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Triceratops

Triceratops is a genus of herbivorous ceratopsid dinosaur that first appeared during the late Maastrichtian stage of the late Cretaceous period, about 68 million years ago in what is now North America. It is one of the last known non-avian dinosaur genera, became extinct in the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago; the name Triceratops, which means "three-horned face", is derived from the Ancient Greek words τρί- meaning "three", κέρας meaning "horn", ὤψ meaning "face". Triceratops has been documented by numerous remains collected since the genus was first described in 1889 by Othniel Charles Marsh. Specimens representing life stages from hatchling to adult have been found; as the archetypal ceratopsid, Triceratops is one of the most popular dinosaurs, has been featured in film, postal stamps, many other types of media. Bearing a large bony frill and three horns on the skull, its large four-legged body possessing similarities with the modern rhinoceros, Triceratops is one of the most recognizable of all dinosaurs and the best-known ceratopsid.

It was one of the largest, up to nine metres long and twelve tonnes in weight. It shared the landscape with and was preyed upon by Tyrannosaurus, though it is less certain that the two did battle in the manner depicted in museum displays and popular images; the functions of the frills and three distinctive facial horns on its head have long inspired debate. Traditionally, these have been viewed as defensive weapons against predators. More recent interpretations find it probable that these features were used in species identification and dominance display, much like the antlers and horns of modern ungulates. Triceratops was traditionally placed within the "short-frilled" ceratopsids but modern cladistic studies show it to be a member of the Chasmosaurinae which have long frills. Two species, T. horridus and T. prorsus, are considered valid today, from the seventeen species that have been named. Research published in 2010 concluded that the contemporaneous Torosaurus, a ceratopsid long regarded as a separate genus, represents Triceratops in its mature form.

This view was disputed with examination of more fossil evidence needed to settle the debate. Individual Triceratops are estimated to have reached about 7.9 to 9 metres in length, 2.9 to 3.0 m in height, 6.1 to 12.0 tonnes in weight. The most distinctive feature is their large skull, among the largest of all land animals; the largest-known skull is estimated to have been 2.5 m in length when complete, could reach a third of the length of the entire animal. A specimen of T. horridus named Kelsey measured 7.3 m long with a 1.98 m skull, stood about 2.3 m tall, was estimated by the Black Hills institute to weight nearly 6 t. A Triceratops 8 m long has been estimated by Gregory S. Paul to have massed 9 t. Like all chasmosaurines, Triceratops had a large skull relative to its body size; the front of the head was equipped with a high toothless beak. The core of the top beak was formed by a special rostral bone. Behind it, the premaxillae bones were located, embayed from behind by large circular nostrils.

In chasmosaurines, the premaxillae met on their midline in a complex bone plate, the rear edge of, reinforced by the "narial strut". From the base of this strut, a triangular process jutted out into the nostril. Triceratops differs from most relatives. Behind the toothless premaxilla, the maxilla bore thirty-six to forty tooth positions, in which three to five teeth per position were vertically stacked; the teeth were appressed, forming a "dental battery" curving to the inside. The skull bore a single horn above the nostrils. In Triceratops, the nose horn is sometimes recognisable as the epinasal; the skull featured a pair of "brow" or supraorbital horns 1 m long, with one above each eye. The jugal bones pointed to below at the rear sides of the skull and were capped by separate epijugals. With Triceratops these were not large and sometimes touched the quadratojugals; the bones of the skull roof were fused. By a folding of the frontal bones, a "double" skull roof was created. In Triceratops, some specimens show an opening in the upper roof layer.

The cavity between the layers invaded the bone cores of the brow horns. At the rear of the skull, the outer squamosal bones and the inner parietal bones grew into a short, bony frill, adorned with epoccipitals in young specimens; these were low triangular processes on the frill edge, representing separate skin ossifications or osteoderms. With Triceratops specimens there are two epoccipitals present on each parietal bone, with an additional central process on their border; each squamosal bone had five processes. Most other ceratopsids had large parietal fenestrae, openings, in their frills, but those of Triceratops were noticeably solid, unless the genus Torosaurus represents mature Triceratops individuals. Under the frill, at the rear of the skull, a huge occipital condyle, up to 106 millimetres in diameter, connected the head to the neck; the lower jaws were elongated and met at their tips in a shared epidentary bone, the core of the toothless lower beak. In the dentary bone, the tooth battery curved to the outside to meet the battery of the upper jaw.

