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Triangulum

Triangulum is a small constellation in the northern sky. Its name is Latin for "triangle", derived from its three brightest stars, which form a long and narrow triangle. Known to the ancient Babylonians and Greeks, Triangulum was one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy; the celestial cartographers Johann Bayer and John Flamsteed catalogued the constellation's stars, giving six of them Bayer designations. The white stars Beta and Gamma Trianguli, of apparent magnitudes 3.00 and 4.00 form the base of the triangle and the yellow-white Alpha Trianguli, of magnitude 3.41, the apex. Iota Trianguli is a notable double star system, there are three star systems with known planets located in Triangulum; the constellation contains several galaxies, the brightest and nearest of, the Triangulum Galaxy or Messier 33—a member of the Local Group. The first quasar observed, 3C 48 lies within the boundaries of Triangulum. In the Babylonian star catalogues, together with Gamma Andromedae, formed the constellation known as MULAPIN "The Plough".

It is notable as the first constellation presented on a pair of tablets containing canonical star lists that were compiled around 1000 BC, the MUL. APIN; the Plough was the first constellation of the "Way of Enlil"—that is, the northernmost quarter of the Sun's path, which corresponds to the 45 days on either side of summer solstice. Its first appearance in the pre-dawn sky in February marked the time to begin spring ploughing in Mesopotamia; the Ancient Greeks called Triangulum Deltoton, as the constellation resembled an upper-case Greek letter delta. It was transliterated by Roman writers later Latinised as Deltotum. Eratosthenes linked it with the Nile Delta, while the Roman writer Hyginus associated it with the triangular island of Sicily known as Trinacria due to its shape, it was called Sicilia, because the Romans believed Ceres, patron goddess of Sicily, begged Jupiter to place the island in the heavens. Greek astronomers such as Hipparchos and Ptolemy called it Trigonon, it was Romanized as Trigonum.

Other names referring to its shape include Triquetrum. Alpha and Beta Trianguli were called Al Mīzān, Arabic for "The Scale Beam". In Chinese astronomy, Gamma Andromedae and neighbouring stars including Beta and Delta Trianguli were called Teen Ta Tseang Keun, representing honour in astrology and a great general in mythology; the 17th-century German celestial cartographer Johann Bayer called the constellation Triplicitas and Orbis terrarum tripertitus, for the three regions Europe and Africa. Triangulus Septentrionalis was a name used to distinguish it from Triangulum Australe, the Southern Triangle. Polish astronomer Johannes Hevelius excised three faint stars—6, 10 and 12 Trianguli—to form the new constellation of Triangulum Minus in his 1690 Firmamentum Sobiescianum, renaming the original as Triangulum Majus; the smaller constellation was not recognised by the International Astronomical Union when the constellations were established in the 1920s. A small constellation, Triangulum is bordered by Andromeda to the north and west, Pisces to the west and south, Aries to the south, Perseus to the east.

The centre of the constellation lies halfway between Alpha Arietis. The three-letter abbreviation for the constellation, as adopted by the IAU in 1922, is "Tri"; the official constellation boundaries, as set by Eugène Delporte in 1930, are defined as a polygon of 14 segments. In the equatorial coordinate system, the right ascension coordinates of these borders lie between 01h 31.3m and 02h 50.4m, while the declination coordinates are between 25.60° and 37.35°. Covering 132 square degrees and 0.320% of the night sky, Triangulum ranks 78th of the 88 constellations in size. Bayer catalogued five stars in the constellation, giving them the Bayer designations Alpha to Epsilon. John Flamsteed added Eta and four Roman letters. Flamsteed gave 16 stars Flamsteed designations, of which numbers 1 and 16 are not used—1's coordinates were in error as there was no star present at the location that corresponds to any star in his Catalogus Britannicus. Baily noted that 16 Trianguli was closer to Aries and included it in the latter constellation.

