The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a halocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It is a clear non-flammable liquid with a sweet smell, it should not be confused with the similar 1,1,1-trichloroethane, known as chlorothene. The IUPAC name is trichloroethene. Industrial abbreviations include TCE, Trike and tri, it has been sold under a variety of trade names. Under the trade names Trimar and Trilene, trichloroethylene was used as a volatile anesthetic and as an inhaled obstetrical analgesic in millions of patients. Groundwater and drinking water contamination from industrial discharge including trichloroethylene is a major concern for human health and has precipitated numerous incidents and lawsuits. Pioneered by Imperial Chemical Industries in Britain, its development was hailed as an anesthetic revolution. Thought to possess less hepatotoxicity than chloroform, without the unpleasant pungency and flammability of ether, TCE use was nonetheless soon found to have several pitfalls; these included promotion of cardiac arrhythmias, low volatility and high solubility preventing quick anesthetic induction, reactions with soda lime used in carbon dioxide absorbing systems, prolonged neurologic dysfunction when used with soda lime, evidence of hepatotoxicity as had been found with chloroform.
The introduction of halothane in 1956 diminished the use of TCE as a general anesthetic. TCE was still used as an inhalation analgesic in childbirth given by self-administration. Fetal toxicity and concerns for carcinogenic potential of TCE led to its abandonment in developed countries by the 1980s. Due to concerns about its toxicity, the use of trichloroethylene in the food and pharmaceutical industries has been banned in much of the world since the 1970s. Legislation has forced the substitution of trichloroethylene in many processes in Europe as the chemical was classified as a carcinogen carrying an R45 risk phrase, May cause cancer. Many degreasing chemical alternatives are being promoted such as Leksol. Groundwater contamination by TCE has become an important environmental concern for human exposure. In 2005 it was announced by the United States Environmental Protection Agency that the agency had completed its Final Health Assessment for Trichloroethylene and released a list of new TCE toxicity values.
The results of the study have formally characterized the chemical as a human carcinogen and a non-carcinogenic health hazard. A 2011 toxicological review performed by the EPA continues to list trichloroethylene as a known carcinogen. Prior to the early 1970s, most trichloroethylene was produced in a two-step process from acetylene. First, acetylene was treated with chlorine using a ferric chloride catalyst at 90 °C to produce 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane according to the chemical equation HC≡CH + 2 Cl2 → Cl2CHCHCl2The 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane is dehydrochlorinated to give trichloroethylene; this can be accomplished either with an aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide 2 Cl2CHCHCl2 + Ca2 → 2 ClCH=CCl2 + CaCl2 + 2 H2Oor in the vapor phase by heating it to 300-500 °C on a barium chloride or calcium chloride catalyst Cl2CHCHCl2 → ClCH=CCl2 + HClToday, most trichloroethylene is produced from ethylene. First, ethylene is chlorinated over a ferric chloride catalyst to produce 1,2-dichloroethane. CH2=CH2 + Cl2 → ClCH2CH2ClWhen heated to around 400 °C with additional chlorine, 1,2-dichloroethane is converted to trichloroethylene ClCH2CH2Cl + 2 Cl2 → ClCH=CCl2 + 3 HClThis reaction can be catalyzed by a variety of substances.
The most used catalyst is a mixture of potassium chloride and aluminum chloride. However, various forms of porous carbon can be used; this reaction produces tetrachloroethylene as a byproduct, depending on the amount of chlorine fed to the reaction, tetrachloroethylene can be the major product. Trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene are collected together and separated by distillation. Trichloroethylene is an effective solvent for a variety of organic materials; when it was first produced in the 1920s, trichloroethylene's major use was to extract vegetable oils from plant materials such as soy and palm. Other uses in the food industry included coffee decaffeination and the preparation of flavoring extracts from hops and spices, it has been used for removing residual water in the production of 100% ethanol. From the 1930s through the 1970s, both in Europe and in North America, trichloroethylene was used as a volatile anesthetic invariably administered with nitrous oxide. Marketed in the UK by ICI under the trade name Trilene it was coloured blue to avoid confusion with the similar smelling chloroform.
TCE replaced earlier anesthetics chloroform and ether in the 1940s, but was itself replaced in the 1960s in developed countries with the introduction of halothane, which allowed much faster induction and recovery times and was easier to administer. Trilene was used as a potent inhaled analgesic during childbirth, it was used with halothane in the Tri-service field anaesthetic apparatus used by the UK armed forces under field conditions. As of 2000, however, TCE was still in use as an anesthetic in Africa, it has been used as a dry cleaning solvent, although replaced in the 1950s by tetrachloroethylene, except for spot cleaning where it was used until the year 2000. Trichloroethylene was marketed as'Ecco 1500 Anti-Static Film Cleaner and Conditioner' until 2009, for use in automatic movie film cleaning machines, for manual cleaning with lint-free wipes. Perhap
Disambiguation: for the 1998 film, see Galaxy Express 999: Eternal FantasyEternal Fantasy is a Japanese adult visual novel developed by Circus, released on November 22, 2007 for Microsoft Windows, as both a standard edition and a limited edition. The gameplay in Eternal Fantasy follows a linear plot line, which offers pre-determined scenarios and courses of interaction, focuses on the appeal of the main female characters, but differs from traditional visual novel in that the player is allowed to navigate in an overworld map from a top-down perspective, its utilization of a combat system; the gameplay in Eternal Fantasy utilizes three different styles of gameplay. The game features an overworld map and a combat system, typical to role-playing video games, a visual novel system. While on the overworld map, a scaled-down depiction of the game's fictional landscape, the player is allowed to navigate between locations from a top-down perspective. Upon entering locations in the overworld map, the game shifts to a visual novel-style gameplay.
