Grignan-Les Adhemar AOC
The Grignan-Les Adhemar AOC is the northernmost wine-growing AOC in the southern area of the Rhône wine region of France. The wines are produced in 21 communes in the department of Drôme on the east bank of the Rhône River in a triangle bounded by Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux, Montélimar, Grignan; the vineyards straddle both the true Mediterranean and the continental climatic regions where in this part of France the transition is rapid, winter snow being frequent in Montélimar but rare some 20 - 30 kilometres further south. In this transitional area between the northern and southern Rhône wine regions that constitutes the northern limit of the Provence, the climate in Baume-le-Transit and St Paul are more Mediterranean climate than the cooler areas dominated by the Lance mountain. According to archeological finds the remains of the largest Roman wine villa in Donzère dating from the 1st century BC, wine has been produced in the region since the antiquity. Tricastin wines were mentioned in the writings of the Marquise de Sevigné in the 16th century.
The wines were accorded an AOVDQS on 19 March 1964, were awarded their AOC on 27 July 1973. A characteristic of the wines from this appellation is their great diversity due to the many and mixed soil types and varied climates; the central part of the region comprises sandstone hills, while the southeast is covered with stones or gravel. The west is alluvial soil with calcairous stones, the north is covered with large glacial pebbles. Red wines which comprise 95% of the total production, are made from the principal varieties of Grenache noir and Syrah, with secondary varieties of Cinsault, Mourvèdre Carignan. No single variety may be present at more than 80%. A non defined quantity of secondary varieties must not exceed 30%, or if declared separately, not more than 15% each. Rosé: The same varieties in the same permitted proportions are used as for the red. White wines are produced from Grenache blanc, Clairette blanc, Marsanne and Viognier. No variety may be present in excess of 60 %; the Grignan-Les Adhemar wines are produced by a total of 324 concerns which include 307 growers, 49 private wineries, 13 cooperative wineries, 8 producer/merchants.
INAO statistics show that in 2007, 94,961 hectolitres were produced from 2,566 cultivated at an average yield of 52 hectolitres per hectare. The wines are produced in 21 communes of the Drôme département at the northern limit of the Provence: Allan, Baume de Transit, Chantemerle-lès-Grignan, Châteauneuf-du-Rhône, Comonzelle, Donzère, Garde-Adhémar, Granges-Gontardes, Malataverne, Montségur-sur-Lauzon, Roche-Saint-Secret-Béconne, Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux, Saint Restitut, Salles-sous-Bois, Solérieux, Valaurie. Following an accident at the Tricastin Nuclear Power Center in July 2008, when uranium was released, the sale of Coteaux du Tricastin wine decreased; the wine growers therefore wished to change the name of the appellation to something without "Tricastin", to avoid being associated with the nuclear power plant. In June 2010, INAO signalled its intention to allow a name change to Grignan-Les Adhemar effective from the 2010 vintage. Adhemar of Le Puy Château des Adhémar François Adhémar de Monteil, Comte de Grignan Françoise-Marguerite de Sévigné, comtesse de Grignan List of Vins de Primeur Tricastin
Provence is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It corresponds with the modern administrative région of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, includes the départements of Var, Bouches-du-Rhône, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence and parts of Alpes-Maritimes and Vaucluse; the largest city of the region is Marseille. The Romans made the region the first Roman province beyond the Alps and called it Provincia Romana, which evolved into the present name; until 1481 it was ruled by the Counts of Provence from their capital in Aix-en-Provence became a province of the Kings of France. While it has been part of France for more than five hundred years, it still retains a distinct cultural and linguistic identity in the interior of the region; the coast of Provence has some of the earliest known sites of human habitation in Europe. Primitive stone tools dating back 1 to 1.05 million years BC have been found in the Grotte du Vallonnet near Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, between Monaco and Menton.
More sophisticated tools, worked on both sides of the stone and dating to 600,000 BC, were found in the Cave of Escale at Saint Estėve-Janson, tools from 400,000 BC and some of the first fireplaces in Europe were found at Terra Amata in Nice. Tools dating to the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic were discovered in the Observatory Cave, in the Jardin Exotique of Monaco; the Paleolithic period in Provence saw great changes in the climate. Two ice ages came and went, the sea level changed dramatically. At the beginning of the Paleolithic, the sea level in western Provence was 150 meters higher than today. By the end of the Paleolithic, it had dropped to 100 to 150 metres below the sea level today; the cave dwellings of the early inhabitants of Provence were flooded by the rising sea or left far from the sea and swept away by erosion. The changes in the sea level led to one of the most remarkable discoveries of signs of early man in Provence. In 1985, a diver named Henri Cosquer discovered the mouth of a submarine cave 37 metres below the surface of the Calanque de Morgiou near Marseille.