Three stars make up the long narrow triangle. The brightest member is the white giant star Beta Trianguli of apparent magnitude 3.00, lying 127 light-years distant from Earth. It is a spectroscopic binary system; the secondary is poorly known, but calculated to be a yellow-white F-type main-sequence star around 1.4 solar masses. The two orbit around a common centre of gravity every 31 days, are surrounded by a ring of dust that extends from 50 to 400 AU away from the stars; the second-brightest star, the yellow-white subgiant star Alpha Trianguli with a close dimmer companion, is known as Caput Trianguli or Ras al Muthallath, is at the apex of the triangle. It lies around 7 degrees north-northwest of Alpha Arietis. Making up the triangle is Gamma Trianguli, a white main sequence star of spectral type A1Vnn of apparent magnitude 4.00 about 112 light-years from Earth. It is around double the size around 33 times as luminous as the sun and rotates rapidly. Like Beta, it is surrounded by a dusty de

Choices (magazine)

Choices is an online peer-reviewed magazine published by the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association for readers interested in the policy and management of agriculture, the food industry, natural resources, rural communities, the environment. Choices is available free online, it is one of three outreach products offered by AAEA, along with the more timely Policy Issues and the forthcoming Shared Materials section of the AAEA Web site. Choices was founded in 1986 as a print magazine. In 2002, the print version was discontinued and it was published online thereafter; each issue contains eight articles divided among two overarching themes. A guest editor is selected for each theme, who helps edit the articles for that issue. Articles may be submitted directly, independent of any theme; these articles were published under the heading of Grab Bag and are now called Submitted Articles. The current Editors of Choices are Kynda Curtis, Utah State University and Alison Davis University of Kentucky.

The Technical Editor is Precision Edits. Choices Home Page Choices Submission Information Policy Issues AAEA Outreach Products AAEA Home Page

Human trafficking in Ghana

Ghana is a country of origin and destination for women and children subjected to trafficking in persons forced labor and forced prostitution. The nonconsensual exploitation of Ghanaian citizens children, is more common than the trafficking of foreign migrants; the movement of internally trafficked children is either from rural to urban areas, or from one rural area to another, as from farming to fishing communities. Ghanaian boys and girls are subjected to conditions of forced labor within the country in fishing, domestic servitude, street hawking, begging and agriculture. Ghanaian girls, to a lesser extent boys, are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation within Ghana. Internal labor traffickers are freelance operators, may be known to members of the source community. Uninformed parents may not understand that by cooperating with trafficking offenders, they may expose their children to bonded placement, coercion, or outright sale. Media reports during the year cited 50 Ghanaian women recruited for work in Russia and subsequently forced into prostitution.

Women and girls from China, Nigeria, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso are subjected to forced prostitution after arriving in Ghana. Citizens from other West African countries are subjected to forced labor in Ghana in agriculture or involuntary domestic servitude. Trafficking victims endure extremes of harsh treatment, including long hours, debt bondage, lack of pay, physical risks, sexual abuse; the Government of Ghana does not comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. However, it is making significant efforts to do so, despite limited resources. Ghana increased its law enforcement efforts by prosecuting and convicting an increased number of traffickers, including the first convictions relating to forced child labor in the Lake Volta fishing industry; the Ghanaian Police partnered with Interpol to host regional training for law enforcement officials from Anglophone Africa, the government took steps to establish four regional anti-trafficking units to manage cases more at the regional level.

In August 2009, the president appointed new members to the Human Trafficking Management Board, disbanded when the previous government left office in January 2009. However, the government did not demonstrate increased efforts to ensure that victims receive adequate protection, such as funding a shelter for trafficking victims, or increasing assistance to NGOs or international organizations to provide trafficking victim care; the U. S. State Department's Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons placed Ghana in "Tier 2 Watchlist" in 2017; the Government of Ghana demonstrated improved anti-human trafficking law enforcement efforts in 2010. Ghana prohibits all forms of trafficking through its 2005 Human Trafficking Act, which prescribes a minimum penalty of five years' imprisonment for all forms of trafficking; this penalty is sufficiently stringent and commensurate with penalties prescribed for other serious offenses, such as rape. In July 2009, the Ghanaian parliament passed a law amending the definition of trafficking to give the HTA uniformity with the language of the 2000 UN TIP Protocol.