Gameplay in this segment requires little player interaction as most of the duration of the game is spent on reading the text that appears on the screen, which represents either dialogue between characters, or the inner thoughts of the protagonists. Every so the player will come to a "decision point" where he or she is given the chance to choose from options that are displayed on the screen two to three at a time. Gameplay pauses at these points until the player makes a choice, depending on which choice the player makes, the plot will progress in a specific direction. At times, the player will be engaged in combat. Combat in Eternal Fantasy utilizes a real-time battle system, with the player taking control of one member of the party, while other characters are controlled by AIs; each character and enemy has a certain number of hit points. Players may reduce hit points by wounding targets using different types of physical and magical attacks, may restore their hit points by healing themselves using items.
When a character loses all his or her hit points, he or she faints, if all of the player's characters lose all of their hit points, the game ends, the player may either restore their progress from a saved location or before battle. Attacks from characters are restricted by a countdown gauge similar to Square Enix's Active Time Battle system, players can only issue attacks and place movements when the gauge is empty. There are multiple plot lines. To view all of the plot lines, the player will need to replay the game multiple times, access different areas and make different choices to progress the plot in an alternate direction. One of the goals of the gameplay is to view the hentai scenes, depicting one of the protagonists having sexual intercourse with one of the heroines. Eternal Fantasy is the tenth game developed by Circus' Northern subdivision not counting re-releases, is their first game not in the Da Capo canon since AR: Forgotten Summer. Eternal Fantasy is notable for having a large development team for a visual novel.
The producer for the visual novel is Tororo, who has produced and composed for most of Circus Northern's past titles. Planning and the original story was done by Futsumamu, who contributed in character designs, along with Eko, Natsuki Tanihara, Soba Aki and Mochi Chinochi. Scenario work was split between six people, Masaki Sonoda, Fumihiko Kuwabara, Shingo Hifumi, Mori no Me, Shin Gotō. A free demo version of Eternal Fantasy was released online on November 10, 2007; the demo introduced players to the gameplay. The full game was released on November 2007, as both a limited edition and a regular edition; the limited edition contained the game itself, a 64-page book containing development materials, a colored 20 page illustration book, a special original soundtrack disc, a map of the Gladio peninsula. An internet radio titled D. C. to EF being produced by Onsen began streaming online on October 11, 2007. The show is based on Eternal Fantasy and Da Capo II, is hosted by Ai Hinaki, Hijiri Kinomi, Aya Tachibana, who voiced Locomoco and Arcie in the visual novel respectively.
Two sets of two CDs, each containing thirteen episodes streamed online and a special episode was released on August 15, 2008. Carolina - Hikaru Kaga Arche - Aya Tachibana Farute - Hijiri Kinomi Ryurika - Megumi Haruka Euretta - Ayako Nakagawa Rokomoko - Ai Hinaki Prills - Minami Hokuto Saint - Minami Hokuto Witch - Minami Hokuto Tiraiyuru - Ayumu Nakazawa Idea - Shinsuke Fukui Ron - Ryou Itou Efumeru - Mayumi Shindou Erehia - Sayaka Aoki/Rumiko Sasaki Feresu - Hijiri Kinomi Scotti - Hideyuki Umedsu Eternal Fantasy has three main theme songs, the opening theme is "Eternal Fantasy: Love is like a Flower that Spreads over the World", the ending theme is Love's Song, the grand ending theme is When that Flower Blooms; the opening theme and the ending theme were performed by Sena, was written by Tororo, while the grand ending theme was performed by Aki Misato. The main theme songs were accompanied by eight insert songs, six for each of the heroines, one for boss battles, one played during the climax of the storyline.
Arcie's insert song was performed by Yoshino.
Palak Kour Bijral is an Indian individual rhythmic gymnast. She represents her nation at international competitions, she competed including at the 2013 World Rhythmic Gymnastics Championships. In 2014 she competed at the 2014 Commonwealth Games, her father introduced her to gymnastics when she was five to improve her posture and body shape. Bijral trained 6–8 hours a day. An open practice at the gym until 2 p.m. and a second practice in afternoon lasting until 9 p.m. She made her international debut competing on the novice level at the 2008 at 4th Children Of Asia International Games, Russia Sher-i-Kashmir Sports Award in 2006. State Award 2014–15. All Round Best Award from His Excellency President of India Sh. R. N. Kovind in 2018. Palak Kour Bijral on Instagram Palak Kour Bijral on Twitter Palak Kour Bijral on Wordpress Blogs