Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms. Hibernation refers to a season of heterothermy that is characterized by low temperature, slow breathing and heart rate. Many experts believe that the processes of daily torpor and hibernation form a continuum, the equivalent during the summer months is known as aestivation. Some reptile species are said to brumate, or undergo brumation, some insects, such as the wasp Polistes exclamans, hibernate by aggregating together in groups in protected places called hibernacula. Often associated with low temperatures, the function of hibernation is to conserve energy during a period when sufficient food is unavailable, to achieve this energy saving, an endotherm will first decrease its metabolic rate, which decreases body temperature. Hibernation may last several days, weeks, or months depending on the species, ambient temperature, time of year, before entering hibernation, animals need to store enough energy to last through the entire winter.
Larger species become hyperphagic and eat a large amount of food, in many small species, food caching replaces eating and becoming fat. Some species of mammals hibernate while gestating young, which are born while the mother hibernates or shortly afterwards. For example, the polar bear goes into hibernation during the cold winter months to give birth to her offspring. She loses 15–27% of her weight and uses stored fats for energy during times of food scarcity. It is evident that pregnant female polar bears significantly increase body mass prior to hibernation, the fat accumulation prior to hibernation in female polar bears enables them to provide a sufficient and warm, nurturing environment for their newborns. Malagasy winter temperatures sometimes rise to over 30 °C, so hibernation is not exclusively an adaptation to low ambient temperatures, dausmann found that hypometabolism in hibernating animals is not necessarily coupled to a low body temperature. Hibernating bears are able to recycle their proteins and urine, allowing both to stop urinating for months and to avoid muscle atrophy.
Obligate hibernators are animals that spontaneously, and annually, enter hibernation regardless of ambient temperature and these undergo what has been traditionally called hibernation, the physiological state where the body temperature drops to near ambient temperature, and heart and respiration rates slow drastically. The cause and purpose of these arousals is still not clear, the question of why hibernators may experience the periodic arousals has plagued researchers for decades, and while there is still no clear-cut explanation, there are myriad hypotheses on the topic. One favored hypothesis is that hibernators build a sleep debt during hibernation and this has been supported by evidence in the Arctic ground squirrel. Another theory states that the periods of high body temperature during hibernation are used by the animal to restore its available energy sources. Yet another theory states that the frequent returns to high body temperature allow mammals to initiate an immune response, historically there was a question of whether or not bears truly hibernate, since they experience only a modest decline in body temperature compared with what other hibernators undergo
IUCN Red List
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, founded in 1964, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species. The International Union for Conservation of Nature is the main authority on the conservation status of species. A series of Regional Red Lists are produced by countries or organizations, the IUCN Red List is set upon precise criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies. These criteria are relevant to all species and all regions of the world, the aim is to convey the urgency of conservation issues to the public and policy makers, as well as help the international community to try to reduce species extinction. Major species assessors include BirdLife International, the Institute of Zoology, the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, assessments by these organizations and groups account for nearly half the species on the Red List. The IUCN aims to have the category of every species re-evaluated every five years if possible, the 1964 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants used the older pre-criteria Red List assessment system.
Plants listed may not, appear in the current Red List, IUCN advise that is best to check both the online Red List and the 1997 plants Red List publication. The 2006 Red List, released on 4 May 2006 evaluated 40,168 species as a whole, plus an additional 2,160 subspecies, aquatic stocks, on 12 September 2007, the World Conservation Union released the 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Russ Mittermeier, chief of Swiss-based IUCNs Primate Specialist Group, stated that 16,306 species are endangered with extinction,188 more than in 2006, the Red List includes the Sumatran orangutan in the Critically Endangered category and the Bornean orangutan in the Endangered category. The study shows at least 1,141 of the 5,487 mammals on Earth are known to be threatened with extinction, and 836 are listed as Data Deficient. The Red List of 2012 was released 19 July 2012 at Rio+20 Earth Summit, nearly 2,000 species were added, the IUCN assessed a total of 63,837 species which revealed 19,817 are threatened with extinction.