The Ghana Police Service maintains an Anti-human trafficking Unit in its Criminal Investigation Division, which opened 31 trafficking investigations in 2009. The government initiated 15 trafficking prosecutions during the year, an increase over five prosecutions in 2008, convicted six traffickers in 2009, an increase over the one conviction obtained in 2008; the AHTU claimed credit for repatriating 20 child victims of trafficking to neighboring countries. According to the AHTU, 61 percent of all trafficking cases reported in Ghana were labor-related, while 39 percent were sexual exploitation cases. In June 2009, the government convicted three Chinese nationals of trafficking eight Chinese women to Ghana for exploitation in prostitution; the Accra Circuit Court sentenced the primary trafficking offender to 17 years' imprisonment, including 10 years for human trafficking and two years for conspiracy. His brother received two years for conspiracy. In a second case, an offender received a jail sentence of eight years' imprisonment for trafficking three Ghanaian children to Côte d'Ivoire.

These sentences were well above the mandatory five year minimum. In January 2010, the Agona Swedru Circuit Court convicted a Ghanaian woman for enslaving two boys, ages six and eight, from the Central Region to fish on Lake Volta; the woman was sentenced to nine years' imprisonment – the first prosecution of a domestic trafficking offender in Ghana. The government joined with neighboring countries, as well as international organizations and foreign embassies, to prosecute transnational cases, most in a successful bid to break up a trafficking and prostitution ring that sent at least 50 Ghanaian women to Russia for the sex trade; the government demonstrated overall improved victim protection efforts during the year. The government did not employ formal procedures for the identification of victims among vulnerable groups, such as women in prostitution or children at work sites, though it did show increased efforts at ad hoc identification of such victims; the government continued to operate dedicated trafficking shelters for victims of forced labor – in Osu and Medina in the greater Accra region, in the Atebubu Amant District Assembly in the Brong Ahafo region – but lacked shelter facilities for victims of sex trafficking.

The government provided an unknown amount of funding for these shelters. Ghanaian authorities referred most identified victims to shelters operated by NGOs. According to the AHTU, victims received protective support during and after trials, and

Maharani Swarnamoyee

Maharani Swarnamoyee, C. I. was the Maharani of Cossimbazar Raj from 1844 to 1897. She was a philanthropist in the period of the Bengal Renaissance. Swarnamoyee was married to Raja Krishnath Rai of the Cossimbazar royal family, they had two daughters and Saraswati. Her husband died in 1844. After his death, she became Maharani of Cossimbazar Raj estate. Krishnath was Maharaja of Cossimbazar from 1832 to 1844. To supply pure water for the residents of the town of Berhampore, the Swarnamoyee Water-works were constructed at a cost of Rs. 270,000, of which Rs. 162,000 was donated by Maharani Swarnamoyee. The project was inaugurated by Sir John Woodburn Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, on 31 July 31, 1899. Swarnamoyee donated Rs. 1,000 to Calcutta Chandni Hospital in 1871, Rs. 8,000 to Native Hospital in 1872. She donated to famine and malaria relief funds. Swarnamoyee donated Rs. 150,000 for the construction of a hostel to provide accommodation for female medical students at Calcutta Medical College. The foundation stone of the hostel was laid by Lady Dufferin.

