The Quran is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God. It is widely regarded as the finest work in classical Arabic literature, the Quran is divided into chapters, which are divided into verses. The word Quran occurs some 70 times in the text of the Quran, although different names, according to the traditional narrative, several companions of Muhammad served as scribes and were responsible for writing down the revelations. Shortly after Muhammads death, the Quran was compiled by his companions who wrote down and these codices had differences that motivated the Caliph Uthman to establish a standard version now known as Uthmans codex, which is generally considered the archetype of the Quran known today. There are, variant readings, with minor differences in meaning. The Quran assumes familiarity with major narratives recounted in the Biblical scriptures and it summarizes some, dwells at length on others and, in some cases, presents alternative accounts and interpretations of events.
The Quran describes itself as a book of guidance and it sometimes offers detailed accounts of specific historical events, and it often emphasizes the moral significance of an event over its narrative sequence. The Quran is used along with the hadith to interpret sharia law, during prayers, the Quran is recited only in Arabic. Someone who has memorized the entire Quran is called a hafiz, some Muslims read Quranic ayah with elocution, which is often called tajwid. During the month of Ramadan, Muslims typically complete the recitation of the whole Quran during tarawih prayers, in order to extrapolate the meaning of a particular Quranic verse, most Muslims rely on the tafsir. The word qurʼān appears about 70 times in the Quran itself and it is a verbal noun of the Arabic verb qaraʼa, meaning he read or he recited. The Syriac equivalent is qeryānā, which refers to reading or lesson. While some Western scholars consider the word to be derived from the Syriac, regardless, it had become an Arabic term by Muhammads lifetime.
An important meaning of the word is the act of reciting, as reflected in an early Quranic passage, It is for Us to collect it, in other verses, the word refers to an individual passage recited. Its liturgical context is seen in a number of passages, for example, So when al-qurʼān is recited, listen to it, the word may assume the meaning of a codified scripture when mentioned with other scriptures such as the Torah and Gospel. The term has closely related synonyms that are employed throughout the Quran, each synonym possesses its own distinct meaning, but its use may converge with that of qurʼān in certain contexts. Such terms include kitāb, āyah, and sūrah, the latter two terms denote units of revelation. In the large majority of contexts, usually with an article, the word is referred to as the revelation
Muhammad is the prophet of Islam. From a secular historical perspective he was a religious, from an Islamic perspective, he was Gods Messenger sent to confirm the essential teachings of monotheism preached previously by Adam, Moses and other prophets. He is viewed as the prophet of God in all branches of Islam. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity and ensured that his teachings, born approximately 570 CE in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at an early age, he was raised under the care of his paternal uncle Abu Talib. Muhammad gained few early followers, and met hostility from some Meccan tribes, to escape persecution, Muhammad sent some followers to Abyssinia before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina in the year 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, in Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. In December 629, after eight years of intermittent conflict with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts, the attack went largely uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed.
In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he fell ill, before his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam. The revelations, which Muhammad reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the Word of God and around which the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Muhammads teachings and practices, found in the Hadith and sira literature, are upheld by Muslims. The name Muhammad means praiseworthy and appears four times in the Quran, Muhammad is sometimes addressed by designations deriving from his state at the time of the address, thus he is referred to as the enwrapped in Quran 73,1 and the shrouded in Quran 74,1. In Sura Al-Ahzab 33,40 God singles out Muhammad as the Seal of the Prophets, the Quran refers to Muhammad as Aḥmad more praiseworthy. The name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim, begins with the kunya Abū, the Quran is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe it represents the words of God revealed by the archangel Gabriel to Muhammad, the Quran, provides minimal assistance for Muhammads chronological biography, most Quranic verses do not provide significant historical context.
An important source may be found in the works by writers of the 2nd. These include the traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad, which additional information about Muhammads life. The earliest surviving written sira is Ibn Ishaqs Life of Gods Messenger written c.767 CE, although the work was lost, this sira was used verbatim at great length by Ibn Hisham and Al-Tabari. Another early history source is the history of Muhammads campaigns by al-Waqidi, many scholars accept the earliest biographies as accurate, though their accuracy is unascertainable
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate. From a geological perspective, it is considered a subcontinent of Asia and it is the largest peninsula in the world, at 3,237,500 km2. The Arabian Peninsula consists of the countries Yemen, Qatar, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, the Arabian Peninsula plays a critical geopolitical role in the Middle East and the Arab world due to its vast reserves of oil and natural gas. Before the modern era, it was divided into four regions, Najd, Southern Arabia. Hejaz and Najd make up most of Saudi Arabia, Southern Arabia consists of Yemen and some parts of Saudi Arabia and Oman. Eastern Arabia consists of the coastal strip of the Persian Gulf. The most prominent feature of the peninsula is desert, but in the southwest there are mountain ranges, harrat ash Shaam is a large volcanic field that extends from the northwestern Arabian Peninsula into Jordan and southern Syria. The peninsulas constituent countries are Kuwait, Qatar, the island nation of Bahrain lies off the east coast of the peninsula.