With 3,947 described as endangered and 5,766 as endangered. At threat are 41% of amphibian species, 33% of reef-building corals, 30% of conifers, 25% of mammals, the IUCN Red List has listed 132 species of plants and animals from India as Critically Endangered. Extinct – No known individuals remaining, extinct in the wild – Known only to survive in captivity, or as a naturalized population outside its historic range. Critically endangered – Extremely high risk of extinction in the wild, Endangered – High risk of extinction in the wild. Vulnerable – High risk of endangerment in the wild, near threatened – Likely to become endangered in the near future. Does not qualify for a more at-risk category and abundant taxa are included in this category. Data deficient – Not enough data to make an assessment of its risk of extinction, Not evaluated – Has not yet been evaluated against the criteria
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera whose forelimbs form webbed wings, making them the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight. By contrast, other mammals said to fly, such as flying squirrels, gliding possums, Bats do not flap their entire forelimbs, as birds do, but instead flap their spread-out digits, which are very long and covered with a thin membrane or patagium. About 70% of bat species are insectivores, most of the rest are frugivores, or fruit eaters. A few species, such as the bat, feed from animals other than insects, with the vampire bats being hematophagous. Bats are present throughout most of the world, with the exception of cold regions. They perform the vital roles of pollinating flowers and dispersing fruit seeds. Bats are economically important, as they consume insect pests, reducing the need for pesticides, the smallest bat is the Kittis hog-nosed bat, measuring 29–34 mm in length,15 cm across the wings and 2–2.6 g in mass. It is arguably the smallest extant species of mammal, with the Etruscan shrew being the other contender.
The largest species of bat are a few species of Pteropus, the Mexican free-tailed bat is the fastest flying animal in horizontal flight. An older English name for bats is flittermouse, which matches their name in other Germanic languages, middle English had bakke, most likely cognate with Old Swedish natbakka, which may have undergone a shift from -k- to -t- influenced by Latin blatta, nocturnal insect. They were formerly grouped in the superorder Archonta, along with the treeshrews, genetic studies have now placed bats in the superorder Laurasiatheria, along with carnivorans, odd-toed ungulates, even-toed ungulates, and cetaceans. A recent study by Zhang et al. places Chiroptera as a taxon to the clade Perissodactyla. The phylogenetic relationships of the different groups of bats have been the subject of much debate and this hypothesis recognized differences between microbats and megabats and acknowledged that flight has only evolved once in mammals. Most molecular biological evidence supports the view that bats form a single or monophyletic group, in the 1980s, a hypothesis based on morphological evidence was offered that stated the Megachiroptera evolved flight separately from the Microchiroptera.
The so-called flying primate hypothesis proposes that, when adaptations to flight are removed, one example is that the brains of megabats show a number of advanced characteristics that link them to primates. Although recent genetic studies support the monophyly of bats, debate continues as to the meaning of available genetic. Genetic evidence indicates that megabats originated during the early Eocene and should be placed within the four lines of microbats. Consequently, two new suborders based on molecular data have been proposed and these two new suborders are strongly supported by statistical tests
Oklahoma is a state located in the South Central United States. Oklahoma is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the 50 United States, the states name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning red people. The name was settled upon statehood, Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged, on November 16,1907, Oklahoma became the 46th state to enter the union. Its residents are known as Oklahomans, or informally Okies, and its capital, a major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, and biotechnology. In 2007, it had one of the economies in the United States, ranking among the top states in per capita income growth. Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahomas primary economic anchors, with nearly two-thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With small mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, interior Highlands—a region especially prone to severe weather.