The hostel still bears the name of Maharani Swarnamoyee. Swarnamoyee donated 30 bighas of land for the construction of Berhampore College in 1851. In 1886, Maharani Swarnamoyee was vested with the necessary powers for the management of the college when the government withdrew from its management. Swarnamoyee donated Rs. 1,000 to Medinipur High School in 1871, Rs. 4,000 to Rangpur High School, Rs. 3,000 to the Oriental Seminary and Rs. 10,000 to the Hindu Girls' School in 1876 and Rs. 5,000 to Khagra London Missionary School, Murshidabad in 1883. Swarnamoyee donated Rs. 15,000 to Bethune College in 1872, Rs. 2,000 to Cuttack College in 1875, Rs. 2,000 to Aligarh College in 1876 and Rs. 5,000 to London Imperial Jubilee Institution in 1887. She donated all of the land for Shibpur Bengal Engineering College, she donated Rs. 4,000 to the Hindu Hostel in 1879. Swarnamoyee received the title of Maharani on August 11, 1871; the Maharani received the Order of the Crown of India on August 14, 1878, in recognition of her charitable work.

Maharani Swarnamoyee died on August 25, 1897. After her death, Maharaja Manindra Chandra Nandy, her nephew, became the heir of the estate

Marylebone Cricket Club cricket team in New Zealand in 1935–36

An English team raised by Marylebone Cricket Club toured New Zealand from December 1935 to March 1936 and played eight first-class matches including four against the New Zealand national cricket team. MCC played the main provincial teams, Wellington and Otago, ten non-first-class matches against teams from minor cricket associations; the MCC team was captained by Errol Holmes. The overall tour included a short stopover in Ceylon, where a single minor match was played, six first-class matches in Australia between October and December 1935. Errol Holmes Charles Lyttelton Wilf Barber Sandy Baxter Billy Griffith Joe Hardstaff John Human James Langridge Mandy Mitchell-Innes Jim Parks Adam Powell Hopper Read Jim Sims Denis SmithBob Wyatt was offered the captaincy but declined, saying he needed a rest. In order to limit the expense of the tour, MCC chose only six professionals, there was no manager; the team was the youngest-ever English touring team, with an average age of 26. Holmes judged his team to be "just about representative of England's second XI at the time".

Lyttelton known as Viscount Cobham, returned to New Zealand as Governor-General between 1957 and 1962. Errol Holmes, Flannelled Foolishness, Hollis & Carter, London, 1957, pp. 126–143 Don Neely & Richard Payne, Men in White: The History of New Zealand International Cricket, 1894–1985, Auckland, 1986, pp. 136–139 Marylebone Cricket Club in Australia and New Zealand 1935-36 at CricketArchive

Pearson symbol

The Pearson symbol, or Pearson notation, is used in crystallography as a means of describing a crystal structure, was originated by W. B. Pearson; the symbol is made up of two letters followed by a number. For example: Diamond structure, cF8 Rutile structure, tP6The two letters specify the Bravais lattice; the lower case letter specifies the crystal family, the upper case letter the centring type. The number at the end of the Pearson symbol gives the number of the atoms in the conventional unit cell. IUPAC The letters A, B and C were used instead of S; when the centred face cuts the X-axis, the Bravais lattice is called A-centred. In analogy, when the centred face cuts the Y- or Z-axis, we have B- or C-centring, respectively; the fourteen possible Bravais lattices are identified by the first two letters: The Pearson symbol does not uniquely identify the space group of a crystal structure, for example both the NaCl structure, diamond have the same Pearson symbol cF8. Confusion arises in the rhombohedral lattice, alternatively described in a centred hexagonal or primitive rhombohedral setting.

The more used hexagonal setting has 3 translation equivalent points per unit cell. The Pearson symbol refers to the hexagonal setting in its letter code but the following figure gives the number of translation equivalent points in the primitive rhombohedral setting. Examples: hR1 and hR2 are used to designate the Hg and Bi structure, respectively; the Pearson symbol should only be used to designate simple structures where the number of atoms per unit cell equals, the number of translation equivalent points. United States Naval Research Laboratory - Pearson symbol