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Trick-or-treating is a Halloween ritual custom for children and adults in many countries. Children in costumes travel from house to house, asking for treats with the phrase "Trick or treat"; the "treat" is some form of candy, although in some cultures money is given instead. The "trick" refers to a threat idle, to perform mischief on the homeowner or their property if no treat is given. Trick-or-treating occurs on the evening of October 31; some homeowners signal that they are willing to hand out treats by putting up Halloween decorations outside their doors. Houses may leave their porch light on as a universal indicator that they have candy. In Britain and Ireland, the tradition of going house to house collecting food at Halloween goes back at least as far as the 16th century, as does the tradition of people wearing costumes at Halloween. There are many accounts from 19th-century Britain and Ireland of people going house to house in costume at Halloween, reciting verses in exchange for food, sometimes warning of misfortune if they were not welcomed.

In North America, trick-or-treating has been a Halloween tradition since the 1920s. The earliest known occurrence there of the Scottish Halloween custom of "guising" – children going from house to house for food or money while disguised in costume – is from 1911, when children were recorded as having done this in Ontario, Canada. While going house to house in costume has long been popular among the Scots and Irish, it is only that saying "Trick or treat" has become common in Scotland and Ireland; the activity is prevalent in the United States, the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, Puerto Rico, northwestern and central Mexico. In the last, this practice is called calaverita, instead of "Trick or treat", the children ask, "¿Me da mi calaverita?", where a calaverita is a small skull made of sugar or chocolate. Traditions similar to the modern custom of trick-or-treating extend all the way back to classical antiquity, although it is unlikely that any of them are directly related to the modern custom.

The ancient Greek writer Athenaeus of Naucratis records in his book The Deipnosophists that, in ancient times, the Greek island of Rhodes had a custom in which children would go from door-to-door dressed as swallows, singing a song, which demanded the owners of the house to give them food and threatened to cause mischief if the owners of the house refused. This tradition was claimed to have been started by the Rhodian lawgiver Cleobulus. Since the Middle Ages, a tradition of mumming on a certain holiday has existed in parts of Britain and Ireland, it involved going door-to-door in costume, performing short scenes or parts of plays in exchange for food or drink. The custom of trick-or-treating on Halloween may come from the belief that supernatural beings, or the souls of the dead, roamed the earth at this time and needed to be appeased, it may otherwise have originated in a Celtic festival, held on 31 October–1 November, to mark the beginning of winter. It was Samhain in Ireland and the Isle of Man, Calan Gaeaf in Wales and Brittany.

The festival is believed to have pre-Christian roots. In the 9th century, the Catholic Church made 1 November All Saints' Day. Among Celtic-speaking peoples, it was seen as a liminal time, when the spirits or fairies, the souls of the dead, came into our world and were appeased with offerings of food and drink. Similar beliefs and customs were found in other parts of Europe, it is suggested that trick-or-treating evolved from a tradition whereby people impersonated the spirits, or the souls of the dead, received offerings on their behalf. S. V. Peddle suggests they "personify the old spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in exchange for good fortune". Impersonating these spirits or souls was believed to protect oneself from them. At least as far back as the 15th century, among Christians, there had been a custom of sharing soul-cakes at Allhallowtide. People would visit houses and take soul-cakes, either as representatives of the dead, or in return for praying for their souls. People went "from parish to parish at Halloween, begging soul-cakes by singing under the windows some such verse as this:'Soul, for a soul-cake.

They asked for "mercy on all Christian souls for a soul-cake". It was known as'Souling' and was recorded in parts of Britain, southern Germany, Austria. Shakespeare mentions the practice in his comedy The Two Gentlemen of Verona, when Speed accuses his master of "puling like a beggar at Hallowmas"; the wearing of costumes, or "guising", at Hallowmas, had been recorded in Scotland in the 16th century and was recorded in other parts of Britain and Ireland. There are many references to mumming, guising or souling at Halloween in Britain and Ireland during the late 18th century and the 19th century. In parts of southern Ireland, a man dressed as a Láir Bhán led youths house to house reciting verses—some of which had pagan overtones—in exchange for food. If the household donated food it could expect good fortune from the'Muck Olla', but if they refused to do so, it would bring misfortune. In Scotland, youths went house to house in white with masked, painted or blackened faces, reciting rhymes and threatening to do mischief if they were not welcomed.

