Treptower Park

Treptower Park is a park alongside the river Spree in Alt-Treptow, in the district of Treptow-Köpenick, south of central Berlin. It was the location of the Great Industrial Exposition of Berlin in 1896, it is a popular place for recreation of a tourist attraction. On 14 July 1987 it was used by British band Barclay James Harvest for the first open-air concert by a western rock band in the German Democratic Republic, its prominent feature is the Soviet War Memorial, built to the design of the Soviet architect Yakov Belopolsky to commemorate the 80,000 Soviet soldiers who fell in the Battle of Berlin in April–May 1945. It was opened four years after the war ended, on May 8, 1949. Within Treptower Park is Spreepark, an abandoned amusement park, which operated from October 1969 until 2001; the owner of Spreepark, Norbert Witte, left Germany rather abruptly. He took several of the park's rides including the Jet Star and Fun Express with him to Peru where he was to open a small park called Lunapark at Jockey Plaza in Lima, Peru.

Some of the rides were damaged in transit and followed by legal discussions of who would pay for the damages. Klingende Blume Media related to Treptower Park at Wikimedia Commons Website der Bürgerinitiative Treptower Park Rollercoaster Database - Spree-Park Info


Ganzhousaurus is an extinct genus of oviraptorine oviraptorid dinosaur known from the Late Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Nankang County, Ganzhou City of Jiangxi Province, southern China. It was found in a Maastrichtian deposit and contains a single species, Ganzhousaurus nankangensis, it is distinguished by a combination of derived features. Phylogenetic analysis places Ganzhousaurus within Oviraptoridae. Within Oviraptoridae its phylogenetic position is more unstable, with one phylogenetic analysis recovering it as a member of the Oviraptorinae and another recovering it as a more derived member of the group related to "ingeniines" However, it bears some similarities to the basal caenagnathid Gigantoraptor. Ganzhousaurus shared its habitat with at least four other oviraptorid species, Jiangxisaurus ganzhouensis, Nankangia jinzhouensis, Banji long, an as-yet unnamed species; this diversity may have been made possible by niche partitioning, with Ganzhousaurus being herbivorous. Timeline of oviraptorosaur research

Ramayyan Dalawa

Ramayyan was the Dewan of Travancore state, during 1737 and 1756 and was responsible for the consolidation and expansion of that kingdom after the defeat of the Dutch at the 1741 Battle of Colachel during the reign of Maharajah Marthanda Varma, the creator of modern Travancore. Ramayyan, was born in Yerwadi, a village in Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu to which his family belonged; when he was six years of age his poor father gave up his native village and came to Thiruvattar and settled at a hamlet known as Aruvikara in the Kalkulam Taluka in the modern-day Kanyakumari District of Tamil Nadu state. When he was twenty years old he lost his parents, who he survived along with their other three sons and one daughter. After the death of his parents Ramayyan visited Trivandrum, attracted to it by the never ending festivities and celebrations, which always drew great crowds of Tamil Brahmins from all over Travancore and neighbouring regions of modern-day Tamil Nadu. On one occasion he decided to stay back and seek some employment in Trivandrum in which, owing to his superior intelligence and ability, he was successful.

He was employed as an assistant to the Attiyara Pohtty Brahmin of Vanchiyoor, a member of the Ettara Yogam or the Council of Eight and a Half who controlled the Temple of Padmanabhapuram and a man of great power and influence. While employed with the Attiyara Pohtty one evening, when the Maharajah Marthanda Varma was dining at Attiyara, he noticed Ramayyan who impressed him by dealing with a minor yet significant incident with great sense and intelligence; the pleased Marthanda Varma asked the Attiyara Pohtty to let him take the young boy into his service which being permitted Ramayyan became a servant of the Maharajah of Travancore. Ramayyan from being appointed at a minor post in the Palace management soon rose in the Maharajah's favour and was appointed Palace Rayasom or Under Secretary wherein he fulfilled his duties ably, thus when the Dalawa or Dewan of Travancore, Arumukham Pillai, died in the year 1736, Ramayyan was appointed Dalawa by the impressed Maharajah Marthanda Varma. The entire territorial extent of Travancore state namely between the River Periyar and Cape Comorin was attained with the efforts of Ramayyan Dalawa on behalf of his King Marthanda Varma.

It was due to his efforts and conquests that the kingdoms of Kayamkulam, Elayadathu Swaroopam, Ambalapuzha etc. were annexed to Travancore and the Dutch were defeated in the Battle of Colachel. Several favourable treaties were signed with the British under his Dalawaship while the Kingdom of Cochin and the Zamorin accepted the suzerainty of Travancore. Ramayyan Dalawa's two sons and one daughter moved back to Tamil Nadu after his death, his family settled in the erstwhile Pudukkottai state. The king of Pudukkotta, who had a good rapport with the Travancore state, offered Dalawa's descendants the entire village of Sithanavasal. Ramayyan Dalawa resided in the town of Mavelikkara. After the death of his wife, Ramayyan married a Malayala Kshatriya Nair lady from Mavelikkara of the Edassery family. After his death Ramayyan's descendants settled there, his Nair wife was given gifts and presents and special allowances from the Travancore government in recognition of his services to the state while his own descendants were bestowed with the honorific title of Dalawa.

The able Dalawa breathed his last in the year 1756. Marthanda Varma was saddened by his death, followed his faithful servant in 1758; the Maharajah Marthanda Varma and Ramayyan Dalawa were more than just king and minister to each other. They were intimate friends, so much that after the death of Ramayyan the Maharajah became depressed and declined in health prior to his death in 1758. Ramayyan Dalawa was one of the ablest and most popular ministers of Travancore and while on his death bed when asked how he would want his memory perpetuated he stated that he was an "instrument in the hands of my master and had no such ambitions." Ramayyan Dalawa was the main enemy of the Nampoothiris of Travancore who lived in Kayamkulam and nearby places. During the Kayamkulam war, Ramayyan Dalawa attacked and looted the Nambiathiris, high order Nampoothiris having the knowledge of Dhanurveda—the science of arms in ancient times—and who were the local rulers of'Swaroopams', a small area covering five or six villages, the owners of temples in this region for defeating Kayamkulam as there were well trained armies of Nairs under each Nambiathiris.

After winning the battle with Kayamkulam, Ramayyan downgraded them. As a protest, many Nampoothiris went to northern places and lived as Nampoothiris. Many of the Nampoothiris remained at Kayamkulam, Oachira and Haripad were down graded as'Nambiathis' the'purohithas' of local Nairs. In the meantime a new group of Brahmins were brought to these places from the Kolathu Nadu and posted as priests in many temples in these regions, they were called Thiruvalla Desis by the locals or Thiruvalla potties and they were given the status of Nampoothiris during the beginning of'Kollavarsham' 1109. Thus the erstwhile Nampoothiris in this region became second grade Nampoothiris and known as Nambiathis and as a result they hated Ramayyan Dalawa. Ward and Corner, two British surveyors who conducted a survey in erstwhile Travancore and Cochin at the beginning of 19th century observed that many Nampoothiris of Kayamkulam and surroundings migrated to northern Kerala during Ramayyan Dalawa's time. Dewan Marthanda Varma Travancore PGN Unnithan Mavelikara Marthandavarma