Trevor Howard

Trevor Wallace Howard-Smith, known as Trevor Howard, was an English actor. After varied stage work, he achieved star status with his role in the film Brief Encounter, followed by The Third Man; this led to many popular appearances on film and TV. Howard was born in Cliftonville, England the son of Mabel Grey and Arthur John Howard-Smith. Although Howard claimed to have been born in 1916- the year quoted by most reference sources- he was born in 1913, his father was an insurance underwriter for Lloyd's of London, serving as representative in Colombo, Sri Lanka and elsewhere. He was educated at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. In 1933, at the end of his first year, he was chosen as best actor in his class for his performance as Benedict in a school production of Much Ado About Nothing. While Howard was still studying, he made his professional debut at the Gate Theatre in Revolt in a Reformatory; when he left school he worked on stage, including in Sheridan's The Rivals, several performances at Stratford-upon-Avon, in a two-year run in the original production of French Without Tears.

Although stories of his courageous wartime service in the British Army's Royal Corps of Signals earned him much respect among fellow actors and fans alike, files held in the Public Record Office reveal that he had been discharged from the British Army in 1943 for mental instability and having a "psychopathic personality". The story, which surfaced in Terence Pettigrew's biography of the actor, published by Peter Owen in 2001, was denied by Howard's widow, actress Helen Cherry. Confronted with official records, she told The Daily Telegraph that Howard's mother had claimed he was a holder of the Military Cross, she added her husband "had nothing to be ashamed of" with an honourable military record.. Checks of the London gazette show that rather than being in the Royal Corps of Signals, T. W. Howard-smith was commissioned into the South Staffordshire Regiment, but by the time of his discharge was still a 2nd Lieutenant, as opposed to the stories saying that he left as a captain. Commissioning- Relinquishment of commission- After a theatrical role in The Recruiting Officer, Howard began working in films with an uncredited part The Way Ahead, directed by Carol Reed.

He was in a big stage hit, A Soldier for Christmas and a production of Eugene O'Neill's Anna Christie. Howard received his first credit for The Way to the Stars. Howard's performance in The Way Ahead came to the attention of David Lean, looking for someone to play the role of Alec in Brief Encounter. Lean recommended him to Noël Coward, who agreed with the suggestion, the success of the film launched Howard's film career, he followed it with I See a Dark Stranger with Deborah Kerr, Green for Danger, starring Alastair Sim. Both films were successful; that year British exhibitors voted Howard the 10th most popular British star at the box office. So Well Remembered was made with American talent and money and was a hit in Britain but lost money overall. Howard was reunited with Lean for The Passionate Friends. However, The Third Man, which Howard starred in alongside Orson Welles and Joseph Cotten for Carol Reed from a story by Graham Greene, was a huge international success, became the film of which Howard was most proud.

During filming in Vienna, Howard was keen to get to his favourite bar for a drink as soon as filming had finished for the evening. On one occasion Howard was in too much of a hurry to change out of his uniform as a British Army major. After a few drinks, he got into an argument and attracted the attention of the Military Police who detained him for impersonating a British Officer; the MPs, being non commissioned officers had to summon an officer to arrest him. On the lieutenant's arrival the matter was settled by an apology. Howard was the lead in Golden Salamander and played Peter Churchill in Odette with Anna Neagle, a big hit in Britain, it was directed by Herbert Wilcox. He loaned Howard to Betty Box and Ralph Thomas to make The Clouded Yellow, a popular thriller with Jean Simmons; these films helped Howard be voted the 2nd biggest British star at the box office in 1951 and the 5th biggest in 1951. Howard was reunited with Carol Reed for Outcast of the Islands and he made a war film, Gift Horse.

That year he made his final appearance in Britain's ten most popular actors, coming in at number nine. He was in another adaptation of The Heart of the Matter. Greene wrote and produced Howard's next film, the British-Italian The Stranger's Hand. Howard was in a French movie, The Lovers of Lisbon supported Jose Ferrer in a war film from Warwick Pictures, The Cockleshell Heroes, popular in Britain. Howard's first Hollywood film was Run for the Sun, where he played a villain to Richard Widmark's hero, he made a cameo in Around the World in 80 Days and again played a villain to an American star, Victor Mature, in Warwick's Interpol. Howard starred in Manuela supported William Holden in Carol Reed's The Key, for which he received the Bes

Fee tail

In English common law, fee tail or entail is a form of trust established by deed or settlement which restricts the sale or inheritance of an estate in real property and prevents the property from being sold, devised by will, or otherwise alienated by the tenant-in-possession, instead causes it to pass automatically by operation of law to an heir determined by the settlement deed. The term fee tail is from Medieval Latin feodum talliatum, which means "cut fee" and is in contrast to "fee simple" where no such restriction exists and where the possessor has an absolute title in the property which he can bequeath or otherwise dispose of as he wishes. Equivalent legal concepts exist or existed in many other European countries and elsewhere; the fee tail allowed a patriarch to perpetuate his blood-line, family-name and armorials in the persons of a series of powerful and wealthy male descendants. By keeping his estate intact in the hands of one heir alone, in an ideally indefinite and pre-ordained chain of succession, his own wealth and family honour would not be dissipated amongst several male lines, as became the case for example in Napoleonic France by operation of the Napoleonic Code which gave each child the legal right to inherit an equal share of the patrimony, where a great landowning family could be reduced in a few generations to a series of small-holders or peasant farmers.

