awareness, additional security for the town centre including management of persistent offender banning orders and improvement of shop frontages. Records show the first yearly income to have been £294,697, with an operating surplus of £151,610 over expenses. One of BID's achievements during 2012 to 2013 was a crowd-funded town centre Wi-Fi internet installation costing £37,000 and completed by June 2013, using an extensive network of AP nodes requiring potential users to register before free use is enabled, with a dedicated optional BID local information "App" for Android and iPhone available for download.
The intention was to encourage shoppers and visitors alike to linger in the town centre for longer than to offer internet access to small businesses, to provide market traders with a means of accepting non-cash payme
Nottingham Women's Hospital
Nottingham Women's Hospital, colloquially known as "Peel Street", was a maternity hospital which closed in November 1981. Its records are held at the Manuscripts and Special Collections; the hospital was inaugurated as a result of a merger between Nottingham Castle Gate Hospital and Samaritan Hospital Nottingham. It was thought; the new hospital, built on a site occupied by a building known as Southfield House, became operational in 1923, officially opened on 5 November 1929. Patients began to enter in 1930. After medical services had been transferred to Queen's Medical Centre, the hospital closed in November 1981 and the site was cleared; the main building was converted into flats, now called Charleston House, in 1982. In June 2011 another building on the site was refurbished and occupied by public house chain Wetherspoons; the licensed premises is called The Gooseberry Bush, after the traditional humourous description of where babies come from. The licensed premises opened on 12 July 2011. Nottingham Women's Hospital on Peel Street, Nottingham Hospital History
Dale Jonathan Winton was an English radio DJ and television presenter. He presented the shows Dale's Supermarket Sweep from 1993 until 2001 and again in 2007, the National Lottery game show In It to Win It between 2002 and 2016 and the 2008 series of Hole in the Wall. Winton presented Pets Win Prizes and The Other Half. Winton was born on 22 May 1955 to a Jewish father, Gary Winton, actress Sheree Winton, a Jewish convert. Winton's father died on the day of his bar mitzvah and Winton was brought up by his mother. Winton's mother committed suicide in 1976 while suffering from depression. Winton started DJ'ing in clubs in Richmond in 1972, where he met Steve Allen, the LBC radio presenter; the two remained friends thereafter, lived together for a period and would go on holiday together. From there he had a selection of jobs including selling timeshares. In 1982, Winton moved to London and began his entertainment career on the London club circuit, where he DJ'd at weekends; this led him to the United Biscuits Radio Network where he did a variety of jobs working for Adrian Love, before getting his own morning show.
From here he joined Radio Trent in Nottingham, where he presented a weekend show, moving to the weekday mid-morning show, before leaving in 1985, going on to work at a number of other local radio stations including Chiltern Radio, Beacon Radio as well as Blue Danube Radio in Vienna, Austria. In 2000, Winton took over from Alan Freeman to present Pick of the Pops on BBC Radio 2, hosted the show until 30 October 2010, when Tony Blackburn replaced him. Winton sat in for Steve Wright and Liza Tarbuck on BBC Radio 2, covering the latter's Saturday show in September 2013 and November/December 2016. Winton began his television career in 1986 on Pet Watch, before working for Channel 4, Lifestyle Channel and ITV. From 1993 to 2000, he hosted Dale's Supermarket Sweep during the daytime TV period on ITV. In 2007, Supermarket Sweep was revived after a 5 1⁄2-year absence. Winton portrayed himself as an irritating game show presenter in Danny Boyle's 1996 film Trainspotting. In 1995 -- 96, Winton presented.
In 1997, he presented the final of the Great British Song Contest, the UK's national pre-selection for the Eurovision Song Contest, due to a tie-in with the lottery programme. Between that year and 2002, he presented a dating show called The Other Half. In 1999, he appeared on the sitcom Gimme Gimme Gimme with Kathy Burke in the episode Do They Take Sugar?. He was the subject of This. In 2001, he presented. In 2002, Winton began presenting the National Lottery game show In It to Win It. In 2003, he appeared in the BBC Three mockumentary, Dale's Wedding, in which he married the UK celebrity Nell McAndrew. From 2003–04, he hosted two series of Stars Reunited where the casts of popular British television series were reunited after many years. Between 2004 and 2006, he presented three series of the celebrity weight loss "boot camp" programme, Celebrity Fit Club on ITV. Winton presented BBC One's Saturday night entertainment programme Hole In The Wall in 2008, based on the Japanese original, where contestants in skin-tight lycra costumes contorted themselves to fit through oddly-shaped holes in a moving wall.
