The State Tretyakov Gallery is an art gallery in Moscow, the foremost depository of Russian fine art in the world. The gallery's history starts in 1856 when the Moscow merchant Pavel Mikhailovich Tretyakov acquired works by Russian artists of his day with the aim of creating a collection, which might grow into a museum of national art. In 1892, Tretyakov presented his famous collection of 2,000 works to the Russian nation; the façade of the gallery building was designed by the painter Viktor Vasnetsov in a peculiar Russian fairy-tale style. It was built in 1902–04 to the south from the Moscow Kremlin. During the 20th century, the gallery expanded to several neighboring buildings, including the 17th-century church of St. Nicholas in Tolmachi; the collection contains more than 130,000 exhibits, ranging from Theotokos of Vladimir and Andrei Rublev's Trinity to the monumental Composition VII by Wassily Kandinsky and the Black Square by Kazimir Malevich. In 1977 the Gallery kept a significant part of the George Costakis collection.
In May 2012, the Tretyakov Art Gallery played host to the prestigious FIDE World Chess Championship between Viswanathan Anand and Boris Gelfand as the organizers felt the event would promote both chess and art at the same time. Pavel Tretyakov started collecting art in the middle of 1850; the founding year of the Tretyakov Gallery is considered to be 1856, when Tretyakov purchased two paintings of Russian artists: Temptation by N. G. Schilder and Skirmish with Finnish Smugglers by V. G. Kudyakov, although earlier, in 1854–1855, he had bought 11 drawings and nine pictures by Dutch Old Masters. In 1867 the Moscow City Gallery of Pavel and Sergei Tretyakov was opened; the Gallery’s collection consisted of 1,276 paintings, 471 sculptures and 10 drawings by Russian artists, as well as 84 paintings by foreign masters. In August 1892 Tretyakov presented his art gallery to the city of Moscow as a gift. In the collection at this time, there were 1,287 paintings and 518 graphic works of the Russian school, 75 paintings and eight drawings of European schools, 15 sculptures and a collection of icons.
The official opening of the museum called the Moscow City Gallery of Pavel and Sergei Tretyakov took place on August 15, 1893. The gallery was located in a mansion that the Tretykov family had purchased in 1851; as the Tretyakov collection of art grew, the residential part of the mansion filled with art and it became necessary to make additions to the mansion in order to store and display the works of art. Additions were made in 1873, 1882, 1885, 1892 and 1902–1904, when there was the famous façade, designed in 1900–1903 by architect V. Bashkirov from the drawings of the artist Viktor Vasnetsov. Construction of the façade was managed by the architect A. M. Kalmykov. In early 1913, the Moscow City Duma elected Igor Grabar as a trustee of the Tretyakov Gallery. On June 3, 1918, the Tretyakov Gallery was declared owned by Russian Federated Soviet Republic and was named the State Tretyakov Gallery. Igor Grabar was again appointed director of the museum. With Grabar’s active participation in the same year, the State Museum Fund was created, which up until 1927 remained one of the most important sources of replenishment of the gallery's collection.
In 1926 architect and academician A. V. Shchusev became the director of the gallery. In the following year the gallery acquired the neighboring house on Maly Tolmachevsky Lane. After restructuring in 1928, it housed the gallery's administration, academic departments, manuscripts department, funds and graphics staffs. In 1985–1994, an administrative building was built from the design of architect A. L. Bernstein with two floors and height equal to that of the exposition halls. In 1928 serious renovations were made to the gallery to provide ventilation. In 1929 electricity was installed. In 1929 the church of St. Nicholas in Tolmachi was closed, in 1932 the building was given to the gallery and became a storage facility for paintings and sculptures; the church was connected to the exposition halls and a top floor was built, specially designed for exhibiting a painting by A. A. Ivanov,The Appearance of Christ to the People. A transition space was built between rooms located on either side of the main staircase.
This ensured the continuity of the view of exposure. The gallery began to develop a new concept of accommodating exhibits. In 1936, a new two floor building was constructed, located on the north side of the main building – it is known as the Schusevsky building; these halls were first used for exhibitions, since 1940 have been included in the main route of exposure. From the first days of the Great War, the gallery's personnel began dismantling the exhibition, as well as those of other museums in Moscow, in preparation for evacuating during wartime. Paintings were rolled on wooden shafts, covered with tissue paper, placed in boxes, sheathed with waterproof material. In the middle of the summer of 1941 a train of 17 wagons traveled from Moscow and brought the collection to Novosibirsk; the gallery was not reopened in Moscow until May 1945, upon the conclusion of the Great War. In 1956, in honor of the 100th anniversary of the Tretyakov Gallery, the Alexander Ivanov Hall was completed. From 1980 to 1992, the director of the Tretyakov Gallery was Y. K. Korolev.
