Trier Cathedral

The High Cathedral of Saint Peter in Trier, or Trier Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Trier, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is the oldest church in Germany and the largest religious structure in Trier, notable for its long life span and grand design; the central part of the nave was built of Roman brick in the early fourth century, resulting in a cathedral, added onto in different eras. The imposing Romanesque westwork, with four towers and an additional apse, has been copied repeatedly; the Trier Cathedral Treasury contains an important collection of Christian art. In 1986 the church was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as part of the Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St. Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier. According to certain sources, the cathedral was commissioned by Emperor Constantine the Great and built on top of a palace of Saint Helen, his mother. Following the conversion of Constantine to Christianity, bishop Maximin is said to have coordinated the construction of a cathedral, which at the time was the grandest ensemble of ecclesiastical structures in the West outside Rome.

On a groundplan four times the size of the present cathedral no less than four basilicas, a baptistery and outbuildings were constructed. Archaeological research confirms that the current cathedral, as well as the adjacent cloisters and Church of Our Lady, is raised upon the foundations of ancient Roman buildings of Augusta Treverorum; the four piers of the crossing of the present church, as well as parts of the brick outer walls are remnants from this period. The fourth-century church was rebuilt, it was destroyed again by the Vikings in 882. Under Archbishop Egbert rebuilding started; the famous west façade dates from this period, although the apse was not finished until 1196. Throughout the centuries the church continued to be rebuilt and embellished, according to the fashion of the period with Gothic vaults, Renaissance sculptures and Baroque chapels, but the overall style of the building remains Romanesque with a Roman core. Large sections of Roman brickwork are visible on the north façade.

The imposing westwork of Trier Cathedral consist of five symmetrical sections and is typical of Romanesque architecture under the Salian emperors. The westwork was completed by Eberhard, its four towers are less symmetrically placed on both sides of the western apse. It served as an example for many other churches in Rhine-Meuse area; the Latin inscription above the clock on the tallest tower reads "NESCITIS QVA HORA DOMINVS VENIET". The east choir is less prominent, due to its built-in location and the addition of the Chapel of the Holy Tunic in the early 18th century; the interior measures 112.5 by 41 meter. It consists of three Romanesque naves with Gothic vaulting; the original Roman structure is difficult to read on the inside but its basic rectangular form may still be recognized in the three easternmost bays of the nave. The four original columns were changed into cruciform piers. A Baroque chapel for the relic of the Seamless robe of Jesus, recovered from the previous main altar in 1512, was added behind the east choir and is visible through an opening in the wall.

The west choir is decorated in the style of the German Baroque, so are the chapels of Our Lady and the Holy Sacrament, most of the altars in the church. A Romanesque tympanum depicts Christ with the Virgin Saint Peter; the main church organ appears old but dates from 1974. Henry I, archbishop of Trier Udo, archbishop of Trier Baldwin, archbishop of Trier Bohemond II, archbishop of Trier Richard von Greiffenklau zu Vollrads, archbishop-elector of Trier Lothar von Metternich, archbishop-elector of Trier Johann Hugo von Orsbeck, archbishop-elector of Trier Franz Georg von Schönborn, archbishop-elector of Trier The Seamless Robe of Jesus, the robe said to have been worn by Jesus shortly before his crucifixion, is the best-known relic of the cathedral, it is kept in an annex chapel and shown to the public infrequently, most in 2012. The skull of St. Helena, the mother of Emperor Constantine, is displayed in the east crypt of the cathedral, her drinking cup is kept in the cathedral's treasury as well as the so-called Egbert Shrine.

