Trichomes, from the Greek τρίχωμα meaning "hair", are fine outgrowths or appendages on plants, algae and certain protists. They are of diverse function. Examples are hairs, glandular hairs and papillae. A covering of any kind of hair on a plant is an indumentum, the surface bearing them is said to be pubescent. Certain filamentous, algae have the terminal cell produced into an elongate hair-like structure called a trichome; the same term is applied to such structures in some cyanobacteria, such as Spirulina and Oscillatoria. The trichomes of cyanobacteria may be unsheathed, as in Oscillatoria, or sheathed, as in Calothrix; these structures play an important role in preventing soil erosion in cold desert climates. The filamentous sheaths form a persistent sticky network. Trichomes have many different features that vary between both species of plants and organs of a singular plant; these features affect the subcategories. Some defining features include: Straight, Spiral or Hooked Presence of cytoplasm Glandular vs. Eglandular Tortuous, Peltate, Stellate Adaxial vs. Abaxial determines whether trichomes are present on the upper surface or inner surface of the plantIn a model organism, C. salvifolius, there are more abaxial trichomes present on this plant because this surface suffers from more UV, solar irradiance light stress than the adaxial surface.
Trichomes can protect the plant from a large range of detriments, such as UV light, insects and freeze intolerance. Trichomes on plants are epidermal outgrowths of various kinds; the terms emergences or prickles refer to outgrowths. This distinction is not always applied. There are nontrichomatous epidermal cells that protrude from the surface. A common type of trichome is a hair. Plant hairs may be multicellular, branched or unbranched. Multicellular hairs may have several layers of cells. Branched hairs can be tufted, or stellate, as in Arabidopsis thaliana. Another common type of trichome is the scale or peltate hair, that has a plate or shield-shaped cluster of cells attached directly to the surface or borne on a stalk of some kind. Common examples are the leaf scales of bromeliads such as the pineapple and sea buckthorn. Any of the various types of hairs may be glandular, producing some kind of secretion, such as the essential oils produced by mints and many other members of the family Lamiaceae.
In describing the surface appearance of plant organs, such as stems and leaves, many terms are used in reference to the presence and appearance of trichomes. The most basic terms used are glabrous—lacking hairs— and pubescent—having hairs. Details are provided by: glabrous, glabrate -- lacking trichomes. Several basic functions or advantages of having surface hairs can be listed, it is that in many cases, hairs interfere with the feeding of at least some small herbivores and, depending upon stiffness and irritability to the palate, large herbivores as well. Hairs on plants growing in areas subject to frost keep the frost away from the living surface cells. In windy locations, hairs break up the flow of air across the plant surface. Dense coatings of hairs reflect sunlight, protecting the more delicate tissues underneath in hot, open habitats. In addition, in locations where much of the available moisture comes from fog drip, hairs appear to enhance this process by increasing the surface area on which water droplets can accumulate.
Glandular trichomes have been vastly studied though they are only found on about 30% of plants. Their function is to secrete metabolites for the plant; some of these metabolites include: terpenoids, which have many functions in the plant related to growth and development phenylpropanoids, which have a role in many plant pathways, such as secondary metabolites, stress response, act as the mediators of plant interactions in the environment flavonoids methyl ketones acylsugars Non-glandular trichomes are important for plant protection against UV light. The model plant, Cistus salvifolius, is found in areas of high-light stress and poor soil conditions, along the Mediterranean coasts, it contains non-glandular and dendritic trichomes that have the ability to synthesize and store polyphenols that both affect absorbance of radiation and plant desiccation. These trichomes contains acetylated, which can absorb UV-B and non-acetylated flavonoids, which absorb the longer wavelength of UV-A. Non-glandular trichomes in the genus Cistus were found to contain presences of ellagitannins, glycosides, a
Tecoh Municipality is one of 106 municipalities in Yucatán State, Mexico. Located 40 km south-east of Mérida, Yucatán, it has a municipal capital of the same name. As of 2003, the city Tecoh had a population of about 8,500 people. Most of the population is Maya. A number of buildings in the town were built atop older Pre-Columbian foundations. "Tecoh" means "Place of the Puma" in the Yucatec Maya language, still spoken here. Most of the farms in Tecoh are used to grow henequen, sugar and tropical fruit; the municipality is made up of 20 communities, of which the most important are: Tecoh Xcanchakan Telchaquillo Lepan Pixya Cenote Nayah A church erected in honor of the Virgin de la Candelaria, a chapel in honor of the Santa Cruz and a church dedicated to the Virgin de la Asunción. Hacienda Itzincab Cámara Hacienda Oxtapacab Hacienda Sotuta de Peón Hacienda Xcanchakán The archaeological site of Mayapan. Tecoh on colonial-mexico.com
The 2013–14 RFU Championship, known for sponsorship reasons as the Greene King IPA Championship, was the fifth season of the professionalised format of the RFU Championship, the second tier of the English rugby union league system run by the Rugby Football Union. It was held between 14 September 2013 and 4 June 2014, it was contested by one from Jersey in the Channel Islands. It was the first Championship season with a title sponsor, as the Rugby Football Union and Greene King Brewery reached a deal by which the brewery would become the competition's main sponsor from 2013–14 through to 2016–17. After being promoted after an appeal in the previous season, London Welsh were relegated back into the RFU Championship after finishing last in the 2012-13 English Premiership; as a result of relegation, they remained at the Kassam Stadium in Oxford instead of returning to their home ground of Old Deer Park in London in order to strengthen their support base. London Welsh replaced Newcastle Falcons who were promoted into the English Premiership after winning the play-off final against Bedford Blues.