Because of the increased number of visitors, Korolev was engaged in expanding the area of exposition. In 1983, construction work began to expand the gallery. In 1985 the Depository, a repository of works of art and restoration workshops, was commis
Carapa guianensis is a species of tree in the family Meliaceae known by the common names andiroba or crabwood. Andiroba is native to the Amazon and is used by the indigenous populations of the northern region of Brazil, it grows in Central America and the Caribbean. It is a tall tree with dense foliage and grows in the tropical rainforest along the edge of rivers; the timber is used in flooring. While the wood is not classified as genuine mahogany, it is related to the mahogany family and is similar in appearance; the oil contained in the andiroba almond, known as crab oil or carap oil, is light yellow and bitter. When subjected to a temperature below 25 °C, it solidifies, with a consistency like that of petroleum jelly, it contains olein and glycerin. The oil and fats of the almond are extracted and used for the production of insect repellent and compounds for traditional medicine, it is used in Brazil to protect furniture from termites and other wood-chewing insects
Edward Harry William Meyerstein was an English writer and scholar. He wrote poetry and short stories, a Life of Thomas Chatterton. Meyerstein was born in Hampstead, the only son of Edward William Meyerstein and his wife Jessy Louise Solomon, his father was a merchant and stockbroker, generous benefactor to the Royal Free Hospital became High Sheriff of Kent and was knighted in 1938. Meyerstein was educated at Holly Hill Hampstead, went to board at St Cyprian's School, Eastbourne. At St Cyprian's, he met the future painter Cedric Morris, started collecting manuscripts from local bookshops and won the Harrow History Prize. With this under his belt, his mother sent him to Harrow. Brought up as a Protestant, he was baptised before going to Harrow, with George Adolphus Storey the painter as his godfather. After Harrow, he went to Magdalen College, where he had many friends including Wilfred Rowland Childe and John Wain, his verse was published in Oxford Poetry 1910–13 and volumes. After Oxford, Meyerstein spent some time in Germany before starting work in the manuscript room of the British Museum.
In the autumn of 1914 he enlisted in the Royal Dublin Fusiliers, but was discharged as "not to become an efficient soldier". He returned to the British Museum where he stayed until Armistice Day 1918, he was becoming discontented with regular work, but a visit from his mother became the final straw and he resigned. Here he based his short novel "Bollond", which although written in 1920 remained unpublished until 1958, after his death, it is the story of a young man's misadventures adrift in the West End of London in the last months of the War. Reginald Bollond, the central character, unwittingly attracts the attention of a series of homosexuals, including a cocaine dealer who wants to set him up as a rent boy. Meyerstein decided to develop his interests in the arts, he considered himself a man of letters thereafter. Apart from occasional holidays in the English countryside and in Europe, he spent most of his life in his rooms at Greys Inn Place, he wrote "A Life of Thomas Chatterton" – the promising poet who committed suicide at an early age – in 1930 and produced various works of poetry which were published in collections.
Occasional music criticism appeared under his name in the journal Music Survey. He made important bequests to the British Library, he made significant bequests to the English Language and Literature Faculty and the Life and Environmental Sciences Faculty at Oxford University. These bequests provide funds to this day, his will established the Chatterton Lectures on Poetry: an annual lecture to be given by a lecturer, under the age of 40, on the life and works of a deceased English poet. An inaugural lecture on Meyerstein himself was delivered in 1955 by the historian Lionel Butler, husband of Gwendoline Butler, he is buried at St John-at-Hampstead in the churchyard. "I suspect – but you mustn't tell anybody – that I was born out of Jane Austen by Apuleius." E. H. W. M; the Daily Telegraph commenting on Meyerstein's autobiography "Of My Early Life" noted "Out of this strange obsessed life came strange obsessed novels and poems which could have been written by nobody else". John Wain in his own autobiography "Sprightly Running", recalled of the neurotic poet that he emerged from Oxford with a backward looking Johnsonian determination to dig in and cherish the old values while the tide of modernism swept over him.
He described him as a disconcerting friend, with a taste for rather cruel or sinister jokes and recorded some strange miserly habits such as reusing old Christmas cards. Meyerstein himself in his autobiography makes no secret of his taste for flagellation, his editor Rowland Watson quotes a letter recording a beating by an assistant master at his Prep school. While the master said his conceit must be whipped out of him, Meyerstein comments "Poor man – he was only whipping it in, had he but known", his passion for collecting extended to an extraordinary collection of whips from many countries, which were discovered under his bed after his death and burned. Symphonies poems Grobo The Pleasure Lover: Being some account of the early life and fortunes of Terence Duke A Life of Thomas Chatterton New Symphonies poems The Pageant and Other Stories Selected Poems A Boy of Clare poems Eclogues poems Adventures by Sea of Edward Coxere editor The Delphic Charioteer poems Tom Tallion novel Verse Letters to Five Friends Of My Early Life autobiography Bolland and Other Stories Some Poems Thomas Moult The Best Poems of 1931 John Gawsworth Edwardian Poets Poems of Today 1938 3rd Series Some Letters of E. H. W. Meyerstein Rowland Leonard Watson Lionel Butler, E. H. W. Meyerstein 1889–1952 Poems of Today, third series, p. xxviii.
National Portrait Gallery