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Triboelectric effect

The triboelectric effect is a type of contact electrification on which certain materials become electrically charged after they are separated from a different material with which they were in contact. Rubbing the two materials each with the other increases the contact between their surfaces, hence the triboelectric effect. Rubbing glass with fur for example, or a plastic comb through the hair, can build up triboelectricity. Most everyday static electricity is triboelectric; the polarity and strength of the charges produced differ according to the materials, surface roughness, temperature and other properties. The triboelectric effect is unpredictable, only broad generalizations can be made. Amber, for example, can acquire an electric charge by contact and separation with a material like wool; this property was first recorded by Thales of Miletus. The word "electricity" is derived from William Gilbert's initial coinage, "electra", which originates in the Greek word for amber, ēlektron; the prefix tribo- refers to ‘friction’, as in tribology.

Other examples of materials that can acquire a significant charge when rubbed together include glass rubbed with silk, hard rubber rubbed with fur. A familiar example could be the rubbing of a plastic pen on a sleeve of any typical material like cotton, polyester, or blended fabric used in modern clothing; such an electrified pen would attract and pick up pieces of paper less than a square centimeter when the pen approaches. Such a pen will repel a electrified pen; this repulsion is detectable in the sensitive setup of hanging both pens on threads and setting them nearby one another. Such experiments lead to the theory of two types of quantifiable electric charge, one being the negative of the other, with a simple sum respecting signs giving the total charge; the electrostatic attraction of the charged plastic pen to neutral uncharged pieces of paper is due to temporary charge separation of electric charges within the paper. A net force arises as the nearer charges of the dipole get attracted more in the nonuniform field from the pen which diminishes with distance.

In a uniform electric field, for example inside parallel capacitor plates, temporary polarisation would occur in the small pieces of paper but with zero net attraction. The triboelectric effect is now considered to be related to the phenomenon of adhesion, where two materials composed of different molecules tend to stick together because of attraction between the different molecules. While adhesion is not a chemical bond between atoms, there is an exchange of electrons between the different types of molecules, resulting in an electrostatic attraction between the molecules that holds them together. Physical separation of materials that are adhered together results in friction between the materials; because the electron transfer between molecules in the different materials is not reversible, the excess electrons in one type of molecule remain left behind, while a deficit of electrons occurs in the other. Thus, a material can develop a positive or negative charge that dissipates after the materials separate.

The mechanisms of triboelectrification have been debated for many years, with possible mechanisms including electron transfer, ion transfer or the material's species transfer. Recent studies using Kelvin probe microscopy and triboelectric nanogenerators revealed that electron transfer is the dominant mechanism for triboelectrification between solid and solid; the work function model can be used to explain electron transfer between a dielectric. The surface states model can be used to explain electron transfer between two dielectrics. For a general case, since triboelectrification occurs for any material, a generic model has been proposed by Wang, in which the electron transfer is caused by a strong electron cloud overlap between two atoms for the lowered interatomic potential barrier by shortening the bonding length. Based on the model, the effects of temperature and photo excitation on the triboelectrification were investigated; such model can be further extended to the cases of liquid-solid, liquid-liquid and gas-liquid.

Johan Carl Wilcke published the first triboelectric series in a 1757 paper on static charges. Materials are listed in order of the polarity of charge separation when they are touched with another object. A material towards the bottom of the series, when touched to a material near the top of the series, will acquire a more negative charge; the farther away two materials are from each other on the series, the greater the charge transferred. Materials near to each other on the series may not exchange any charge, or may exchange the opposite of what is implied by the list; this can be caused by rubbing, by other variables. The series was further expanded by Shaw and Henniker by including natural and synthetic polymers, showed the alteration in the sequence depending on surface and environmental conditions. Lists vary somewhat as to the exact order of some materials, since the relative charge varies for nearby materials. From actual tests, there is little or no measurable difference in charge affinity between metals because the rapid motion of conduction electrons cancels such differences.

Another triboelectric series based on measuring the triboelectric charge density of materials was quantitatively standardized by Prof. Zhong Lin Wang's group; the triboelectric charge density of the tested materials was measured with res

2009–10 William & Mary Tribe men's basketball team

The 2009–10 William & Mary Tribe men's basketball team represented The College of William & Mary during the 2009–10 college basketball season. This was head coach Tony Shaver's seventh season at Mary; the Tribe played their home games at Kaplan Arena. They finished the season 22–11, 12–6 in CAA play and lost in the championship game of the 2010 CAA Men's Basketball Tournament to Old Dominion, they were invited to play in the 2010 National Invitation Tournament where they lost in the first round to North Carolina. In the CAA preseason polls, released October 20 in Washington, D. C. William & Mary was predicted to finish tenth in the CAA. Sr. guard David Schneider was selected to the preseason all conference second team. Source Source All times are Eastern

