Treponema pallidum

Treponema pallidum is a spirochaete bacterium with various subspecies that cause the diseases syphilis and yaws. It is transmitted only amongst humans, it is a helically coiled microorganism 6–15 μm long and 0.1–0.2 μm wide. T. pallidum's lack of metabolic pathways results in minimal metabolic activity. The treponemes have an outer membrane. Using light microscopy, treponemes are visible only by using dark field illumination. Treponema pallidum consists of 3 species, T. p. pallidum, T. p. endemicum, andT. p. pertenue, each of these subspecies has a distinct disease associated with them. Three subspecies of T. pallidum are known: Treponema pallidum pallidum, which causes syphilis T. p. endemicum, which causes bejel or endemic syphilis T. p. pertenue, which causes yawsThe three subspecies causing yaws and syphilis are morphologically and serologically indistinguishable. These bacteria were classified as members of separate species, but DNA hybridization analysis indicates they are members of the same species.

Treponema carateum, the cause of pinta, remains a separate species because no isolate is available for DNA analysis. Subspecies T. p. endemicum and T. p. pertenue, disease transmittance is considered non-venereal. T. p. pallidum is the most invasive pathogenic subspecies while T. p. carateum is the least invasive of the subspecies. T. p. endemicum and T. p. pertenue are intermediately invasive. Treponema pallidum is a helically shaped bacteria comprised of an outer membrane, peptidoglycan layer, inner membrane, protoplasmic cylinder, periplasmic space, it is described as Gram negative, but its outer membrane lacks lipopolysaccharide, found in the outer membrane of other Gram-negative bacteria. It has an endoflagella comprised of 4 main polypeptides, a core structure, a sheath; the flagella wraps around the protoplasmic cylinder. T. pallidum's outer membrane has the most contact with host cells and contains few transmembrane proteins, limiting antigenicity while its cytoplasmic membrane is covered in lipoproteins.

The outer membrane's treponemal ligands main function is attachment to host cells, with functional and antigenic relatedness between ligands. The genus Treponema has ribbons of cytoskeletal cytoplasmic filaments that run the length of the cell just underneath the cytoplasmic membrane, they are composed of the intermediate filament-like protein CfpA. Although the filaments may be involved in chromosome structure and segregation or cell division, their precise function is unknown. Successful long-term cultivation of T. pallidum subspecies pallidum in a tissue culture system has been reported in 2018. The chromosomes of the T. pallidum subspecies are small, about 1.14 Mbp. Their DNA sequences are more than 99.7% identical. T. pallidum subspecies pallidum was sequenced in 1998. This sequencing is significant due to T. pallidum not being capable of growing in a pure culture, meaning that this sequencing played an important role in understanding the microbe's functions. It revealed that T. pallidum relies on its host for many molecules provided by biosynthetic pathways, as well as it is missing genes responsible for encoding key enzymes in oxidative phosphorylation and the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

It was found. The recent sequencing of the genomes of several spirochetes permits a thorough analysis of the similarities and differences within this bacterial phylum and within the species. T. p. pallidum has one of the smallest bacterial genomes at 1.14 million base pairs, has limited metabolic capabilities, reflecting its adaptation through genome reduction to the rich environment of mammalian tissue. The shape of T. pallidum is wavy. In order to avoid antibodies attacking, the cell has few proteins exposed on the outer membrane sheath, its chromosome of about 1000 kilo base pairs is circular with a 52.8% G + C average. Sequencing has revealed a bundle of 12 proteins and some putative hemolysins are potential virulence factors of T. pallidum. 92.9 % of DNA was determined to be ORF's. The clinical features of syphilis and bejel occur in multiple stages that affect the skin; the skin lesions observed in the early stage last for months. The skin lesions are infectious, the spirochetes in the lesions are transmitted by direct contact.