At the rear of the lower jaw, the articular bone was exceptionally wide, matching the general width of the jaw joint. T. Horridus can be distinguished from T. prorsu

Lexus UX

The Lexus UX is a subcompact luxury crossover SUV from Lexus, a luxury division of Toyota. It was introduced at the March 2018 Geneva Motor Show as the smallest crossover model in Lexus' lineup, slotted below the compact NX, it is the first Lexus model to use the GA-C platform. It is planned to be offered with both internal combustion engine and battery electric vehicle powertrains; the "UX" name stands for "Urban Explorer". According to Lexus, the vehicle has a “bold and stylish design that blends expressive bodywork with a compact size”. Lexus espouses the UX’s “crossover credentials” via “exceptional body rigidity and a low center of gravity for exceptional handling”; the UX comes equipped with Lexus Safety System+ 2.0 as standard equipment. The UX 200 is powered by a 2.0 L M20A-FKS I4 petrol engine mated with a Direct Shift continuously variable transmission/CVT. The UX 250h is powered by a 2.0 L M20A-FXS I4 petrol hybrid engine mated with an eCVT. It is available in E-Four all-wheel drive system.

The UX 300e is a battery electric variant of the UX, which has a claimed electric range of 400 km on the NEDC test cycle or 299 km on the WLTP test cycle. In North America, the production of UX started in the fourth quarter of 2018 and sales commenced in December for the 2019 model year; the UX introduced in 80 countries worldwide. The UX is the first Lexus to be offered by a subscription service, it was launched in December 2018. The UX made its Asian debut at the August 2018 Gaikindo Indonesia International Auto Show; the UX was previewed in Malaysia during the 2018 Kuala Lumpur International Motor Show and was launched in Singapore at the 2019 Singapore Motor Show. Indian sales began in August 2019. European sales began in October 2018. Australian sales began in the first quarter of 2019. Official website

Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression

The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression called the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, abbreviated HAM-D, is a multiple item questionnaire used to provide an indication of depression, as a guide to evaluate recovery. Max Hamilton published the scale in 1960 and revised it in 1966, 1967, 1969, 1980; the questionnaire is designed for adults and is used to rate the severity of their depression by probing mood, feelings of guilt, suicide ideation, agitation or retardation, weight loss, somatic symptoms. The HRSD has been criticized for use in clinical practice as it places more emphasis on insomnia than on feelings of hopelessness, self-destructive thoughts, suicidal cognitions and actions. An antidepressant may show statistical efficacy when thoughts of suicide increase but sleep is improved, or for that matter, an antidepressant that as a side effect increase sexual and gastrointestinal symptom ratings may register as being less effective in treating the depression itself than it is. Hamilton maintained.

The original 1960 version contained 17 items, but four other questions not added to the total score were used to provide additional clinical information. Each item on the questionnaire is scored on a 3 or 5 point scale, depending on the item, the total score is compared to the corresponding descriptor. Assessment time is about 20 minutes; the patient is rated by a clinician on 17 to 29 items scored either on a 3-point or 5-point Likert-type scale. For the 17-item version, a score of 0–7 is considered to be normal while a score of 20 or higher is required for entry into a clinical trial. Questions 18–20 may be recorded to give further information about the depression, but are not part of the scale. A structured interview guide for the questionnaire is available. Although Hamilton's original scale had 17 items, other versions included up to 29 items. Other scales include the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Wechsler Depression Rating Scale, the Raskin Depression Rating Scale, the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, other questionnaires.

Diagnostic classification and rating scales used in psychiatry Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders List of psychology topics Receiver operating characteristic HRSD online calculator "The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression". Archived from the original on 2007-11-20. Retrieved 2007-11-25. Clinically Useful Psychiatric Scales: HAM-D. Accessed March 6, 2009. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale - Original scientific paper published in 1960 in Psychiatry out of Print website. Accessed June 27, 2008. Commentary on the HRSD by Max Hamilton, July 10, 1981, in "This Week's Citation Classic", Current Contents 33: 325, in website of Eugene Garfield, Ph. D.. Accessed June 27, 2008. Side-by-side comparison of the MADRS and the HDRS-24 in "Description of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration, 2007. Accessed June 27, 2008