Les Trente Glorieuses was the thirty years from 1945 to 1975 following the end of the Second World War in France. The name was first used by the French demographer Jean Fourastié. Fourastié coined the term in 1979 with the publication of his book Les Trente Glorieuses, ou la révolution invisible de 1946 à 1975; the term is derived from Les Trois Glorieuses, the three days of revolution on 27–29 July 1830 in France. As early as 1944, Charles de Gaulle introduced a dirigiste economic policy, which included substantial state-directed control over a capitalist economy, followed by 30 years of unprecedented growth, known as the Trente Glorieuses. Over this thirty-year period, France's economy grew like economies of other developed countries within the framework of the Marshall Plan such as West Germany and Japan; these decades of economic prosperity combined high productivity with high average wages and high consumption, were characterised by a developed system of social benefits. According to various studies, the real purchasing power of the average French worker's salary went up by 170% between 1950 and 1975, while overall private consumption increased by 174% in the period 1950-74.
The French standard of living, damaged by both World Wars, became one of the world's highest. The population became far more urbanized. Ownership of various household goods and amenities increased while the wages of the French working class rose as the economy became more prosperous; as noted by the historians Jean Blondel and Donald Geoffrey Charlton in 1974, If it is still the case that France lags in the number of its telephones, working-class housing has improved beyond recognition and the various'gadgets' of the consumer society–from television to motor cars–are now purchased by the working class on an more avid basis than in other Western European countries. Since the 1973 oil crisis, France's economy, while still faring well under François Mitterrand and Jacques Chirac, slowed down its explosive growth. Thus, the mid-1970s marked the end of the period. In his book Capital in the Twenty-First Century, French economist Thomas Piketty describes the Trente Glorieuses as an exceptional "catch up" period following the world wars.
He cites statistics showing that normal growth in wealthy countries is about 1.5–2%, whereas in Europe growth dropped to 0.5% between 1913 and 1950, "caught up" with a growth rate of 4% between 1950 and 1970, until settling back to 1.5–2% from 1970 onward. Economic history of France Japanese post-war economic miracle Miracolo economico Post–World War II economic expansion Record years Spanish miracle Wirtschaftswunder Gordon, Daniel A. "Full Speed Ahead? The Trente Glorieuses in a Rear View Mirror." Contemporary European History 26.1: 189-199 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0960777316000461 Jacques Fontanela, Jean‐Paul Hébert. "The end of the "French grandeur policy"." Defence and Peace Economics 8.1: 37-55. Volkmar Lauber, The political economy of France: from Pompidou to Mitterrand
Nothoscordum bivalve is a species of flowering plant in the Amaryllidaceae known by the common names crowpoison and false garlic. It is native to the southern United States from Arizona to Virginia, as well as Mexico, Uruguay, northeastern Argentina and central Chile. Nothoscordum bivalve is a perennial herb growing from a bulb about a centimeter wide, it produces one erect stem, or two. They grow up to 40 centimetres tall. There are one to four narrow; the inflorescence is an umbel of 3 to 6 flowers, or sometimes up to 10. There are two bracts at the base of the umbel; the flower has six whitish tepals, each of which has a dark reddish midvein. The flower has no scent; the fruit is a capsule. This is a common plant which grows in parks and on roadsides, soils which are not too dry or too wet, it is a favorite nectar source for small butterflies such as the falcate orangetip. USDA Plants Profile
Heath Steele Mines, situated 60 km northwest of Newcastle, New Brunswick, Canada, at the headwaters of the Tomogonops and Little Rivers, was a large and productive copper and zinc mine which operated from 1956 to 1999. The mine was an economic cornerstone of Miramichi communities throughout this period; the mine was developed as a collaboration between the American Metal Company and Inco and was known as the Little River Joint Venture. The mine was named after Mr. Heath Steele, the Vice-President of Exploration of the American Metal Company, it seems that Mr. Steele had little directly to do with the mine, but the parent company bestowed the name as an honour on his retirement from the company. No smelter was included in the facility; the ore concentrates were instead hauled by rail to various smelter operations for further processing, or to the ports at Newcastle and Dalhousie, New Brunswick where the concentrates could be shipped to customers overseas. The first orebody at the Heath Steele site, Heath Steele A Zone, was discovered in 1953 by prospectors working for Matthew James Boylen.