Doncaster Knights were relegated to the 2013–14 National League 1 and were replaced by the champions of National League 1, Ealing Trailfinders who played in the RFU Championship for the first time. The twelve clubs in the 2013–14 RFU Championship participated in the 2013–14 edition of the British and Irish Cup along with clubs from Wales and Ireland. Matches in the RFU Championship were broadcast on Sky Sports; the Championship's structure had all the teams playing each other on a home and away basis. In a change to previous years, this season commenced with an extra round of games in the "Greene King IPA Big Rugby Weekend". Matches were played on the weekend of 14 and 15 September with three double headers at neutral grounds: Saracens' Allianz Park, Doncaster's Castle Park and Exeter's Sandy Park; the play–off structure remained the same as the previous year. The top four teams at the end of the home–and–away season qualified for the promotion play–offs, which followed a 1 v 4, 2 v 3 system.
The winners had to meet the RFU's Minimum Standards Criteria in order to be promoted to the Premiership. If they had failed to meet the criteria there would have been no promotion from the RFU Championship. However, on 9 May 2014, the RFU announced that all four play-off participants had met the Minimum Standards Criteria, assuring that the champion would indeed be promoted to the 2014–15 Premiership. There was no relegation play–off. Following an agreement with the RFU in 2012, each RFU Championship club received £355,000 in funding from the RFU for the season. Notes The 2013–14 RFU Championship kicked off on the weekend of 14 and 15 September with the "Greene King IPA Big Rugby Weekend", an extra round of matches played as three double headers at neutral grounds. Thereafter, each team played the other twice on a home and away basis with the top four qualifying for the promotion phase; this match was postponed due to a waterlogged pitch. It was rescheduled to 23 February; this match was postponed.
It has been rescheduled to 21 February. This match was postponed, it has been rescheduled to 22 February. This match was postponed due to a waterlogged pitch; this match was postponed after a pitch inspection at The Mennaye. It has been rescheduled to 16 March; this match – scheduled to be played in Round 15 on 7 February 2014 – was postponed as many parts of the pitch was under water. This match – scheduled to be played in Round 16 on 14 February 2014 – was postponed as the pitch was deemed unplayable; the match was again postponed due to an unplayable pitch. It will now be played on 15 March; this match – scheduled to be played in Round 13 on 26 January 2014 – was postponed due to a waterlogged pitch. This match – scheduled to be played in Round 16 on 14 February 2014 – was postponed as the pitch was deemed unplayable; the pitch was again found to be unplayable on the new date of 22 February, the match was postponed for the second time. This match – scheduled to be played in Round 16 on 15 February 2014 – was postponed due to a waterlogged pitch.
This match – scheduled to be played in Round 16 on 16 February 2014 – was postponed after a pitch inspection at The Mennaye. This result means and therefore are into the playoffs; this result means and therefore are into the playoffs. The semi–finals followed a 1 v 4, 2 v 3 system - with the games being played over two legs and the higher placed team deciding who played at home in the first leg. Note attendance statistics include 1st round with each team playing at the neutral venue considered the'home team' as well as playoff games 2013–14 British and Irish Cup RFU Championship news