The name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma, literally meaning red people, equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language used to describe Native American people as a whole. Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, and it was approved in 1890. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,898 square miles and it is one of six states on the Frontier Strip and lies partly in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, much of its border with Texas lies along the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen, a failed continental rift. The geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River, the Oklahoma panhandles Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border. The Oklahoma/New Mexico border is actually 2.1 to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line, the border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd Meridian, in the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd Meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, and the actual 103rd Meridian was approximately 2.2 miles to the east and it was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error. The placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd Meridian, cimarron County in Oklahomas panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states, New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle. The states lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level
The pallid bat is a species of bat that ranges from western Canada to central Mexico. It is the species of its genus and is closely related to Van Gelders bat. Although it has in the past been placed in its own subfamily or even family, it is now considered part of the subfamily Vespertilioninae and the tribe Antrozoini. Pallid bats have a head and body length of approximately 2.75 inches, a tail of approximately 1.75 inches, and these bats are large, with long forward pointing ears. Fur is pale at the roots, brown on their back, pallid bats have a blunt piglike snout. Pallid bats are found in arid or semi-arid habitats, often in mountainous or rocky areas near water. They are found over open, sparsely vegetated grasslands, during the day time, pallid bats typically roost in cracks and crevices, which may include tile roofs, exfoliating bark of trees, or rocky outcrops. During the night, this species often use a night roost that is closer to their foraging grounds than their day roost. A night roost is usually less protected than a day roost, in the winter time, this species may dip into shallow bouts of torpor, often in buildings, caves, or cracks in rocks.
Pallid bats are insectivores that feed on such as crickets. Pallid bats are gleaners, capturing prey from the ground and transporting it to their night roost for consumption, when foraging, pallid bats typically fly at low heights of 1–2 m off the ground. Pallid bats are a unique bat species because they are heterothermic and they have the ability to control their body temperature and equilibrate it with the environment during winter hibernation and whenever they rest. The mating season ranges from October to February, the female bat gives birth to one or two pups during early June, they weigh about 3 to 3.5 g at birth and in four or five weeks are capable of making short flights. They do not attain adult size until about eight weeks of age, like the majority of bat species, pallid bats are capable of using echolocation while foraging and traveling from their roost sites to foraging grounds. However, they may opt to not echolocate while foraging. This species is sensitive to noise disturbance when roosting, Bats of the United States Bats of Canada Cunningham, Eric.
Cardiovascular Systems Dynamics Lab.11 Feb 2007 <http, //ebat. tamu. edu/bats/>, species Profile at Bat Conservation International Rambaldini, Daniela A. and R. M. Brigham. Torpor use by free-ranging pallid bats at the extent of their range
Hawaiian hoary bat
The Hawaiian hoary bat or ʻōpeʻapeʻa is an endangered species of hairy-tailed bat that is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. Until 2015, they were considered a subspecies of the hoary bat, recent molecular research has shown that they form a distinct species. Since the continental hoary bat is found on the islands. It is a listed endangered taxon of the United States. The common name of the bat was inspired by the hoary or frosty appearance of its fur. The Hawaiian name, ʻōpeʻapeʻa, refers to the outline of the bats body, the Hawaiian hoary bat weighs 14 to 18 g. The female is larger than the male, with a wingspan of approximately 10.5 to 13.5 in, relatively little is known about the life history of the species. The fossil record indicates that the Hawaiian hoary bat was once present on the islands of Hawaiʻi, Molokaʻi, Maui, Oʻahu, and Kauaʻi, but documented breeding remains only Hawaiʻi and Kauaʻi. The complete loss of the bat from Oʻahu may have been caused by habitat loss as the population grew in the 19th century.
In 1970, the ʻōpeʻapeʻa was listed as a species under the Endangered Species Conservation Act of 1969. An endangered species is any species or subspecies that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range, the exact number of Hawaiian hoary bats is unknown, and the addition of the species to the list seems to have been precautionary. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service has approved a plan for the Hawaiian hoary bat. The goal is to move the bat from endangered to threatened status, according to the recovery plan, populations of the bat must increase for at least five consecutive years on all islands where it is present before it can be downlisted. A promising method of estimating the population is to monitor the bats echolocation calls, because this is the only known bat in Hawaii, any bat echolocation signals heard and recorded come from this subspecies, and this monitoring method does not interfere with the animal. Surveys indicate that the bat is opportunistic and can forage over many types, including native and non-native vegetation
Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day