In parts of Wales, peasant men went house to house dressed as fearsome beings called gwrachod, or presenting themselves as the cenhadon y meirw. In wes

National University of Music Bucharest

The National University of Music Bucharest is a university-level school of music located in Bucharest, Romania. Established as a school of music in 1863 and reorganized as an academy in 1931, it has functioned as a public university since 2001, it offered training in drama until 1950, when this function was taken over by two institutes which were reunited as the UNATC. The National University of Music is divided into two faculties: the Faculty of Composition and Musical Pedagogy and the Faculty of Performing Arts. Administratively, it is divided into the Department of Scientific Research and Artistic Activities, the Department of International Relations and European Programs, the Teacher Training Department, the Music Shows Department, the Low-Residency Program Department; the main building and Rectorate is situated at Ştirbei Vodă Street, 33. As of 2010, UNMB's Rector is Dan Dediu; the UNMB was established in June 1863 as the Music and Declamation Conservatory, by decree of Domnitor Alexandru Ioan Cuza.

It was a secondary education institution which included two main sections, the Institute of Vocal Music and the School of Instrumental Music, with branches in Bucharest and Iaşi, Moldavia's former capital. The Bucharest branch replaced the Philharmonic School, which offered lessons in acting; the institution's first director was composer Alexandru Flechtenmacher, under whose leadership the Conservatory gave courses in violin, Christian music choir, piano and singing. In 1900, composer Alfons Castaldi set up the first chamber music course. During the interwar period, the Conservatory grew to accommodate counterpoint, orchestration and music history classes. On July 17, 1931, it was turned into an academy placed under the patronage of King Carol II, renamed Royal Academy of Music and Dramatic Art; this was due to the efforts of one of Romania's most celebrated composers, George Enescu, named Honorary Professor. In the 1940s, the Academy was led by Mihail Jora, whom the institution itself credits with having revolutionized teaching methods by imposing more rigor and innovative approaches.

In the 1950s, under the communist regime, the Academy took the name of composer Ciprian Porumbescu, reverted to the name of Conservatory—the Ciprian Porumbescu Conservatory or Conservatorul Ciprian Porumbescu. At the time, it was divided into two faculties: Performing Art and Composition, Musicology, Orchestra Conducting and Pedagogy. In 1950, the drama department was turned into a separate Theater Institute, named after playwright Ion Luca Caragiale, it reunited with the Film Art Institute, a former branch of the Art Academy, in 1954, to form the UNATC. During this period, from 1950 to 1953, the veteran conductor George Georgescu, a close associate of Enescu who had himself studied cello at the institution a half century before, took his sole academic post, teaching the conducting class. In 2001, twelve years after the Romanian Revolution, the Romanian government awarded the institution the status of a National University. Magda Ianculescu Constantin Al. Ionescu-Caion Florica Musicescu Anda-Louise Bogza Elena Cernei Marius Constant Grigore Cugler Attila Dorn Elena Gaja George Georgescu Nicolae Herlea Hugo Jan Huss Magda Ianculescu Sorin Lerescu Myriam Marbe Silvia Marcovici Valentina Naforniță

Erwin Elster

Erwin Elster was a Polish painter and the co-founder of the Society of Artists "Świt". Erwin Elster completed his studies at the Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków between the years of 1907 to 1912, he completed his artistic studies by which he was awarded one silver medal, two bronze medals, as well as scholarships to Italy and France. For a year, between 1912 and 1913, he completed his further studies at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in France. After travelling back to Kraków in 1913, he began his career as an artist, while undertaking his life as a pedagogue, where he made his artwork and taught for the next sixty years. During World War I he spent his time in Bystra. From this time, many of his watercolour impressionist paintings come from, as well as his landscape paintings of the region, its architecture. Between the years of 1919 to 1954, he lived in Poznań where he made his artwork, he taught painting and drawing at the University of Fine Arts in Poznań, from 1922 at the Faculty of Architecture at the University of Technology in Poznań.

He has been active with the artists of region, co-founding the Society of Artists "Świt", in which he exhibited his work since 1927. The first members of "Świt" were: Fryderyk Pautsch, Adam Ballenstedt, Bronisław Bartel, Wiktor Gosieniecki, Stanisław Jagmin, Mieczysław Lubelski, Władysław Roguski, Stefan Sonnewend, Jan Jerzy Wroniecki. In the 1920s, he had taken part in the Formalism movement, had been part of the Society of Polish Artists "Sztuka". In 1928, he had been part of Poznań's "Plastyka", following which he had been part of the "Jednoróg", "Awangarda", with the Lwów's "Nowa Generacja". After World War II, he co-founded the Association of Polish Artists and Designers, he continued his work as a pedagogue, where he was a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts and the University of Technology in Łódź. During Socialist realism, the artist took part in a didactic role. In 1954, he moved to Gdańsk. In 1957, he was awarded with the Knight's Cross. In 1960, he retired as a professor, however he continued to work at the institution.