It therefore approaches the true corporation, a legal body or person which does not die and continues in existence and can hold wealth indefinitely. Indeed, as a form of trust, whilst the individual trustees may die, replacements are appointed and the trust itself continues, ideally indefinitely. In England seamless successions were made from patriarch to patriarch, the smoothness of which were enhanced by baptising the eldest son and heir with his father's Christian name for several generations, for example the FitzWarin family, all named Fulk; such indefinite inalienable land-holdings were soon seen as restrictive on the optimum productive ability of land, converted to deer-parks or pleasure grounds by the wealthy tenant-in-possession, damaging to the nation as a whole, thus laws against perpetuities were enacted, which restricted entails to a maximum number of lives. An entail had the effect of disallowing illegitimate children from inheriting, it created complications for many propertied families from about the late 17th to the early 19th century, leaving many individuals wealthy in land but in debt due to annuities chargeable on the estate payable to the patriarch's widow and younger children, where the patriarch was swayed by sentiment not to establish a strict concentration of all his wealth in his heir leaving his other beloved relatives destitute.

In such cases the generosity of the settlor left the entailed estate as an uneconomical enterprise during times when the estate's fluctuating agricultural income had to provide for fixed sum annuities. Such impoverished tenants-in-possession were unable to realise in cash any part of their land or to offer the property as security for a loan, to pay such annuities, unless sanctioned by private Act of Parliament allowing such sale, which expensive and time-consuming mechanism was resorted to; the beneficial owner of the property in fact had only a life interest in it, albeit an absolute right to the income it generated, the legal owners being the trustees of the settlement, with the remainder passing intact to the next successor or heir in law. Fee tail was established during feudal times by landed gentry to attempt to ensure that the high social standing of the family, as represented by a single patriarch, continued indefinitely; the concentration of the family's wealth into the hands of a single representative was essential to support this process.

Unless the heir had himself inherited the personal and intellectual strengths of the original great patriarch a great warrior, which alone had brought him from obscurity to greatness, he would soon sink again into obscurity, required wealth to maintain his social standing. This feature of English gentry and aristocracy differs from the aristocracy which existed in pre-Revolution France, where all sons of a nobleman inherited his title and were thus inescapably members of a separate noble caste in society. In England all younger sons of a nobleman were born as mere gentlemen and commoners, without the support of wealth could descend into obscurity, the eldest son alone being a nobleman. On this eldest son was concentrated the honour of the family, to him alone was granted all its wealth to support his role in that regard, by the process of the fee tail; the Statute of Westminster II, passed in 1285, fixed the form of this estate. The new law was formally called the statute De Donis Conditionalibus.

Fee tail was never popular with the monarchy, the merchant class and many holders of entailed estates themselves who wished to sell their land. Fee tail as a legal estate in England was abolished by the Law of Property Act 1925. A fee tail can still exist in England and Wales as an equitable interest, behind a strict settlement. A tenant in tail in possession can bar his fee tail by a simple disentailing deed, which does not now have to be enrolled. A tenant in tail in reversion (i.e. a future interest where the property is sub

17th Canadian Parliament

The 17th Canadian Parliament was in session from September 8, 1930, until August 14, 1935. The membership was set by the 1930 federal election on July 28, 1930, it changed only somewhat due to resignations and by-elections until it was dissolved prior to the 1935 election, it was controlled by a Conservative Party majority under Prime Minister Richard Bedford Bennett and the 15th Canadian Ministry. The Official Opposition was the Liberal Party, led by William Lyon Mackenzie King; the Speaker was first George Black, James Langstaff Bowman. See List of Canadian electoral districts 1924-1933 for a list of the ridings in this parliament, it was the third longest parliament in Canadian history. There were six sessions of the 17th Parliament: Following is a full list of members of the seventeenth Parliament listed first by province by electoral district. Electoral districts denoted by an asterisk indicates. Government of Canada. "15th Ministry". Guide to Canadian Ministries since Confederation. Privy Council Office.

Retrieved 2006-11-09. Government of Canada. "17th Parliament". Members of the House of Commons: 1867 to Date: By Parliament. Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on 2006-12-20. Retrieved 2006-11-30. Government of Canada. "Duration of Sessions". Library of Parliament. Retrieved 2006-05-12. Government of Canada. "General Elections". Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on 2006-05-04. Retrieved 2006-05-12. Government of Canada. "Key Dates for each Parliament". Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on 2005-09-14. Retrieved 2006-05-12. Government of Canada. "Leaders of the Opposition in the House of Commons". Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on 2007-03-11. Retrieved 2006-05-12. Government of Canada. "Prime Ministers of Canada". Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on 27 April 2006. Retrieved 2006-05-12. Government of Canada. "Speakers". Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on 2006-09-17. Retrieved 2006-05-12