Kitay-gorod (Moscow Metro)
Kitay-gorod is a Moscow Metro station complex in the Tverskoy District, Central Administrative Okrug, Russia. It is on the Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya lines. Kitay-gorod is one of the four stations within the Moscow Metro network providing a cross-platform interchange; until November 1990, the station was called Ploshchad Nogina, for the square, named in honor of Viktor Nogin, the prominent Bolshevik. After the city renamed the southern part of Ploshchad Nogina to Ploshchad Varvarskiye Vorot, the station was renamed for the historic Kitai-gorod area; the station was to open along the intersection of the two lines when their connecting points in the centre would link the Zhdanovskiy and Krasnopresnenskiy radii and the Kaluzhskiy and Rizhskiy radii in mid-1970s. However the overcrowding of the ring line due to passengers travelling between the two lines it was decided to accelerate works on this transfer point prematurely; the first trains arrived from both Kaluzhskaya and Zhdanovskaya lines on 30 December 1970.
Because Ploshad Nogina was a terminus for both lines, trains would terminate at the eastern hall and go off into the tunnels, where piston junctions were installed for both lines, come back on the western hall. For the transfer purposes, it was possible for passengers not to depart the trains when they crossed the platform on the eastern hall. On 31 December 1971, the Kaluzhskaya line linked up with the Rizhskaya to form the Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya line. Trains from that line began operating in normal thoroughfare, though it was still possible to go on the Zdanovskaya line by boarding on the eastern platform; the transfer point entered its full operational regime only in late 1975 when on the 17 December and Krasnopresnenskaya lines connected to form the Zhdanovsko-Krasnopresnenskaya Line. Consisting of two separate, parallel station halls united via a transfer corridor and two combined vestibules, the station was built in an era when decorative architecture once again began to emerge and the combined effort of the architects Strelkov and Moloshenok as well as decorative authors Rusin and Bodniek, whose efforts, amongst other places, are seen on the metallic artworks on the walls of both halls.
The western hall, nicknamed Kristall is decorated with two rows of angular pylons faced with light gray marble. Large metal cornicles running along the base of the ceiling hide the illumination lamps; the walls are faced with the floor with gray granite. The eastern hall is nicknamed Garmoshka, because of its pylons which look like a stretched accordion parallel to the length of the hall; the walls are faced with the floor with bright granite. Heritage of the station's original name, Ploshchad Nogina, can still be found midway in the transfer passage, where a bust of Viktor Nogin still stands; the station serves northbound trains heading towards Medvedkovo and Planernaya come via the eastern platform and southbound trains heading towards Novoyasenevskaya and Vykhino coming via the western one. For passengers wishing to travel in the opposite direction, it is required to use a transfer corridor linking the two platforms. Two underground vestibules allow transfer to the surface; the southern vestibule is located under Slavyanskaya Square and is interlinked with multiple subways.
Both escalator tunnels follow directly to the vestibule. The northern one is located under the Staraya Square with subway linkages to the Maroseika street along with others; the passengers must first travel up a flight of stairs from the two halls before turning left and travelling for a while and go up on a combined escalator. This arrangement was purpose-built for a transfer to the future Maroseika station of the Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya Line, whose tunnels pass north of the Kitay-gorod station
Medvedkovo (Moscow Metro)
Medvedkovo is a Moscow Metro station in Severnoye Medvedkovo District, North-Eastern Administrative Okrug, Moscow. It is on the Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line serving as its northeastern terminus; the station opened on 29 September 1978. Medvedkovo was designed by architects Nina Natalya Samoilova; the station features flared pillars faced with pinkish marble and strips of stainless steel. The outer walls of the station are coated with red marble and interlocking triangles of anodized aluminum punctuated with plaques by M. Alekseev depicting northern wildlife. Entrances to the station are located on either side of Shirokaya street just west of Grekova Street
Chistyye Prudy (Moscow Metro)
Chistyye Prudy is a Moscow Metro station in the Basmanny District, Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow. It is between Lubyanka and Krasnye Vorota stations. Chistye Prudy was opened on 15 May 1935 as a part of the first segment of the Metro; the station lies beneath Myasnitskaya Street, close to Turgenevskaya Square and the Clean Ponds, after which the station was named. Though planned to be a three-vaulted station with a full-length central hall, Chistye Prudy was built instead according to a London Underground type design with two passages at either end of the station connecting the platforms; the outer platform vaults were finished to give the impression that a central hall did in fact exist, with what appeared to be a row of dark marble pylons. However, all of the archways except those at either end of the platform were barricaded; the architect of the initial station was Nikolai Kolli who worked with Le Corbusier on the nearby Tsentrosoyuz building. During World War II the station was closed and its platforms were fenced off with plywood for use as the headquarters of the Joint Staff and PVO Air Defence.
