A tricycle abbreviated to trike, is a human-powered three-wheeled vehicle. Some tricycles, such as cycle rickshaws and freight trikes, are used for commercial purposes in the developing world Africa and Asia. In the West, adult-sized tricycles are used for recreation and exercise. Tricycles are favoured by senior adults for their apparent stability versus a bicycle. Unconventional designs such as recumbents have a lower centre of gravity so require less care. A three-wheeled wheelchair was built in 1655 or 1680 by a disabled German man, Stephan Farffler, who wanted to be able to maintain his mobility. Since he was a watch-maker, he was able to create a vehicle, powered by hand cranks. In 1789, two French inventors developed a three-wheeled vehicle, powered by pedals. In 1818, British inventor Denis Johnson patented his approach to designing tricycles. In 1876, James Starley developed the Coventry Lever Tricycle, which used two small wheels on the right side and a large drive wheel on the left side.
In 1877, Starley developed a new vehicle he called the Coventry Rotary, "one of the first rotary chain drive tricycles." Starley's inventions started a tricycling craze in Britain. The first front steering tricycle was manufactured in 1881 by The Leicester Safety Tricycle Company of Leicester, brought to the market in 1882 costing £18, they developed a folding tricycle at the same time. Tricycles were used by riders who did not feel comfortable on the high wheelers, such as women who wore long, flowing dresses. In the UK, upright tricycles are sometimes referred to as "barrows". Many trike enthusiasts in the UK belong to the Tricycle Association, formed in 1929, they participate in day rides, time trials, a criterium series. A delta tricycle has one front wheel and two rear wheels. A tadpole tricycle has one rear wheel. Rear wheel steering is sometimes used, although this increases the turning circle and can affect handling; some early pedal tricycles from the late 19th century used two wheels in tandem on one side and a larger driving wheel on the other.
An in-line three-wheeled vehicle has two steered wheels, one at the front and the other in the middle or at the rear. Upright resembles a two-wheeled bicycle, traditionally diamond frame, or open frame, but with either two spaced wheels at the back or two wheels at the front; the rider straddles the frame in both tadpole configurations. Steering is through a handlebar directly connected to the front wheel via a conventional bicycle fork in delta, or via a form of Ackermann steering geometry in the case of the upright tadpole. All non-tilting trikes have stability issues and great care must be used when riding a non tilting upright trike; the center of gravity is quite high compared to recumbent trikes. Because of this, non-tilting trikes are more prone to tipping over in corners and on uneven or sloping terrain. Conversely, the rider enjoys better visibility than on a recumbent. Recumbent trikes' advantages include low aerodynamic drag. Disadvantages include greater cost and width; the low seat may make entry difficult, on the road they may be less visible to other traffic.
Recumbent delta is similar to an upright, with two wheels at the back and one at the front, but has a recumbent layout in which the rider is seated in a chair-like seat. One or both rear wheels can be driven. Steering is either through a linkage, with the handlebars under the seat or directly to the front wheel with a large handlebar; some delta trikes can be stored upright by lifting the front wheel and resting the top of the seat on the ground. Delta trikes have higher seats and a tighter turning radius than tadpole trikes; the tight turning radius is necessary if riding on trails with offset barriers, or navigating around placed obstacles. The higher seat makes dismounting easier. With the higher seat a delta trike can be quite stable provided most of the weight is shifted back towards the rear wheels. Many delta trikes place the seat too far forward and that takes weight off the two rear wheels and puts more weight onto the front wheel making the trike more unstable; the Hase Kettwiesel delta trike has an 18 in high seat, placed to put most of the weight onto the cambered rear wheels making it more stable.