Six countries form the Gulf Cooperation Council, this is a disputed term. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia covers the part of the peninsula. The majority of the population of the live in Saudi Arabia. The peninsula contains the worlds largest reserves of oil, Saudi Arabia and the UAE are economically the wealthiest in the region. Qatar, a peninsula in the Persian Gulf on the larger peninsula, is home of the Arabic-language television station Al Jazeera. Kuwait, on the border with Iraq, is an important country strategically, though historically lightly populated, political Arabia is noted for a high population growth rate - as the result of both very strong inflows of migrant labor as well as sustained high birth rates. The population tends to be young and heavily skewed gender ratio dominated by males. In many states, the number of South Asians exceeds that of the local citizenry, the four smallest states, which have their entire coastlines on the Persian Gulf, exhibit the worlds most extreme population growth, roughly tripling every 20 years.
In 2014, the population of the Arabian Peninsula was 77,983,936. Listed here are the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups in Arabia Haplogroup J is the most abundant component in the Arabian peninsula and its two main subclades, show opposite latitudinal gradients in the Middle East
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that was first spoken in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. Arabic is the language of 1.7 billion Muslims. It is one of six languages of the United Nations. The modern written language is derived from the language of the Quran and it is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, which is the language of 26 states. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the standards of Quranic Arabic. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-Quranic era, Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics. As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Many words of Arabic origin are found in ancient languages like Latin.
Balkan languages, including Greek, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has borrowed words from languages including Greek and Persian in medieval times. Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages, particularly in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include, The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense, the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense. The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms, the development of an internal passive. These features are evidence of descent from a hypothetical ancestor. In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family were spoken and it is believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages were spoken in southern Arabia at this time.
To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages, in Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested
Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad al-Farahidi
His best known contributions are Kitab al-Ayn regarded as the first dictionary of the Arabic language, the current standard for Harakat, and the invention al-arud and metre. His study formed the basis for prosody in the Persian, Turkish, al-Farahidi was considered the shining star of the Basran school of Arabic grammar and a legitimate polymath who was not only a scholar but a genuine man of original ideas. Born in 718 to Azdi parents of modest means, al-Farahidi was from southern Arabia and moved to Basra, Iraq. Originally an Ibadi, he became a Sunni upon his move to Iraq and it was said that al-Farahidis father was the first person to be named Ahmad after the time of the Muslim prophet Muhammad. His nickname Farahidi differed from his name as one of his ancestors was named Furhud, a furhud is a young lion. The modern-day descendants of his tribe are the Zahran tribe residing primarily in the Al Bahah Province of Saudi Arabia, while in Basra, he was a student of Abu Amr ibn al-Ala. While in Basra, he made a living as a language teacher and he was said to have lived a pious and simple life, performing the pilgrimage to Mecca almost every year.
Al-Farahidi lived in a house made of reeds and once remarked that once he shut his door. Although some of his students amassed wealth through their own teaching, most of al-Farahidis income was from falconry, al-Farahidis date of death has been listed as both 786 and 791 CE. His preoccupation with deep thoughts led to his death, al-Farahidis eschewing of material wealth has been noted by a number of biographers. In his old age, the son of Habib ibn al-Muhallab and reigning governor of the Muhallabids offered al-Farahidi a pension, al-Farahidi declined, stating that he was wealthy though possessing no money, as true poverty lied not in a lacking in money, but in the soul. Thou hast refused me a trifling sum, but that refusal will not increase thy wealth, the governor responded with an offer to renew the pension and double the rate, which al-Farahidi still greeted with a lukewarm reception. Al-Farahidis apathy about material wealth was demonstrated in his habit of quoting Akhtals famous stanza, If thou wantest treasures, al-Farahidi distinguished himself via his philosophical views as well.