All trains bypassed this station. Chistye Prudy's central hall was built in 1971 so that the station could become a transfer point to the Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line; the architects for this project were N. Shukhareva, L. Popov, A. Fokina; the new portion of the station was finished to resemble the original sections as as possible, maintaining the its original character. Escalators were built in the centre of the platform to connect to Turgenevskaya. Chistye Prudy is finished with dark grey Ufalei and white Koelga marble, with a dark granite platform. In 1989 the station's outer walls were refinished with marble rather than ceramic tile to approximate the original design more closely; the station was named Kirovskaya from its opening until 1990, there is still a bronze bust of Sergey Kirov at the end of the platform. In 1992 it was called Myasnitskaya, but renamed a few days into its current name; the station retains its original entrance, a glazed art deco pavilion, situated at start of the Chistoprudny boulevard with entrances from both sides: to the ponds on the boulevard and towards the Myasnitskiye Vorota square.
The pavilion links up to the subterranean ticket hall. During the reconstruction in 1971, a subway was built directly linking the underground space with the new network of entrances for the Turgenevskaya station, which makes it possible to walk from one station vestibule to the other without descending into the platform halls; the original 3 N-type escalators were replaced in 1995 by ET-3M models, during which the pavilion and vestibule underwent renovation. The station's transfer to Turgenevskaya of the Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line is done via a tunnel that begins underneath Chisye Prudy's platform. Access to, gained by two sets of two 9.4 metre high LT-5 escalators, opened 5 January 1972. Transfer to the Sretensky Bulvar station of the Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya Line, opened on 13 January 2008, is accomplished by 3 E-25T escalators which begin at the northern end of the central hall and descend into the newer station; the name "Chistye Prudy" refers to the neighborhood surrounding the Metro station.
This area is sometimes called Chistye Pokrovka. In the 16th century, Pokrovskye Vorota stood at the current intersection of Pokrovka Street and Chistoprudny Boulevard; the Chistye Prudy neighborhood is famous for the beautiful Chistoprudny Boulevard and the pond after which the area is called—Chisty Prud. In medieval times, several ponds stood on the location of the current single pond, they were fittingly called Griyaznye Prudy. Under Peter the Great's reign, his friend and advisor Menshikov dredged the ponds, unified them into one pond and renamed them Chistye Prudy. There is the only tram line in Moscow Center near there
Turgenevskaya is a station on the Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line of the Moscow Metro. It was named after Turgenevskaya Square; the station was designed by Yu. Vdovin, I. Petukhova and opened on 5 January 1972. Turgenevskaya has simple white marble pylons which follow the curve of the station tube and a ceiling composed of reinforced plastic panels. Metal cornices run the length of the station along the base of the ceiling; the walls, which are faced with white and black marble, are decorated with chased brass panels by Kh. Rysin and D. Bodniek. From this station, passengers can transfer to Sokolnicheskaya Line at Chistye Prudy station and to Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya Line at Sretensky Bulvar station
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers; the most common type of bus is the single-deck rigid bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses, smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular driver's licence. Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport, scheduled coach transport, school transport, private hire, or tourism. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, electric trolleybuses in 1882; the first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, electric buses, as well as ones powered by compressed natural gas or biodiesel.