Mr. Boylen brought more mines into production than anyone else in Canadian history, was inducted into the Canadian Mining Hall of Fame; this was the first discovery in Canada of an ore body by means of an airborne electromagnetic survey. American Metals had financed Mr. Boylen's exploration, as a result of a 1953 agreement with Inco, acquired a 75% ownership of the new mine. Initial exploratory drilling estimated the reserves as including 3,000,000 tons. By 1957 a mine and milling operation were established to extract copper and zinc from the ore. Due to low metal prices and metallurgical issues, the mining operation was suspended in April 1958. Mining resumed in June 1962. In 1969 the mine started an ambitious expansion, by 1979 was producing over 185,000 tonnes of mineral concentrates per year; as the ore body was depleted operations were dependent on strong metal prices. In 1979 Noranda purchased American Metals 75% share in the operation. Metal prices declined, forcing the mine to suspend operations in April 1983.
In 1986 Noranda purchased all of the remaining interest in the mine. The mine reopened in 1989, closed in 1991, reopened in 1992. Mining was again suspended in July 1993, resuming in November 1994; as of 1994 reserves stood at 3.6 Mt. The underground mine was closed and allowed to flood in 1999. Over the years, concerns were vented concerning the potential environmental impact of this mining operation, more heavy metal pollution and acid mine drainage, on the Tomogonops and Miramichi River systems. Fish kills in these rivers were attributed to the company; the Heath Steele deposits are volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits rich in copper and zinc
A potter's field, paupers' grave or common grave is a place for the burial of unknown, unclaimed or indigent people. "Potter's field" is of Biblical origin, referring to Akeldama, stated to have been purchased, with the coins, paid to Judas Iscariot for his identification of Jesus, after Judas' suicide, by the high priests of Jerusalem. The priests are stated to have acquired it for the burial of strangers and the poor, the coins paid to Judas being considered blood money. Prior to Akeldama's use as a burial ground, it had been a site where potters collected high-quality red clay for the production of ceramics, thus the name potters' field; the term "potter's field" comes from Matthew 27:3-27:8 in the New Testament of the Bible, in which Jewish priests take 30 pieces of silver returned by a remorseful Judas: Then Judas, who betrayed him, seeing that he was condemned, repenting himself, brought back the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and ancients, saying: "I have sinned in betraying innocent blood."
But they said: "What is that to us? Look thou to it." And casting down the pieces of silver in the temple, he departed, went and hanged himself with a halter. But the chief priests, having taken the pieces of silver, said: "It is not lawful to put them into the corbona, because it is the price of blood." And after they had consulted together, they bought with them the potter's field, to be a burying place for strangers. For this the field was called Haceldama, that is, the field of blood to this day; the site referred to in these verses is traditionally known as Akeldama, in the valley of Hinnom, a source of potters' clay. After the clay was removed, such a site would be left unusable for agriculture and thus might as well become a graveyard for those who could not be buried in an orthodox cemetery; this may be the origin of the name. A field where potters dug for clay would be "conveniently full of trenches and holes."The author of Matthew was drawing on earlier Biblical references to potters' fields.