The lesions regress. The latent stage. In a minority of cases, the disease exits latency and enters a tertiary phase, in which destructive lesions of skin and cartilage ensue. Unlike yaws and bejels, syphilis in its tertiary stage affects the heart and nervous system as well. T. p. pallidum is a motile spirochaete, acquired by close sexual contact, entering the host via breaches in squamous or columnar epithelium. The organism can be transmitted to a fetus by transplacental passage during the stages of pregnancy, giving rise to congenital syphilis; the helical structure of T. p. pallidum allows it to move in a corkscrew motion through mucous membranes or enter minuscule breaks in the skin. In women the initial lesion is on the labia, the walls of the vagina, or the cervix, it gains access to the host's lymph systems through tissue and mucous membranes. In more severe cases, it may gain access to the host by infecting the skeletal bones and central nervous system of the body; the incubation period for a T. p. pallidum infection is around 21 days, but can ran

Fasting and abstinence in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church

Fasting and abstinence have constituted a major element of the practice of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, following the counsel of Saint Paul to "chastise the body and bring it under subjection" per 1 Corinthians 9:27. It is agreed, asserted by the Church itself, that the fasting regime of the Ethiopian Church is the strictest of any Church, with 180 mandatory fasting days for laymen and up to 252 days for clergy and the observant; the general list of fasts are laid out in the Fetha Negest. During fasts, the observant are required to partake in no more than one meal a day, to be eaten in the afternoon or evening. Fasting involves abstention from animal products, refraining from eating or drinking before 3:00 pm. Ethiopian devotees may abstain from sexual activity and the consumption of alcohol; as the fasting regime prohibits the consumption of meat and eggs, Ethiopian cuisine contains many dishes that can be considered vegan. Legumes such as split peas and lentils. Shiro wat, made from ground chickpeas, is particularly popular as a fasting food.

Fish is considered permissible as well to the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches. As international cuisines have grown in popularity among the Ethiopian middle class, fasting variants have developed to meet the needs of the observant population—among which include fasting pizza, fasting pasta, fasting pastries, fasting burgers. Another example of Western influence is the popularity of fish goulash made with local Nile perch, tilapia, or catfish. Observance of the fasting regime has fluctuated with time. Today, religious groups like Mahibere Kidusan encourage the faithful to rigorously observe both obligatory and optional fasting periods; as a result, strict observance of fasts is said to be growing in certain Orthodox communities. Every Wednesday and Friday throughout the year are observed as fast days, Wednesday in observance of the decision of the Sanhedrin, in collaboration with Judas Iscariot, to betray and kill Jesus before the feast of Pesach, Friday in observance of the Passion of Jesus.

Fasts are observed on the following occasions: The Fast of Great Lent lasts for eight weeks, or 55 continuous days before Easter. The fast is divided into three separate periods: Tsome Hirkal, eight days commemorating an early Christian figure; the Apostles' Fast follows the Sacred Tradition of the Apostles prior to their evangelism where, as part of their preparation, they began a fast with prayer to ask God to strengthen their resolve and to be with them in their missionary undertakings. It ends on the 4th of Hamle; the Fast of Assumption, 16 days. The Advent Fast, 40 days, it begins with Sibket on 15th Hedar and ends on Christmas Eve with the feast of Gena and the 28th of Tahsas. The Fast of Christmas Eve / no gahad in Christmas eve because its been fasting 40 days before Christmas; the Fast of Nineveh, commemorating the preaching of Jonah. It comes on Monday and Wednesday of the third week before Lent; the Fast of Epiphany Eve. The Fast of Flowers Fasting and abstinence of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria Ethiopian cuisine

Maria Lvovna Dillon

Maria Lvovna Dillon was a Russian sculptor. She is known for her allegorical, genre and portrait sculpture. Dillon is acknowledged as the first Russian female professional sculptor. Dillon was born in Ponevezh, Lithuania on October 27, 1858, she studied at the Imperial Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg where she was taught by A. R. von Bock, Nikolay Laveretsky and I. I. Podosenov, she won multiple awards while at the Academy. She traveled to Paris, to Italy after she completed her studies at the Academy. Dillon exhibited her work at the Palace of Fine Arts at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois, her works are included in the collections of the Russian Museum in St. Petersburg, the State Museum of Urban Sculpture in St. Petersburg, the State Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow, Pushkin House in St. Petersburg, the State Gornyi Institute in Kamchatka. In the 1890s to the 1910s, Dillon created a number of memorial tombs, including for the actress Vera F. Komissargevskaya, the composer Anton S. Arensky and painter Luigi O. Premazzi.

She sculpted a monument to the mathematician Nikolai Lobachevsky in Kazan. Her husband was the Russian painter Fyodor Buchholz, she died in Leningrad on June 14, 1932. An exhibition to celebrate the 150th anniversary of Dillon's birth was held at St Michael's Castle, part of the State Russian Museum, in 2010. Images of Maria Lvovna Dillon work on "International Women Sculptors 1893 Chicago World's Fair and Exposition"