This is a decorated portable altar that contained the sole of a sandal of St. Andrew and other relics. Another reliquary from the same period contains a Holy Nail from the Cross of Jesus. Both objects are considered highlights of Ottonion goldsmithery; the Gothic cloisters were built between 1245 and 1270. They connect the Liebfrauenkirche. In the western section of the cloisters is a chapel where the cathedral's canons were buried. On the outside wall is a bell from 1682. Adjacent to the cloisters are several annex buildings; the so-called "Romanesque Room" was the former cathedral school. The "Gothic Room" was used for distributing bread to the poor. Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St. Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier UNESCO World Heritage Site Liebfrauenkirche, Trier Official Website History Historic photos Music

French Cookin' (Budd Johnson album)

French Cookin' is an album by saxophonist Budd Johnson, recorded in 1963 and released on the Argo label. "La Petite Valse" – 3:06 "Le Grisbi" – 5:44 "I Can Live with the Blues" – 4:33 "Darling, Je Vous Aime Beaucoup" – 4:38 "Under Paris Skies" – 4:25 "Hugues Blues" – 3:50 "Je Vous Aime" – 5:00 "Je T' Aime" – 4:20 Budd Johnson – tenor saxophone Hank Jonespiano Kenny Burrell, Everett Barksdaleguitar Milt Hintonbass Willie Rodriguezlatin percussion Osie Johnsondrums Joseph Venuto – marimba, vibraphone

Chief marshal of the branch

The ranks chief marshal of the branch and marshal of the branch were senior military ranks of the Soviet Armed Forces. Above the rank "marshal of the branch" is the rank "chief marshal of the branch". Both ranks are above the rank "colonel general" and equal to Soviet general of the army; the ranks of marshal of aviation and armoured troops branches were established on February 4, 1943, with a large 50mm wide, shoulder board star. When the rank of chief marshal was established on October 27, 1943, the size of the shoulder board's stars for marshals was made about 10mm smaller establishing the superiority of the marshal of the Soviet Union insignia. On October 27, 1943, the ranks of marshal of the branches engineer troops and signals were established. On the uniform tie, marshals wore the marshal's star of the 2nd level. In the branches, the rank of colonel general was followed by the next higher rank of marshal of the branch. While the rank of marshal of a branch was equal to the one of general of the army, the marshals of branches had the marshal's star of the 2nd level on the tie and the large 40mm star on the shoulder boards, but the general of the army had neither.

Generals of the army were given the 40mm star shoulder board and the marshal's star of the 2nd level on the tie in 1974. Marshals of branches were eligible for promotion to chief marshal of branch, neither was eligible for promotion to marshal of the Soviet Union. After 1984, the rank of marshal was preserved only in artillery; the rank of marshal stopped being conferred in these branches. The regulations of Russian Army, confirmed in 1993, unified the system of general ranks in all the branches: the ranks of marshal of artillery and marshal of aviation were replaced by the one of general of the army, the rank of chief marshal was cancelled; the ranks of chief marshal of the branches of aviation, armoured troops, engineer troops, signals were established October 27, 1943. The three former branches had had the corresponding ranks of marshal; when the rank of chief marshal was established, the size of the shoulder board's stars for all marshals except the now superior marshal of the Soviet Union were made about 10mm smaller and for chief marshals, the star was surrounded by a laurel wreath.

On the uniform tie, chief marshals wore the marshal's star of the 2nd level. During the next forty years, the ranks of chief marshal were conferred on deputy defense ministers – commanders of the corresponding branch; the ranks of chief marshal of engineer troops and chief marshal of signals, abolished in 1984, were never conferred on anybody. No chief marshal promotions were conferred after 1984; the youngest chief marshal was aviator Golovanov, 40 when promoted in 1944. Three of thirteen people who held the chief marshal rank did not retire normally: Novikov was imprisoned for seven years. Nikolai Nikolaevich Voronov. Alexander Evgenievich Golovanov. Pavel Fedorovich Zhigarev. Konstantin Andreevich Vershinin. Pavel Stepanovich Kutakhov. Boris Pavlovich Bugaev. Alexander Ivanovich Koldunov. Pavel Alexeevich Rotmistrov. Marshal of the Soviet Union Marshal of the branch Ranks and rank insignia of the Soviet Armed Forces 1943–1955, 1955–1991