The entrance led to a cave above sea level. Inside, the walls of the Cosquer Cave are decorated with drawings of bison, auks and outlines of human hands, dating to between 27,000 and 19,000 BC; the end of the Paleolithic and beginning of the Neolithic period saw the sea settle at its present level, a warming of the climate and the retreat of the forests. The disappearance of the forests and the deer and other hunted game meant that the inhabitants of Provence had to survive on rabbits and wild sheep. In about 6000 BC, the Castelnovian people, living around Châteauneuf-les-Martigues, were among the first people in Europe to domesticate wild sheep, to cease moving from place to place. Once they settled in one place they were able to develop new industries. Inspired by pottery from the eastern Mediterranean, in about 6000 BC they created the first pottery made in France. Around 6000 BC, a wave of new settlers from the east, the Chasséens, arrived in Provence, they were farmers and warriors, displaced the earlier pastoral people from their lands.
They were followed about 2500 BC by another wave of people farmers, known as the Courronniens, who arrived by sea and settled along the coast of what is now the Bouches-du-Rhône. Traces of these early civilisations can be found in many parts of Provence. A Neolithic site dating to about 6,000 BC was discovered in Marseille near the Saint-Charles railway station, and a dolmen from the Bronze Age can be found near Draguignan. Between the 10th and 4th century BC, the Ligures were found in Provence from Massilia as far as modern Liguria, they were of uncertain origin. Strabo distinctly states they were not of a different race from the Gauls, they did not have their own alphabet, but their language remains in place names in Provence ending in the suffixes -asc, -osc. -inc, -ates, -auni. The ancient geographer Posidonios wrote of them: "Their country is dry; the soil is so rocky. The men compensate for the lack of wheat by hunting... They climb the mountains like goats." They were warlike. Traces of the Ligures remain today in the dolmens and other megaliths found in eastern Provence, in the primitive stone shelters called'Bories' found in the Luberon and Comtat, in the rock carvings in the Valley of Marvels near Mont Bégo in the Alpes-Maritimes, at an altitude of 2,000 meters.
Between the 8th and 5th centuries BC, tribes of Celtic peoples coming from Central Europe began moving into Provence. They had weapons made of iron, which allowed them to defeat the local tribes, who were still armed with bronze weapons. One tribe, called the Segobriga, settled near modern-day Marseille; the Caturiges and Cavares settled to the west of the Durance river. Celts and Ligurians spread throughout the area and the Celto-Ligures shared the territory of Provence, each tribe in its own alpine valley or settlement along a river, each with its own king and dynasty, they built hilltop forts and settlements given the Latin name oppida. Today the traces 165 oppida are found in the Var, as many as 285 in the Alp
Pierrelatte is a commune in the Drôme department in southeastern France. Jean Aurenche, screenwriter Cédric Séguin, was born here in 1973. David Guerrier, classical trumpeter Communes of the Drôme department Tricastin Nuclear Power Plant INSEE
Montélimar is a commune in the Drôme department in southeastern France. It is the second-largest town in the department after Valence; the site where the city of Montélimar stands today has been inhabited since the Celtic era. It was reconstructed during the Roman reign, including a basilica, thermae and a forum; the Adhémar family reigned over the city in the Middle Ages and built a castle which dominates the city silhouette today. French navigator Louis de Freycinet and Émile Loubet, President of France from 1899 till 1906, who served as mayor of Montélimar. Formula One racing driver Charles Pic and fellow racing driver Arthur Pic and motorcycle racer Sylvain Guintoli. Encyclopédiste Antoine Penchenier at an unknown date. Physician and Encyclopédiste Jean-Joseph Menuret was born in Montélimar The local nougat is one of the 13 desserts of Provence and appreciated throughout the country. Montelimar nougat is mentioned in the opening lines of the Beatles' "Savoy Truffle" from The White Album. Travellers used to buy nougat de Montélimar on their way to the south of France as the city is next to the Rhône and to the primary route N7.