The passage continues, with verses 9 and 10: Then what the prophet Jeremiah had said came true: "They took the thirty silver coins, the amount the people of Israel had agreed to pay for him, used the money to buy the potter's field, as the Lord had commanded me." This is based on a quotation from Zechariah. However, Matthew attributes the quote to Jeremiah; the author of Matthew may have been mistaken. There are two other possible reasons for the reference. First, Jeremiah speaks of buying a field, in Jeremiah 32:6-15; that field is a symbol of hope, not despair as mentioned in Matthew, the price is 17 pieces of silver. The author of Matthew could have combined the words of Zechariah and Jeremiah, while only citing the "major" prophet. Secondly, "Jeremiah" was sometimes used to refer to the Books of the Prophets in toto as "The Law" is sometimes used to refer to Moses' five books – Genesis through Deuteronomy, the Pentateuch. Craig Blomberg suggests that the use of the blood money to buy a burial ground for foreigners in Matthew 27:7 may hint at the idea that "Jesus' death makes salvation possible for all the peoples of the world, including the Gentiles."
Other scholars do not read the verse as referring to Gentiles, but rather to Jews who are not native to Jerusalem. William Blake used the term in Chapter 1 of Jerusalem The Emanation of the Giant Albion, "Jerusalem is our Harlot-Sister / Return'd with the Children of pollution, to defile our House, / With Sin and Shame. Cast! Cast her into the Potter's field." Lincoln Park, on Chicago's North Side, found its origin in the 1840s as Chicago City Cemetery. The southernmost portion of the cemetery, where one may now find a number of baseball fields, was the location of the City Cemetery potter's field from 1843 to 1871. More than 15,000 people, including 4,000 Confederate soldiers, were buried here on marshy land near the water's edge; the baseball fields have occupied these grounds since 1877. Madison Square Park, Washington Square Park and Bryant Park in New York City originated as potter's fields; the city's current potter's field, one of the largest cemeteries in the United States, with at least 800,000 burials, is on Hart Island.
Hudson County Burial Grounds Queen Lane Apartments work on the project was delayed by the discovery of a Potter's Field on an adjacent plot. Washington Square Washington Park was the site of the State Street Burying Grounds, a municipal cemetery which included a Potter's Field; some maps identify the section as the "Strangers" burial ground. Potter's Field in Omaha, Nebraska Holt Cemetery in New Orleans contains the remains of known and unknown early jazz musicians, including Charles "Buddy" Bolden; the battered remains of Robert Charles, at the center of the 1900 New Orleans race riot were interred there dug up and incinerated. It is located next to Delgado Community College. Toronto, Ontario had a Potter's Field at the corner of Bloor Streets; the burial grounds were closed with some of the bodies moved to other cemeteries. Unknown number of bodies remained on the site. Today the grounds are part of the posh Yorkville district, the site of an office tower. Blue Plains, in the Anacostia area of Washington, D.
C. contains remains of executed international spies including Nazi spies from Operation Pastorius. Cimetière de Laval, near Montreal, Quebec Music Hall in Cincinnati, Ohio was built over a nineteenth-century potter's field. Eloise Cemetery Hart Island, New York, the Potter's Field in New York City, is featured in the film Don't Say a Word; the independent documentary Hart Island: An American Cemetery by Melinda Hunt also
Les pieds dans le plat is a French radio show broadcast on Europe 1 which covers news and media reporting. Hosted by Cyril Hanouna, the show is broadcast from Monday to Friday at 4:00 PM; the show received several guest like Michel Sardou, Francis Huster, François Berléand, Mathilde Seigner, Éric-Emmanuel Schmitt, Sandrine Kiberlain, Gilles Lellouche, Maxime Le Forestier, Jean-Michel Cohen, Daniel Auteuil, Richard Berry, Amanda Lear, Nana Mouskouri, Patrick Chesnais, Gérard Jugnot, Élie Semoun, Valérie Bonneton, Samuel Le Bihan, Arielle Dombasle, Sylvie Vartan, Claire Keim, Pierre Palmade, Philippe Geluck, Franck Dubosc, Jacques Weber, Marc Lavoine, Laurent Baffie, Natalie Dessay, Alizée, José Garcia, Michel Fugain, Olivia Ruiz, Marion Bartoli, Eddy Mitchell, Bernard Menez, Lorànt Deutsch, Gérald de Palmas, Alexandre Jardin, Guillaume Gallienne and Grichka Bogdanoff, Denise Fabre, Vincent Delerm, Michèle Laroque, Laurent Voulzy, François-Xavier Demaison, Charles Aznavour, Françoise Fabian, Rachida Brakni, Valérie Lemercier, Laurent Ruquier, Pascal Obispo, Grand Corps Malade, Géraldine Nakache, Pierre Perret, Laurent Lafitte, Pierre Niney, Alexandra Lamy, Josiane Balasko, Patrick Fiori, Anne Roumanoff, Muriel Robin, Francis Lalanne...