In 1967, for his eightieth birthday and sixty-fifth anniversary of him being an artist, he was given an award by the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage. He died in Gdańsk, in April 16, 1977

Ferry & Clas

Ferry & Clas was an architectural firm in Wisconsin. It designed many buildings. George Bowman Ferry and Alfred Charles Clas were partners. Works include: Emanuel D. Adler House, 1681 N. Prospect Ave. Milwaukee, WI NRHP-listed Brittingham Park Boathouse, N. Shore Dr. Madison, WI NRHP-listed Cass-Wells Street Historic District, 712, 718, 724 E. Wells St. and 801, 809, 815, 819, 823 N. Cass St. Milwaukee, WI NRHP-listed Central Library, 814 W. Wisconsin Ave. Milwaukee, WI NRHP-listed Columbus Fireman's Park Complex, 1049 Park Ave. Columbus, WI NRHP-listed Crisp Building, 1970 Main St. Sarasota, FL NRHP-listed Earle House, 4521 Bayshore Rd. Sarasota, FL NRHP-listed L. D. Fargo Public Library, 120 E. Madison St. Lake Mills, WI NRHP-listed First Unitarian Church, 1009 E. Ogden Ave. Milwaukee, WI NRHP-listed Freethinkers` Hall, 309 Polk St. Sauk City, WI NRHP-listed Hiram Smith Hall and Annex, 1545 Observatory Dr. Univ. of WI, Madison, WI NRHP-listed Hotel Whiting, 1408 Strongs Ave. Stevens Point, WI NRHP-listed Hutchinson Memorial Library, 228 N.

High St. Randolph, WI NRHP-listed Jackson District Library, 244 W. Michigan St. Jackson, MI NRHP-listed Knapp–Astor House, 930 E. Knapp St. and 1301 N. Astor St. Milwaukee, WI NRHP-listed Lake Park, 2900 N. Lake Dr. and 2800 E. Kenwood Blvd. Milwaukee, WI NRHP-listed Milwaukee Hospital, 2200 W. Kilbourn Ave. Milwaukee, WI NRHP-listed Nye House, 1643 N. Nye Ave. Fremont, NE NRHP-listed. Now houses the Louis E. May Museum and Dodge County Historical Society. Pabst Mansion, 2000 W. Wisconsin Ave. Milwaukee, WI NRHP-listed Saint James Court Apartments, 831 West Wisconsin Ave, Milwaukee, WI NRHP-listed Sauk City High School, 713 Madison St. Sauk City, WI NRHP-listed Sauk County Courthouse, 515 Oak St. Baraboo, WI NRHP-listed Franklyn C. Shattuck House, 547 E. Wisconsin Ave. Neenah, WI NRHP-listed Cathedral of St. John the Evangelist, 812 N. Jackson St. Milwaukee, WI NRHP-listed State Bank of Wisconsin, 210 E. Michigan St. Milwaukee WI NRHP-listed State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 816 State St. Madison, WI NRHP-listed Tripoli Temple, 3000 W. Wisconsin Ave. Milwaukee, WI NRHP-listed Tripp Memorial Library and Hall, 565 Water St. Prairie du Sac, WI NRHP-listed Jacob Van Orden House, 531 4th Ave. Baraboo, WI NRHP-listed.

Houses the museum of the Sauk County Historical Society. Joseph Vilas Jr. House, 610-616 N. 8th St. Manitowoc, WI NRHP-listed Wisconsin State Reformatory, SE corner of Riverside Dr. and SR 172, Allouez, WI NRHP-listed

Wortham Theater Center

The Wortham Theater Center is a performing arts center located in downtown Houston, United States. The Wortham Theater Center, designed by Eugene Aubry of Morris Architects, was built out of private funds totaling over $66 Million; the City of Houston owns the building, the Houston First Corporation operates the facility. The Wortham Theater Center launched on May 9, 1987; the inaugural performance, Tango Argentino, was performed in the Brown Theatre. The Knee Plays, written by Robert Wilson and lead singer David Byrne of The Talking Heads, was presented by the Society for the Performing Arts in the Cullen Theater. In 2017 it was damaged by Hurricane Harvey. A significant portion of the funding needed to build the center came from the estate of the late Gus Wortham, a local philanthropist and founder of American General Insurance Company; the Wortham Foundation contributed $20 million to the construction of the new Theater Center, named after Wortham. In spite of the banking and oil recession of the late 1980s, more than 3,500 donors committed funds for the new facility in a major community effort, with nearly 2,200 individuals donating $100 or less to the capital campaign.