The show returned for a second series in 2009. Winton began appearing in television advertisements for cashmygold.co.uk in 2010. Winton appeared on Matt David Walliams' BBC comedy series Come Fly With Me, he appeared in the last episode of the series. In 2012, he hosted. In February 2018, Winton hosted travelogue series Dale Winton's Florida Fly Drive aired on Channel 5. In 2002, Wiinton released his autobiography in which he wrote about his rise to fame and his actress mother's suicide, came out about his homosexuality. On 18 April 2018, Winton's long-term agent, announced that he had died at his home. On 19 April a spokesman for Scotland Yard said that police were treating the death as "unexplained" but did not believe it to be suspicious. According to his friend, Gloria Hunniford, "Dale had a lot of things going wrong, he had pain with arthritis, he had a heart complaint, he had a chest infection, we all know how the winter affected that, he had asthma as well." The coroner concluded. Winton had moved from a £2.9 million apartment in Regent's Park to a property in Whetstone, North London.
Winton's close friends celebrated his life with a non-religious humanist funeral ceremony from Humanists UK on 22 May, his birthday. His eulogy was preserved by the Bishopsgate Institute, as part of a public historical archive of humanist funerals. Podcast Interview with Dale Winton Dale Winton on IMDb Dale Winton at the British Film Institute
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency; the period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example: if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio signals, radio waves, light. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time. In physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics and radio, frequency is denoted by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter ν or ν; the relation between the frequency and the period T of a repeating event or oscillation is given by f = 1 T.
The SI derived unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz. One hertz means. If a TV has a refresh rate of 1 hertz the TV's screen will change its picture once a second. A previous name for this unit was cycles per second; the SI unit for period is the second. A traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated r/min or rpm. 60 rpm equals one hertz. As a matter of convenience and slower waves, such as ocean surface waves, tend to be described by wave period rather than frequency. Short and fast waves, like audio and radio, are described by their frequency instead of period; these used conversions are listed below: Angular frequency denoted by the Greek letter ω, is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement, θ, or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform, or as the rate of change of the argument to the sine function: y = sin = sin = sin d θ d t = ω = 2 π f Angular frequency is measured in radians per second but, for discrete-time signals, can be expressed as radians per sampling interval, a dimensionless quantity.
Angular frequency is larger than regular frequency by a factor of 2π. Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the time axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes. E.g.: y = sin = sin d θ d x = k Wavenumber, k, is the spatial frequency analogue of angular temporal frequency and is measured in radians per meter. In the case of more than one spatial dimension, wavenumber is a vector quantity. For periodic waves in nondispersive media, frequency has an inverse relationship to the wavelength, λ. In dispersive media, the frequency f of a sinusoidal wave is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave: f = v λ. In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum v = c, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, this expression becomes: f = c λ; when waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another, their frequency remains the same—only their wavelength and speed change. Measurement of frequency can done in the following ways, Calculating the frequency of a repeating event is accomplished by counting the number of times that event occurs within a specific time period dividing the count by the length of the time period.
For example, if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is: f = 71 15 s ≈ 4.73 Hz If the number of counts is not large, it is more accurate to measure the time interval for a predetermined number of occurrences, rather than the number of occurrences within a specified time. The latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count, so on average half a count; this is called gating error and causes an average error in the calculated frequency of Δ f = 1 2 T
Graham Knight (broadcaster)
Graham Lawrence Knight was a British broadcaster and author. Knight was born in Sorrento, England, he died in Nottingham, survived by two children and Paul and his wife Cherry. Before moving into journalism, Knight worked in the packaging team at Cadbury's in Bournville, where he met his wife. Graham started his career in broadcasting by volunteering on hospital radio in Birmingham, went on to work at the local commercial station BRMB After moving to Nottingham in the mid 1970s, Graham was one of the founder DJs on Nottingham's Radio Trent as it launched in July 1975, where he presented the Rock Show. Other DJs included Jeff Cooper, Kid Jensen and Guy Morris. Graham had semi regular shows on the English speaking Austrian station Blue Danube Radio, as had his colleague at Trent, Dale Winton. Graham presented the mid-morning show for 14 years. Graham presented the Weekend Early Breakfast show on BBC Radio 2 for four years between 1988-1992. From 2002 to his death, Graham owned and ran a specialist Tea and Chocolate shop in Sherwood, Nottingham called'General Store', selling a range of packed and loose teas and coffees, including his own blends, unique imports such as'Georgian Old Lady' and'Georgian Old Gentleman'.
Graham had been a regional board member of the National Trust, played a critical part in setting up the Derwent Valley Trust during its creation of the National Heritage Corridor in Derbyshire between 2001-2007 whilst studying for an MA in Conservation Management. He helped establish a journalism section on the Amnesty International website and co-wrote the book Outings in the Peak District with Lindsay Porter