He reasoned that a mans intelligence peaked at the age of forty - the age when the Islamic prophet Muhammad began his call - and began to diminuish after sixty and he believed that a person was at their peak intelligence at the clearest part of dawn. In regard to the field of grammar, al-Farahidi held the realist views common among early Arab linguists yet rare among both and modern times. Al-Farahidi was distinguished, however, in his view that the Arabic alphabet included 29 letters rather than 28 and his classification of 29 letters was due to his consideration of the combination of Lamedh and Aleph as a separate third letter from the two individual parts. At any point in the Kitab when Sibawayh says I asked him or he said without mentioning a name, both the latter and the former are historically the earliest and most significant figures in respect to the formal recording of the Arabic language. In addition to the Arabic language, al-Farahidi was versed in astronomy, Islamic law, music theory
Banu Amir ibn Sasaah was a large and ancient Arab tribe originating from central and southwestern Arabia that dominated Nejd for centuries after the rise of Islam. The tribe is of North Arabian stock, tracing its lineage to Adnan through Hawazin, although the Banu Amir were engaged in a long war with the Quraysh before the appearance of Islam, the tribe was characterized by giving late allegiance to Muhammad and his immediate successors. The Banu Amir took part in the Ridda following Muhammads death, during that period the tribe produced several well-known Arabic poets, the most famous of whom was Labid ibn Rabiah, an author of one of the Seven Hanged Poems. Other poets included Amir ibn al-Tufayl, an important tribal chief, al-Rai al-Numayri, an opponent of Jarir, the protagonists of the romantic saga of Layla wal Majnun and Layla, belonged to Banu Amir. The main tribes that constituted this confederation were as follows, Banu Kilab - a Bedouin tribe that lived in western Nejd, like other Amiri tribes, they were allied with the eastern Arabian Qarmatian movement, came to dominate central Arabia after the Qartmatians demise.
Later the tribe migrated northwards to Syria and briefly established the Mirdasid dynasty there, the tribe seems to have settled and dispersed among the native population there during the Mameluke period. Banu Numayr - a mostly Bedouin tribe that lived on the borders of al-Yamamah and were allied with the Umayyad dynasty. They left for the banks of the Euphrates river in Iraq after a 9th-century Abbasid military campaign against them in al-Yamama. Banu Kab - this section was the largest of the Bani Amir, and was divided into four tribes, Banu Uqayl, Banu Jadah, Banu Qushayr, all were natives of al-Yamamah, particularly the southern regions of that district, and included both bedouin pastoralists and settled agriculturists. Of the four, Banu Uqayl was by far the largest and most powerful, having left for northern Iraq in the late Abbasid era, the bedouins of Banu Uqayl established the Uqaylid dynasty in Mosul. Later, sections of the returned to Arabia, settling in the Province of Bahrain where they gave rise to the Usfurid and Jabrid dynasties.
Several tribal groups in Iraq originated from Uqayl, including Khafajah, other sections of Kaab left al-Yamamah and Nejd at a date and settled along both sides of the Persian Gulf. They are now known as Bani Kaab and mostly live in the Ahwaz region of Iran, in 1535, the Banu Amir ruler Ibn Radwan collaborated with Spain in an attack on the city of Tlemcen. The project was to replace the ruler of Tlemcen Sultan Muhammad by Ibn Radwans younger brother Abdulla and they were opposed by the Banu Rashid tribes under Sultan Muhammad, and the Spanish forces were besieged at the Tibda fortress and exterminated, except for 70 prisoners. In addition to the Uqaylid tribes of Iraq, the tribes of Subay, the Suhool in Nejd. The tribe was involved in conflict with Muhammad. Four months after the Uhud battle, a delegation of Banu Amir came to Muhammad, Muhammad declined to accept that gift because it was from a polytheist and asked Abu Bara to embrace Islam. He requested Muhammad to send some Muslims to the people of Najd to call them to Islam, at first, Muhammad was quite apprehensive of this, as he feared that some harm might befall on these Muslim missionaries
According to Arab genealogical tradition, the Adnanites are Arabized Arabs, descended from Adnan, distinguished from the pure Qahtanite Arabs of southern Arabia. Arab genealogical tradition holds that the Adnanites are Arabized Arabs, descended from Adnan, the Adnanites became Arabized when they migrated to the Arabian Peninsula, whereas the Qahtanites of Southern Arabia are pure Arabs. According to modern historians, the distinction between Adnanites and Qahtanites lacks evidence and may have developed out of the faction-fighting during the Umayyad period
The Umayyad Caliphate, spelled Omayyad, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. This caliphate was centred on the Umayyad dynasty, hailing from Mecca, Syria remained the Umayyads main power base thereafter, and Damascus was their capital. The Umayyads continued the Muslim conquests, incorporating the Caucasus, Sindh, the Maghreb and the Iberian Peninsula into the Muslim world. At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate covered 11,100,000 km2 and 62 million people, the Umayyad Caliphate was secular by nature. At the time, the Umayyad taxation and administrative practice were perceived as unjust by some Muslims, Muhammad had stated explicitly during his lifetime that Abrahamic religious groups, should be allowed to practice their own religion, provided that they paid the jizya taxation. The welfare state of both the Muslim and the poor started by Umar ibn al Khattab had continued, financed by the zakat tax levied only on Muslims. Muawiyas wife Maysum was a Christian, the relations between the Muslims and the Christians in the state were stable in this time.