Additionally, the Cullen Foundation contributed $7.5 million, the Brown Foundation gave $6 million to the building fund. The Brown Theater, with 2,405 seats, is named for George Brown, it is used for opera and large ballet productions by two resident companies: the Houston Ballet and the Houston Grand Opera. The Cullen Theater, with 1,100 seats, is named for Roy Cullen, it is used for other events. The Houston Ballet began its residency at the center on September 2, 1987, with Janie Parker and Li Cunxin starring in the world premiere of Ben Stevenson's production of Romeo and Juliet; this was followed by Houston Grand Opera's first season, on October 15, 1987, with Plácido Domingo and Mirella Freni in a production of Verdi's Aida. The glass entry archway, 88-feet tall, was designed to be the end of a glass atrium, but the atrium concept was considered incompatible with Houston's hot summer weather and the danger of hurricanes, so the atrium was omitted during construction. There had been a debate about how to re-design the entry section as a non-atrium structure, but the decision was to leave the connecting archway, as designed, enclose it with glass.

In the future, the archway could be extended, if an entry structure is added. The Helen Hayes Chandelier, hanging in the Green Room, was installed in 1911 at New York City's Fulton Theater. During the demolition of that theater, the chandelier was purchased by Houstonians Billy and Janie Lisa Price, who donated it to Wortham Center; the grand staircase, a bank of escalators, is surrounded by a site-specific illuminated installation by renowned New York sculptor Albert Paley. To avoid extensive last-minute debates about approving the sculpture by the artwork committee, the illuminated structure was categorized as an issue of lighting/electrical design, not subject to the artwork committee's oversight. A unique acoustic feature of the theater is its "frying pan" pods, accessible via walkways over the rear of the orchestra seating; this construction enables the music to flow between these pods and into sections of the opera hall, traditionally not considered a good listening area. The center was damaged by a flood caused by Hurricane Harvey in August 2017.

While the structure was undamaged, the storm and its aftermath left 12 feet of water and debris in the lower levels of the center. Management determined that repairs to the facility would take until at least September 2018. Water breached the backstage door and other locations, filling the entire basement with 12 feet of water which destroyed mechanical equipment, electrical gear, other building systems located in the basement level. Water filled the orchestra pits which were in the basement. There was other finishes on the ground level. A team including Turner Construction, HKA/ARUP, Manhattan Construction led the restoration of the theater and rehearsal spaces to its original glory. Jaffe Holden Acoustics provided acoustic and audio/video systems design services in eight short months to ensure the curtain could open in time for the fall 2018 Opera season. Official Website of the Wortham Theater Center Houston Grand Opera's website Houston Ballet's website Albert Paley Official Website

St. James Episcopal Church (Amesbury, Massachusetts)

St. James Episcopal Church is an historic parish in Amesbury, Massachusetts. St. James parish, in Amesbury, has its roots in 18th century Anglican worship, takes its present form from the Episcopal Church of the 19th century. Episcopalians were worshipping in Amesbury as early as 1711; the first Episcopal church was built in what is now known as Union Cemetery. Around 1760, King George III's Chapel, part of the Church of England, was built in the Pond Hill section of town, which was, at that time, the center of Amesbury. Services were held there until 1778, a time when one's political beliefs could change neighbors into enemies, as the Revolutionary War progressed. In this period, the Rev. Moses Badger of Haverhill conducted a service which included prayers for King George III. In the tempest that followed, the town authorities closed the parish disbanded; the Chapel was abandoned, there is no record of an active Episcopal Society in Amesbury until after 1825. The Episcopal Church in Amesbury was organized under the name of St. James on October 8, 1833.

The first services were held in Franklin Hall, located in Market Square at the site of the current Associates Building. Shortly thereafter, services were conducted in the Vestry Building of the Calvin Baptist Society on Market Street; this building was purchased in 1836 and moved to the congregation's present location at 120 Main Street. This first St. James Church building was consecrated on October 1836, by the Rt.. Rev. Alexander Griswold, Bishop of the Eastern Diocese. By 1845, the parish had outgrown this building, the first Building Fund Committee was elected to procure funds for a new, larger church. Within the year, the new church was built, consecrated on November 5, 1846; the original St. James Chapel building was sold to the Universalist Society for $24.50. On March 18, 1899, a fire started in the Opera House, directly across the street from the church; this inferno spread to adjacent business blocks, leaped the street, consumed both the Rand-Adams block and the church. All was left in a mass of smoldering ruins.

The small parish resolved to build a new and larger church, under the leadership of the rector, Rev. R. LeBlanc Lynch, plans were initiated, generous contributions from parishioners and the Diocese led to the construction of our present church; the cornerstone was laid on September 26, 1899, the present St. James Church was consecrated by the Rt. Rev. William Lawrence, Bishop of Massachusetts, on May 7, 1903. One century another devastating fire brought destruction to the neighborhood and threatened St. James: in 2001 the church sanctuary and hall were closed for a year by smoke and water damage. In 2006 St. James parted ways with James Place, an after-school program started at St. James under Fr. Mike Shirley; the Reverend Susan Esco-Chandler became a Priest-in-Charge at St. James in 2006, oversaw extensive renovations to the church and growth in children's programs, Christian education, membership. St James Amesbury website