Delta trikes are suitable to be used as manual scooters for rehab and/or exercise. The Hase Lepus Comfort is an example of a rehab delta trike designed for comfort and ease of use, it has a lowered front boom and the seat can be adjusted to a height of 20 to 28 in, which aids in mounting and dismounting. It has rear wheel suspension for comfort; the 56 lb Lepus can be folded for easier transportation. The weight of a delta trike can be quite close to the weight of a tadpole trike if they are both of a similar quality and similar materials are
The 2008 Triple J Hottest 100 was announced on Australia Day, 26 January 2009. It was the sixteenth countdown of the most popular songs of the year, as chosen by the listeners of Australian radio station, Triple J. Voting commenced on Boxing Day, 26 December 2008, closed on 18 January 2009; the second half of the countdown was broadcast live from Parramatta Park in New South Wales, with live crosses to the Big Day Out, held at Flemington Racecourse in Melbourne, Victoria. Over 800,000 votes were received, a record number. Note: Australian artists 101 was "All Alone" by Jackson Jackson. Four tracks Kings of Leon Vampire Weekend Nick Littlemore Three tracks MGMT The Presets Flight of the Conchords Birds of Tokyo The Grates Bliss n Eso Ladyhawke Lily Allen Two tracks Empire of the Sun The Ting Tings Drapht Pnau Cog Dizzie Rascal The Herd Josh Pyke The Killers Muph and Plutonic Laura Marling Australia – 48 United States – 29 United Kingdom – 14 New Zealand – 5 Iceland – 2 France – 1 Norway – 1 Bold winner of the Hottest 100.
Malvani cuisine is the standard cuisine of the South Konkan region of Maharashtra and Goa. Although Malvani cuisine is predominantly non-vegetarian, there are many vegetarian dishes. Although it is an independent cuisine, it overlaps Goan cuisine. Malvan is a town in the Sindhudurg district on the west coast of Maharashtra. Malvani cuisine uses coconut liberally in various forms such as grated, dry-grated, coconut paste and coconut milk. Many masalas have dried red chilies and other spices like coriander seeds, cumin, cardamom and garlic; some dishes use kokum, dried kokam and raw mango. The Malvani masala, a form of dried powder masala, is a combination of 15 to 16 dry spices; this masala is coarsely ground and stored in jars to be utilized. However, not all of the cuisine is spicy. Fish dishes dominate Malvani cuisine. Solkadhi is a pink-colored drink made from the kokam coconut milk. Kombdi vade, or chicken Malvani, consists of the traditional Malvani chicken curry, onion and solkadhi. Mori masala or shark curry is popular along the Konkan coast.
Solkadhi is an appetizer made from coconut kokam. It is served with kombdi vade and mutton Malvani. Bangda fry is a popular dish in Mumbai; the head of the bangda fish is removed and discarded and the other part is fried as a whole. Malvani mutton curry is a popular dish throughout the Konkan region, it is similar to Chicken Malvani except that the spices are different. Kavda curry is made from the khavda. Bombil fry or Bombay duck fry is a popular dish in north Konkan regions such as Mumbai and Raigad. Paplet saar is a dish consisting of pomfret cooked in traditional Malvani fish curry. Phanasachi bhaji is a vegetarian dish, made from raw jackfruit and grated coconut. Kaju chi or fakachi usal is a spicy curry of cajus. Prawn curry Kolambi fry is a common dish of prawns marinated in spices and rolled in a mixture of rice flour and semolina before frying. Kalya vatanyancha samara is a black pea curry made using Malvani masala. Dhondas or cucumber Cake is a baked preparation made from big ripe cucumber, coarse rice flour, grated coconut and jaggery.
Ghaavane is a pancake is popular in the Sindhudurg district. Khaproli is a sweet dish popular in southern Konkan; the dish consists of a fluffy pancake dipped in yellow sweet coconut milk. Tandalachi bhakri is a bhakri made of rice flour, it is the Malvani equivalent of the Maharashtrian jowari bhakri or bajri bhakri, popular throughout the Deccan. Ambolya is a type of bread made from fermented batter of rice and udad daal, served with coconut chutney or usal or sweetened Coconut milk. Shirvale is a type of Noodles made with rice flour served with sweetened Coconut milk. Ras-poli is a sweet deep-fried preparation popular in Maharashtra; the dish consists of a fried pancake served with sweetened coconut milk