Ackley Lake State Park

Ackley Lake State Park is a public recreation area located four miles southwest of Hobson, Montana. The state park covers 290 acres centered around 160-acre Ackley Lake; the Little Belt Mountains and Snowy Mountains are visible on the horizon. The park is operated by the Montana Department of Fish and Parks on land leased from the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation; the Ackley Lake reservoir was created in 1938 with the completion of an earthen embankment dam measuring 51 feet high and 3,514 feet long. The reservoir is an off-stream storage project with a supply canal from the Judith River; the site became part of the Montana state park system in 1960. It was threatened with the loss of its status as a state park after the Montana State Parks and Recreation Board adopted a five-year strategic plan, "Charting a New Tomorrow," that proposed a rebranding of the parks in its system. In 2017, the parks department renewed its lease with the Department of Natural Resources and Conservation for a further five years to the end 2021.

The park offers stocked trout fishing, boating with two boat ramps, picnicking facilities, a 15-site campground. Ackley Lake State Park Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks

1925 Walsall by-election

The Walsall by-election of 1925 was held on 27 February 1925. The by-election was held due to the disqualification of William Preston, it was retained by Preston. The by-election was caused by the disqualification of William Preston, he had only been an MP since the General Election of 1924. However, following his election, it was discovered that Preston had received payments for two small contracts to supply electrical fittings to the Post Office Stores Department; as a government contractor, Preston was ineligible to stand for parliament, his election was declared void. The constituency was created for the 1832 general election. Over the years, the seat changed hands between Liberal and Conservative; the Labour Party first ran a candidate in 1918. The Liberal Pat Collins had won in both 1922 and 1923 before Preston won in 1924, he was educated at Bath. In 1907 he married Lilly Swinton Sanders, he became managing director of William Sanders & Co Limited, a major manufacturer of electrical switching equipment.

Pat Collins who had sat as Liberal MP for Walsall until losing to Preston in the void election, seemed the obvious candidate. However Collins chose to withdraw due to ill-health. On 13 February 1925 the Executive Council of the Walsall Liberal Association adopted 64-year-old Rt Hon. Thomas Macnamara as their candidate, he had been Liberal MP in Camberwell, London from 1900 until his defeat at the 1924 general election. He had served as Minister of Labour under Prime Minister David Lloyd George; the Walsall Constituency Labour Party re-selected 41-year-old trade unionist Lothian Small, their candidate in 1924. He came from Glasgow. During World War I, Small served as an officer with the South Staffordshire Regiment, he had contested Exeter at the 1923 general election. The confidence within Liberal Party ranks was not high following the 1924 general election when they were reduced to just 40 MPs. Among the defeated was their leader H. H. Asquith. Lloyd George had been elected the Chairman of the Liberal Parliamentary party.

On 21 February, although suffering illness, Lloyd George spoke at Walsall Town Hall in front of 2,500 people, in support of Macnamara. The result was identical to the result at the 1924 general election, with little change in the vote share of the three parties. At the 1929 general election there was a swing to Labour, he was defeated by that party's candidate


Anagyrus or Anagyrous Anagyruntus or Anagyrountos, was a deme of ancient Athens, belonging to the phyle Erechtheis, situated in the south of Attica near the promontory Zoster. Pausanias mentions at this place a temple of the mother of the gods; the ruins of Anagyrus have been found near Vari. The ancient name was maintained until 600 AD, as mentioned by geographer and historian Stephanus of Byzantium. Anagyrous is an important archaeological site that still remains unexplored, with traces of human habitation dating back to 3rd millennium BCE, that include: The fortification and acropolis of Lathouriza The remains of 25 small houses A sacred altar Ten funerary precincts A major Mycenaean cemetery A cemetery and Palestrina of the Classical period The Cave of the Nymphs and Pan Eumenes of Anagyrus and the Anagyrus Painter were from the town. According to one version, the name derives from the mythical Anagyrous, whose temple was located in the region. Anagyrous made the homes near collapse, he once exterminated an entire family who had cut trees from his sacred grove—hence the ancient proverb, "Anagryasion Daimon".

Offerings and sacrifices were brought to Anagryous as attempts to appease his anger. Another version derives from the plant Anagyris, referred to as emetic and as a laxative by Dioscorides, as an exorcism of ill fate by the Byzantine Suidas dictionary; the plant grows abundantly in the valley, exuding a terrible stench when shaken. Aristophanes cites the following humorist dialogue: «Πόθεν εισίν. Νη τον Δία, ο γουν Ανάγυρος μη κεκινήσθαι δοκεί.» According to Aelian, the countryside near Anagyrous was where Aristion and Periktyoni used to lull baby Plato. «... εν ταις πλησίον μυρρίναις, δασείες ούσες και πυκνές, καθεύδοντι δε εσμός μελισσών εν τοις χείλεσι αυτού καθίσασαι, υπήδον την του Πλάτωνος ευγλωττία μαντευόμεναι.». "... nearby the myrtle plants and leafy as they were, while he was sleeping, a swarm of bees sat peacefully on his lips, thus surmising the eloquence of Plato." This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Anagyrus". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography.