Prominent positions were held by Christians, some of whom belonged to families that had served in Byzantine governments, the employment of Christians was part of a broader policy of religious assimilation that was necessitated by the presence of large Christian populations in the conquered provinces, as in Syria. This policy boosted Muawiyas popularity and solidified Syria as his power base, the rivalries between the Arab tribes had caused unrest in the provinces outside Syria, most notably in the Second Muslim Civil War of AD 680–692 and the Berber Revolt of 740–743. During the Second Civil War, leadership of the Umayyad clan shifted from the Sufyanid branch of the family to the Marwanid branch. A branch of the family fled across North Africa to Al-Andalus, where they established the Caliphate of Córdoba, according to tradition, the Umayyad family and Muhammad both descended from a common ancestor, Abd Manaf ibn Qusai, and they originally came from the city of Mecca. Muhammad descended from Abd Manāf via his son Hashim, while the Umayyads descended from Abd Manaf via a different son, Abd-Shams, the two families are therefore considered to be different clans of the same tribe.
However Muslim Shia historians suspect that Umayya was a son of Abd Shams so he was not a blood relative of Abd Manaf ibn Qusai. Umayya was discarded from the noble family, Sunni historians disagree with this and view Shia claims as nothing more than outright polemics due to their hostility to the Umayyad family in general. While the Umayyads and the Hashimites may have had bitterness between the two clans before Muhammad, the rivalry turned into a case of tribal animosity after the Battle of Badr. The battle saw three top leaders of the Umayyad clan killed by Hashimites in a three-on-three melee and this fueled the opposition of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, the grandson of Umayya, to Muhammad and to Islam. Abu Sufyan sought to exterminate the adherents of the new religion by waging another battle with Muslims based in Medina only a year after the Battle of Badr and he did this to avenge the defeat at Badr. The Battle of Uhud is generally believed by scholars to be the first defeat for the Muslims, as they had incurred greater losses than the Meccans
Anazzah is an Arab tribe in the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant. Anazzahs existence as a tribal group, like many prominent modern tribes, predates the rise of Islam in the 7th century CE. The classical Arab genealogists placed Anizzah within the large Rabiah branch of Adnanite tribes, alongside the tribes of Abdul Qays, Bakr ibn Wail, Bani Hanifa, in the genealogical scheme, Anazzahs eponymous ancestor is a great uncle of all of these. Two main branches of Anazzah are recorded by the early Muslim scholars, one branch was nomadic, living in the northern Arabian steppes bordering Syria and Mesopotamia. Families tracing their origin to Annizah through Hizzan still exist in that area today, the other tribes of Rabiah were far more prominent in the events of late pre-Islamic Arabia and the early Islamic era. According to historians such as Al-Tabari, Anazzah joined with Bakr ibn Wail under an alliance they called al-Lahazim, many of these tribes were followers of the christian faith prior to Islam.
The tribute was known as khuwwa, and in exchange, the tribesmen pledged to protect the farmers from other tribes, other clans of the tribe spread across the northern Arabian steppes as far north and east as the Euphrates. In particular, it is believed originated from the area of Ayn Tamr in the Iraqi desert near Karbala. In the 19th century, the Swiss traveler Burckhardt and the British traveler Doughty visited the tribe in their stronghold of Khaybar, a 19th century oral poetic epic telling the tale of a rivalry between two heroes from Shammar and Annizah was published in 1992. The Ruwallah were among the tribes took part in the Arab Revolt against the Ottomans in 1916. Another northern branch of Annizah, the Amarat, was centered in the deserts of Iraq, according to the tribes genealogists, the modern tribe in north Arabia is divided into the following branches, Dhana Bishr - which includes the Amarat of Iraq. Dhana Maslam - which includes the Ruwallah of north Arabia, the sparse chronicles of Nejd relating to the pre-Wahhabi era relate a process of penetration of the tribe into northern and western Nejd, where they began to claim pastures during the winter months.
In the 15th century, the region of Al-Qassim in northern Nejd was being rapidly settled through migration, in the early 18th century—just prior to the rise of Wahhabism—the Bedouins of Annizah are recorded to have reached as far as the gates of Riyadh, killing its ruler in battle. This battle was part of a war in which Riyadh. Limited settlement of Bedouin tribesmen in nearby towns and villages has always been a process in the region. These recently settled tribesman are often distinguished from their sedentary cousins by retaining tribal appellations such as al-Annizi or Al-Ruwaili as their surnames, Bedouin Rabiah Ruwallah Banu Bakr Banu Hanifa De Gaury, Gerald