SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Triathlon

A triathlon is a multisport race with three continuous and sequential endurance races. The word is from τρεῖς or treis and ἆθλος or athlos. While variations of the sport exist, the most common form includes swimming and running over various distances. Triathletes compete for fastest overall course completion, including timed transitions between the three races. A transition area is set up; this is where the switches from cycling to running occur. These areas are used to store bicycles, performance apparel, any other accessories needed for the next stage of the race; the transition from swim to bike is referred to as T1 and that between the bike and run is referred to as T2. The athlete's overall time for the race includes time spent in T1 and T2. Transition areas vary in size depending on the number of participants expected. In addition, these areas provide a social headquarters before the race; the nature of the sport focuses on persistent and periodized training in each of the three disciplines, as well as combination workouts and general strength conditioning.

The evolution of triathlon as a distinct event is difficult to trace with precision. Many, including triathlon historian and author Scott Tinley, consider events in early twentieth century France to be the beginnings of triathlon, with many three element multisport events of differing composition appearing all called by different names; the earliest record for an event was from 1901 in Joinville-le-Pont, Val-de-Marne it called itself "Les trois sports" it was advertised as an event for "The sportsmen of the time" and consisted of a run bicycle and canoe segment. By 19 June 1921 the event in Joinville-le-Pont had become more like a standard triathlon with the canoe element being replaced with a swim, newspaper L’Auto stating the race consisted of a 3 km run, a 12 km bike ride and the crossing of the river Marne, all staged consecutively and without a break. Throughout the 1920s other bike and swim events had appeared in different cities such as the "Course des Trois Sports” in Marseilles, and "La Course des Débrouillards" in Poissy.

These multisport events would continue to spread and grow in popularity such by 1934 "Les Trois Sports" was being hosted in the city of La Rochelle though it consisted three distinct events, swimming a channel crossing,a bike competition around the harbour of La Rochelle and the parc Laleu, a run in the stadium André-Barbeau. Throughout this growth with new events appearing no unified rules existed and as a whole would remain a minority event on the world stage; the first modern swim/bike/run event was held at Mission Bay, San Diego, California on September 25, 1974. The race was conceived and directed by two members of the San Diego Track Club, Jack Johnstone and Don Shanahan. Johnstone recalls that he was a part of the 70s jogging craze in America and that after entering a few races he was not regaining his "mediocre fitness" despite having been a member of the 1957 Collegiate and AAU All-American swim teams. In 1973, Johnstone learned of the Dave Pain Birthday Biathlon, a 4.5 mile run followed by what was billed as a quarter-mile swim.

The following year after competing in the event for the second time and placing in the top ten Johnstone desired more of this style of race and with equal emphasis on the swim, so he petitioned the chairman of the San Diego Track Club who told him he would add a race to the club calendar but the rest of the race was up to Johnstone to organise and at the same time to contact Don Shanahan so there wouldn't be too many "weird" races on the club schedule. Shanahan told Johnstone that he wanted to include a biking leg to the race, whilst hesitant Johnstone agreed to the addition; when naming the event the pair used the unofficially agreed naming system for multisport event, of using the prefix Greek number for the number of events trias and suffix of athlos the Greek for a competition, hence named the event the Mission Bay Triathlon. It is worthy of note that neither founder had heard of the French events, both believing their race a unique idea. On Wednesday, September 25, 1974 the race started, it began with a run of a three-mile loop biking twice around Fiesta Island for a total of five miles entrants would get off the bikes, take their shoes off and run into the water swimming to the mainland ran in bare feet before swimming again along the bay did one last swim up to the entrance of Fiesta Island before crawling up a steep dirt bank to finish.

Most participants were not skilled swimmers, so Johnstone recruited his 13-year-old son to float on his surfboard and act as lifeguard. Some participants took longer than expected, it began to get dark as they finished their swims. Shanahan recalls they turned on the headlights so the athletes could see; the large number of entrants 46 surprised Johnstone and Shanahan with entrants from local running clubs, two notable entrants Judy and John Collins, would four years found the event which brought international attention to the new sport Ironman Hawaii. With the sport's popularity growing in the US its spread outside the country seemed inevitable, by 1980 triathlon had made its way across the Atlantic to northern Europe with the first European triathlon held on 30 August 1980 in Pilsen, Czechoslovakia; the Netherlands and West Germany follow after, all hosting an event in 1981, but the media coverage of these events is non-existent. In 1982, the event organiser IMG, worked in partnership with the American channel

Daugavgrīva castle

Daugavgrīva Castle is a former monastery converted into a castle, located at Vecdaugava oxbow on right bank of Daugava, in the northern part of Riga city, Latvia. Nowadays here are seen only earthen ramparts; the first settlement, Daugavgrīva Abbey, was established on the right bank of the Daugava river, 13 miles from Bishop Albert of Riga's residence in Riga, by Cistercian monks from Pforta in 1205. Theoderich von Treyden was an early abbot, while during the 1210s Count Bernhard II of Lippe was its abbot. During a raid of tribal Curonians in 1228, the monastery and its tombs were destroyed, although the monks rebuilt the abbey after fighting died down, they had to endure abuse by the undisciplined crusaders of the Livonian Order. Those knights were defeated at the Battle of Saule and their remnants were incorporated into the Teutonic Knights in 1237; until 1452 the territory of Siggelkow in Mecklenburg was owned by the monastery. In 1305, the local abbot sold the monastery to the Livonian Branch of the Teutonic Knights, who began construction of the fortress of Dünamünde.