Since the construction of the A7 autoroute, many nougat factories have been forced to close as tourists no longer stop in Montélimar but bypass it instead. Montélimar has a humid subtropical climate according to the Köppen climate classification. Montélimar has several twin towns: Aberdare, United Kingdom Aldridge, United Kingdom Nabeul, Tunisia Racine, United States Ravensburg, Germany Rivoli, Italy Sisian, Armenia Communes of the Drôme department INSEE Official website "Montélimar". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
Mushroom hunting, mushroom picking, mushroom foraging, similar terms describe the activity of gathering mushrooms in the wild for food. This practice is popular throughout most of Europe, Japan, parts of the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, as well as the temperate regions of Canada and the United States. A large number of mushroom species are favored for eating by mushroom hunters; the king bolete is a popular delicacy. Sulphur shelf is gathered because it occurs in bulk, recurs year after year, is identified, has a wide variety of culinary uses. Pine mushrooms, morels, oyster mushrooms and polypores are among the most popular types of mushrooms to gather, most of these being simple to properly identify by anyone with practice. Much more care and experience is required to make a positive identification of many species, as such, few collect from more dangerous groups, such as Amanita, which include some of the most toxic mushrooms in existence. Many field guides on mushrooms are available and recommended to help safely distinguish edible from the many poisonous mushrooms.
Identification is not the only element of mushroom hunting. Most mushroom species require specific conditions; some only grow for example. Finding a desired species, known to grow in a certain region can be a challenge. A Czech adage warns that "všechny houby jsou jedlé, ale některé jenom jednou." Translated, that "every mushroom is edible, but some only once." Some mushrooms are deadly or hazardous when consumed. Some that are not deadly can cause permanent organ damage. Common safety advice includes: That only positively identified mushrooms should be eaten That mushrooms be identified a second time during preparation and to cook them unless it can be verified that the species can be eaten raw That mushroom types not be combined That a sample of any mushroom not well-experienced will be retained for analysis in case of poisoning Familiarity with information about deadly mushrooms that are look-alikes of edible ones, as "deadly twins" differ regionally; when picking mushrooms in an unfamiliar region, e.g. in a foreign country or in an area a considerable distance from one's usual foraging sites, to exercise great caution with mushrooms that are positively identified as edible based on prior experience.
Mushroom guides explaining local species should be studied thoroughly. Not gathering mushrooms that are difficult to identify; this applies to the mushrooms of the genus Amanita and Cortinarius and "little brown mushrooms". Consuming only a small amount the first time a new species is tried. People react differently to different mushrooms, all mushroom species can cause an adverse reaction in a few individuals the common champignon. "Little brown mushrooms" refers to a large number of small, dull-coloured agaric species, with few macromorphological uniquely distinguishing characteristics. As a result, LBMs range from difficult to impossible for mushroom hunters to identify. Experienced mushroomers may discern more subtle identifying traits that help narrow the mushroom down to a particular genus or group of species, but exact identification of LBMs requires close examination of microscopic characteristics plus a certain degree of familiarity or specialization in that particular group. For mycologists, LBMs are the equivalent of LBJs and DYCs that are the bane of ornithologists and botanists, respectively.
"Big white mushroom" is sometimes used to describe groups of difficult to identify larger and paler agarics, many of which are in the genus Clitocybe. The Amanita muscaria's psychotropic properties have been traditionally used by shamans in Siberia in their rituals. However, its use for such purposes today is rare, despite the mushroom's abundance. Instead, the Psilocybe semilanceata is sought after for its hallucinogenic properties, the latter being more desirable with fewer side effects than those of A. muscaria. The use of P. semilanceata is however hindered by its small size, requiring larger quantities and being hard to spot. Other Psilocybe species are abundant in the American south and west, as well as Mexico, where they have been used by traditional shamans for centuries. In the west, one can find mushroom pickers in cow pastures in a stereotypical stoop looking in the grass for psilocybes; this can be quite dangerous, as many species grow in pastures and amateurs misidentify psilocybes.