As of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a clipped form of the dative plural of omnis-e; the theoretical full name is in French voiture omnibus. The name originates from a mass-transport service started in 1823 by a French corn-mill owner named Stanislas Baudry in Richebourg, a suburb of Nantes. A by-product of his mill was hot water, thus next to it he established a spa business. In order to encourage customers he started a horse-drawn transport service from the city centre of Nantes to his establishment; the first vehicles stopped in front of the shop of a hatter named Omnés, which displayed a large sign inscribed "Omnes Omnibus", a pun on his Latin-sounding surname, omnes being the male and female nominative and accusative form of the Latin adjective omnis-e, combined with omnibus, the dative plural form meaning "for all", thus giving his shop the name "Omnés for all". His transport scheme was a huge success, although not as he had intended as most of his passengers did not visit his spa.
He turned the transport service into his principal lucrative business venture and closed the mill and spa. Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname "omnibus" to the vehicle. Having invented the successful concept Baudry moved to Paris and launched the first omnibus service there in April 1828. A similar service was introduced in London in 1829. Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation; the first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833. Steam carriages were much less to overturn, they travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages, they were much cheaper to run, caused much less damage to the road surface due to their wide tyres. However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns and cities, 10 mph in the country.
In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept. Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an "...arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus...would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of the street to the other, two wires hanging from these suspenders. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled in the same year after the demonstration. Max Schiemann opened a passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
In Siegerland, two passenger bus lines ran but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno, Wales. Daimler produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company, first used on the streets of London on 23 April 1898; the vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 km/h and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air pl
Marksistskaya (Moscow Metro)
Marksistskaya is a station of the Moscow Metro's Kalininsko-Solntsevskaya Line. It was opened along with the initial segment on 30 December 1979; the station is named after the Marksistskaya Street and its architectural theme is the purity of Marxist ideals. Architects Nina Alyoshina, V. Volovich and N. Samoylova took a standard deep level column tri-vault station and applied on overall red theme that includes red Burovshina marble to the columns and a pink Gazgan to the station walls; the station serves as a transfer point between the Taganskaya station of the Koltsevaya Line and the Taganskaya station of the Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya Line forming a busy three station transfer point. Transfer to the former is by the direct escalator from the end of Marksistskaya; the station is located on the eastern edge of the Taganka Square, its underground vestibule is situated on the influx of the Taganskaya and Marksistskaya Streets into the square with surface subway access available to both sides of latter street and to the open plaza on the apex of their adjoinment
Sretensky Bulvar is a Moscow Metro station in the Meshchansky District, Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow. It is located between Trubnaya and Chkalovskaya stations. Sretensky Bulvar opened on 29 December 2007 after more than 25 years since groundbreaking; the construction, which began in the late 1980s, has stalled as a result of continuous lack of funds. Only in 2004 did proper funding resume, which allowed finishing the construction; the station opening had been long-awaited, as it is an interchange: Chistye Prudy of the Sokolnicheskaya Line and Turgenevskaya of the Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line. The projected passenger dynamics for the station are 10,800 per hour on entry and 20,100 on exit, which allows for a dramatic occupancy decrease on the Koltsevaya Line on the Komsomolskaya — Kurskaya path; the station, designed by architects N. Shumakov and G. Mun, features a standard Lyublinskaya pylon-trivault design with the base set as a monolith concrete plate. White fibreglass is used on the vaults of the central and the platform halls as well as the escalator and transfer corridor ceilings, which doubles the hydroisolation.
It was thought that the station's main decorative feature would include a set of three metre high bronze and rock sculptures in the niches of all 30 pylons. Made by leading Russian sculptors, they would stand on granite pedestals with luminescent lamps lighting down on top of them; however it has emerged that this would be too costly, hence the pylon design was altered to now include a set of metallic artworks on themes of the Boulevard Ring. White marble covers the floors, whilst flooring are done with granite. There are two escalator tunnels leading from both ends of the station: one directly to Chistye Prudy station, the other to a combined transfer to Turgenevskaya as well as a diversion to a second escalator tunnel to the surface; the combined vestibule will be located underground the Turgenevskaya Square at the beginning of Academician Sakharov Avenue and next to the Sretensky Boulevard for which the station is named. In an effort to conserve the spendings and time, the vestibule and the escalator tunnel to the surface will open later