The show started 26 August 2013. The first season was broadcast the morning from 10h30 to 12h30. Laurent Ruquier left Europe 1 for RTL and the show take the afternoon place, broadcast from 16h00 to 18h30 with 30 minutes add
Coal Aston is in the county of Derbyshire, in England. It is by the town of Dronfield. Coal Aston sits on a ridge overlooking Dronfield. To the south there is Frith Wood, made up of mixed woodland rich in many species of fauna and flora and is thought to be an ancient wood; the wood is now a conservation area and although it is spelt Frith Wood on, for example, Ordnance Survey maps many locals call it Firth wood as in the neighbouring Firthwood Road.. Coal Aston has a Methodist church on Eckington Road, a chapel, several local shops on Barnard Avenue and a village hall, it is close to the Coal Aston airstrip at Apperknowle and has bus services to Sheffield and Chesterfield run by Stagecoach, TM Travel. The Victorian Primary school is now converted to a house. Annually a well dressing is held on the site of the former village pond opposite the Royal Oak; the Village Hall is located next to the Royal Oak and was built by the villagers, has since been rebuilt and modernised funded, in part, by the Millennium Lottery.
The annual Village Gala held early July based at The Village Hall is a Coal Aston highlight. Recent years have seen an RAF Historic Flight flypast as a feature; the Village Hall hosts regular plays with the local acting group having been based there for many years. Popular with the local community are the regular "Coal Aston Live" music events which have featured a good many professional artistes from the folk music scene and wider afield; these include local pop star Dave Berry and The Cruisers, comedians Phil Cool and Richard Digance many nationally recognised folk musicians ranging from Jake Thackray to Kerfuffle, Jez Lowe and in 2009 the late Dave Swarbrick and his 1980's band Whippersnapper. Kiki Dee and Carmelo Luggeri appeared at the Village Hall in 2011 and in March 2017 Los Pacaminos featuring 80's Pop Legend Paul Young are booked to appear and Paul both appeared on stage at the 1985 Wembley Live Aid Concert. Behind the Village Hall are playing fields, a hard tennis court and a bowling green, home to the local bowling club with its club house and separate changing rooms for the football pitches.
The local cricket club has its home ground in neighbouring Dronfield. Next to these sports facilities there is a park and a big field for the local children to play safely and is secluded. Coal Aston is known locally for its many pubs including "The Cross Daggers", "The Yew Tree", "The Chequers" and the "Royal Oak". Barnard Avenue in Coal Aston hosts a number of local shops including a butcher noted for its hot pork sandwiches, a greengrocery known for its fresh produce and a bakery known for doing a fine scone. There is a gift and card shopNext to the shops is a patch of grass on which no ball games are allowed to be played; this rule has caused some controversy over the years and caused tension between the local residents and children wishing to play. Dyche Lane, the main route from the village to Sheffield has a Petrol station, now a RS McColl store and Total S. A. petrol station. Next door is the "Ferndale Garden centre", with another one called "New Leaf Nurseries" at the bottom of the hill on the boundary with Sheffield.
A mile along Eckington Road from the village on the way to Eckington and Apperknowle is "Wards Garden Centre". The local Post Office, a butcher, two newsagents and the old Co-op have closed down over the last 2 decades. Coal Aston in the Domesday Book Stans Guide to the Local pubs