Amanita muscaria Psilocybe semilanceata In the United States mushroom picking is popular in the Appalachian area and on the west coast from San Francisco Bay northward, in northern California and Washington, in many other regions. British enthusiasts today enjoy an extended average picking season of 75 days compared to just 33 in the 1950s. In Japan, particular mushroom types are hunted, with particular importance given to delicacies such as the Matsutake mushroom. In Slavic countries and Baltic countries, mushroom picking is a common family activity. After a heavy rain during the mushroom season whole families venture into the nearest forest, picking bucketfuls of mushrooms, which are cooked and eaten for dinner upon return or alternatively dried or marinated for consumption; the popularity of mushroom pic
Appellation d'origine contrôlée
The appellation d'origine contrôlée is the French certification granted to certain French geographical indications for wines, cheeses and other agricultural products, all under the auspices of the government bureau Institut national des appellations d'origine, now called Institut national de l'origine et de la qualité. It is based on the concept of terroir; the origins of AOC date to the year 1411. The first French law on viticultural designations of origin dates to August 1, 1905, whereas the first modern law was set on May 6, 1919, when the Law for the Protection of the Place of Origin was passed, specifying the region and commune in which a given product must be manufactured, has been revised on many occasions since then. On July 30, 1935, the Comité National des appellations d'origine, with representatives of the government and the major winegrowers, was created to manage the administration of the process for wines at the initiative of deputy Joseph Capus. In the Rhône wine region Baron Pierre Le Roy Boiseaumarié, a trained lawyer and winegrower from Châteauneuf-du-Pape obtained legal recognition of the "Côtes du Rhône" appellation of origin in 1936.
After World War II the committee became the public-private Institut National des Appellations d'Origine. The AOC seal was mandated by French laws in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. On July 2, 1990, the scope of work of the INAO was extended beyond wines to cover other agricultural products. AOCs vary in size; some cover vast expanses with a variety of climatic and soil characteristics, while others are small and uniform. For example, the Côtes du Rhône AOC "covers some 400 square kilometres, but within its area lies one of the smallest AOCs, Château-Grillet, which occupies less than 4 hectares of land." The INAO guarantees that all AOC products will hold to a rigorous set of defined standards. The organization stresses that AOC products will be produced in a consistent and traditional manner with ingredients from classified producers in designated geographical areas; the products must further be aged at least in the respective designated area. Under French law, it is illegal to manufacture and sell a product under one of the AOC-controlled geographical indications if it does not comply with the criteria of the AOC.
AOC products can be identified by a seal, printed on the label in wines, with cheeses, on the rind. To prevent any possible misrepresentation, no part of an AOC name may be used on a label of a product not qualifying for that AOC; this strict label policy can lead to confusion in cases where towns share names with appellations. If the town of origin of a product contains a controlled appellation in its name, the producer is enjoined from listing anything more than a cryptic postal code. For example, there are a dozen townships in l'Aude that have Cabardès in their names, several of which are not within the geographical boundaries of the Cabardès AOC. Any vineyard that produces wine in one of those towns must not mention the name of the town of origin on the product labels. There are over 300 French wines entitled to the designation AOC on their label. Legislation concerning the way vineyards are identified makes recognizing the various AOCs challenging for wine drinkers not accustomed to the system.
Distinguishing classifications requires knowledge of esoteric label laws such as "Unless the wine is from a Premier Cru vineyard, the vineyard name must be printed in characters no more than half the height of the ones used for the village name"On the other hand, while the process of label approval is enforced to the millimetre, the quality control for the wine in the bottle is much less strict. While a blind taster must approve the wine for it to receive AOC classification, this tasting occurs before the product is bottled, by a local expert who may well have ties to the local vintners. If the taster is objective, the wine sample may not be representative of the actual product, there is no way to verify that the finished bottled product is the same as the original AOC sample. In 1925, Roquefort became the first cheese to be awarded an AOC label, since over 40 cheeses have been assigned AOC status. On August 15, 1957, the National Assembly gave AOC status to the poultry of Bresse. In 2006, it awarded AOC status to salt marsh lamb raised in the Bay of the Somme.
In 1981, the AOC label was given to Haute-Provence Lavender Essential Oil. It refers to a high-quality production and concerns only the essential oil of fine lavender - Lavandula angustifolia; the fields must be located within a specific territory at a minimum altitude of 800 meters. This geographic area covers 284 communities in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Hautes-Alpes, Drôme and Vaucluse regions. Lentils from Le Puy-en-Velay have AOC status. Honey from the island of Corsica has been given AOC status. There are six certified varietals of Corsican honey: Printemps, Maquis de printemps, Miellats du maquis, Châtaigneraie, Maquis d'été, Maquis d'automne. France recognizes the Charente, Charente-Maritime, Deux-Sèvres and Vendée AOC regions for butter; the Beurre Charentes-Poitou has been assigned AOC status in 1979. Armagnac, Calvados and Martinique Rhum Agricole all have AOC status. Many other countries have based their controlled place name systems on th