London: John Murray

Dejection: An Ode

"Dejection: An Ode" is a poem written by Samuel Taylor Coleridge in 1802. The poem in its original form was written to Sara Hutchinson, a woman, not his wife, discusses his feelings of love for her; the various versions of the poem describe Coleridge's inability to write poetry and living in a state of paralysis, but published editions remove his personal feelings and mention of Hutchinson. Coleridge wrote in his notebook about Hutchinson and possible poems: "Can see nothing extraordinary in her — a Poem nothing all the virtues of the mild & retired kind Poem on this night on Helvellin /William & Dorothy & Mary / —Sara & I — Poem on the length of our acquaintance / all the hours that I have been thinking of her &c." During this time in 1802, Coleridge was separated from his family and he returned home during March. The relationship between him and his wife was restarted and they had a daughter in December 1802. However, of the poems he intended to write about Hutchinson, he managed to complete one and an early draft was sent to her in a letter on 4 April 1802.

The original draft was titled "Letter to Sara Hutchinson", it became Dejection when he sought to publish it. There are many differences between the versions beyond the original being 340 lines and the printed 139 lines as they reflect two different moments in Coleridge's emotional struggle. Passages describing his childhood and other personal matters were removed between versions, it was published in the 4 October 1802 Morning Post. This date corresponding to Wordsworth's wedding to Mary Hutchinson and Coleridge's own wedding anniversary; the poem was grouped with the Asra poems, a series of poems discussing love that were dedicated to Hutchinson. Coleridge cut himself off from Hutchinson and renounced his feelings for her, which ended the problems that resulted in the poem; the poem begins with a claim that the narrator has lost his ability to write, which fuels the mood of dejection: This mood of dejection makes the narrator unable to enjoy nature: The poem continues by expression a state of poetic paralysis: The poem continues with the narrator hoping that the woman he desires can be happy: The poem was a reply to William Wordsworth's "Resolution and Independence".

It is connected to Wordsworth's Immortality Ode in theme and structure. The poem expresses the inability to write poetry or to enjoy nature. Wordsworth is introduced into the poem as a counter to Coleridge, because Wordsworth is able to turn such a mood into a benefit and is able to be comforted. However, Coleridge cannot find anything positive in his problems, he expresses how he feels paralyzed by his emotions; this source of their paralysis was Coleridge's feelings for Hutchinson and problems dealing with his marriage. However, Coleridge couldn't have been in dejection or he would have been unable to create the poem; the poem captures some feelings in Coleridge's previous works in analyzing a problematic childhood and an exploration of religion. These feelings were fueled by his inability to accept his opium addiction and other problems; the poems contain Coleridge's desires for Hutchinson, but these were removed from the printed edition of the works. The editions are so different that they reflect the conflict and division that Coleridge felt during 1802.

The tone of the poems are different, as the original was passionate and emotional, the printed version was organized and philosophical. There is a connection between Frost at Midnight in everything but its form; this is true of the original version, but many of the personal elements of the poem continue over into the published version. The trimming of the poem allows for Coleridge to emphasize the most important poetic aspects of the original and to create a separation of the form from the subject area which allows for a strong incongruity not in the original. Coleridge is interacting with many of Wordsworth's poems. Coleridge's views on dejection and inability to find a positive in such feelings is connected to Wordsworth's Expostulation and Reply; the poem's describing about nature and unable to enjoy natural scenes anymore is connected to the inability to see nature in the same way as possible within Wordsworth's Immortality Ode. Like the Immortality Ode, Dejection is a Pindaric Ode. George Watson claims that the trimming of the poem "set forth upon the world as one of the oddest compromises in English poetry: an intensely, bitterly indecently private poem of an unhappily married poet, cast into the most public of all forms, the neoclassical Pindaric.

The language swirls upwards and downwards from a studiously conversation opening to passages of a grave sublimity that Coleridge had scarcely achieved." He continues, "Not since'The Ancient Mariner' of four years before had his doctrine of deliberately incongruous form realized anything so arresting. It is by this startling contrast of the formal and the informal that the poem lives, for just this reason there can be no doubt of the superiority of the final version". Richard Holmes emphasizes the differences and the positives of both versions of the text as he argues: The movement of the verse in the first version is swift and spontaneous, a true letter, the tone is exalted and self-pitying; the first version overwhelms the reader with its intimacy, its torrent of lament and letting-go, both shocking and compulsive. The final version holds the reader in an act of high, rhetorical attention, around the proposition that external nature