In 1329, the knights' castle was taken by the burghers of Riga, who were forced to return it to the knights in 1435. In 1481, the knights closed the Daugava to navigation by stretching an iron chain from Dünamünde to the opposite riverbank, thus hoping to ruin Riga's trade. In retaliation the citizens of Riga destroyed it; the knights returned to rebuild the stronghold eight years later. Because Riga itself was controlled by the Archbishops, the local administrative seat of the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights was located in Dünamünde. In 1561 during the Livonian War, Dünamünde became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and afterwards of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. List of castles in Latvia Daugavgrīva Capture of Daugavgrīva Battle of Daugavgriva Zarāns, Alberts. Latvijas pilis un muižas. Castles and manors of Latvia. Riga. ISBN 9984-785-05-X. OCLC 72358861. Media related to Daugavgrīva castle at Wikimedia Commons The fortress of Daugavgriva with contemporary illustrations Daugavgrīva Castle history on Ambermarks website The fortress of Daugavgriva on 1201 website Discussion and pictures on Fortification website

Trikonic

Trikonic, is a technique of triadic analysis-synthesis, developed by Gary Richmond based on the original idea of a possible applied science making three categorial distinctions, which philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce, its creator, called “Trichotomic.” Peirce introduces trichotomic as the "art of making three-fold divisions.” The symbol shown in Figure 1.0 is referred to as the ‘trikon’ symbol by Richmond. It displays the divisions of three categorial elements and their relationship for the subject in consideration A major part of trikonic analysis is the three Peircean categories. Secondness is the mode of being that, such as it is, with respect to a second but regardless of any third. Thirdness is the mode of being that, such as it is, in bringing a second and third into relation to each other." Another way of describing the basic understanding of these notions is from Sowa: “First is the conception of being or existing independent of anything else. Second is the conception of reaction, with something else.

Third is the conception of mediation, whereby a second are brought into relation. ”Trikonically represented, the categories are: There are many ways in which these notions can be interpreted. These are can be represented as: Peirce's Three Universes of Experience: These in turn represent Peirce's three Universal Categories: In addition to the universal categories, there are equivalent Existential Categories: We can trikonically analyse thought, by identifying three Logical Modalities: With these representations in mind, firstness and thirdness can be defined as the following: Firstness is concerned with ideas, qualities, feeling and possibility. Secondness signifies events, brute actions, reactions and character. Thirdness brings together firstness in relation to secondness. There are six vectors; these six vectors have been referred to as “directions of movement through the trikon”. They are authentic permutations of the triad, i.e. they are different arrangements of the order of firstness and thirdness.

They represent the relationships between firstness and thirdness for the object, being analysed. Vector of Process – chance sporting follows patterns of habit formation which leads to some actual structural change in an organism. Vector of Order – thesis, subsequently antithesis leading to synthesis. Vector of Representation – An engineer create a CAD drawing of a signalling design. Vector of Analysis – 3ns which involves 2ns which in turn involves 1ns. Vector of Determination – The object determines a sign for an interpretant. Vector of Aspiration -, represents the unique character in human community development. Within trikonic are six directions, which are all permutations of logical paths of relations keeping the notion of 1ns, 2ns and 3ns throughout the object under consideration. You can interpret these in many ways, for example, the Determination Vector and Representation Vector; the reasoning behind the exploration of the six vectors within the triad aims at bringing a new view on analysis and a more systematic treatment to some of the difficult issues which arise in semiotic analysis, i.e. the vector process is a graphically logical analysis with aspects of dependence and constraint, correlation, which tie in with the "living" reflection of the categories by the semiotic triad.

The reasoning behind the vector analysis is to use the permutations within the triad for the theory and any actual semiosis the analysis of complex virtual communicative projects. Semiosis is defined as: "Semiosis is the making or production of meaning; the term was introduced by Charles Peirce to describe the process of signification within the science of signs now termed semiology". Trikonic analysis could lead to a kind of trikonic synthesis (the combination of separate elements or substances to form a coherent whole producing fundamental change in the further evolution of virtual community development. Richmond suggests that “not all things can be trikonically analysed”. However, there has been investigation into; those issues concerned with websites and culture, trikonic analysis using the Peircean Category Theory has been used to analyse how trust is invoked in a user when using websites. It may be possible to use 1ns, 2ns and 3ns to categorise features of a website, for example the visual elements, colours or text used, the content of the website, how the elements relate to the users actual purpose of using the website etc.

One of the purposes of trikonic is to explore whether it can help to identify what elements of a website influence the user to perceive it to be credible or not. When approaching software problems like the interoperability of CG tools, it is useful to look at a situation from a software engineering perspective to find a solution. However, with the use of trikonic it is possible to approach the software engineering problem in this way. Trikonic analysis is a sophisticated method, as shown in the examples above it can be used in many different ways and scenarios. Again, using the not