Trillium

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Trillium
TrilliumErectum.jpg
Trillium erectum (red trillium)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Liliales
Family: Melanthiaceae
Tribe: Parideae
Genus: Trillium
L.
Type species
Trillium cernuum
Synonyms[2]
  • Delostylis Raf.
  • Phyllantherum Raf.
  • Huxhamia Garden
  • Trillidium Kunth
  • Esdra Salisb.

Trillium (trillium, wakerobin, tri flower, birthroot, birthwort) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Melanthiaceae. Trillium species are native to temperate regions of North America and Asia,[3][4] with the greatest diversity of species found in the southeastern United States, especially in Georgia, Tennessee, and Alabama.[5][6]

The genus was formerly treated in the family Trilliaceae of the (lily) order Liliales whereas the APG III system includes Trillium in tribe Parideae of the family Melanthiaceae.[7]

Description[edit]

Plants of this genus are perennial herbs growing from rhizomes. There are three large leaf-like bracts arranged in a whorl about a scape that rises directly from the rhizome. There are no true aboveground leaves but sometimes there are scale-like leaves on the underground rhizome; the bracts are photosynthetic and are sometimes called leaves. The inflorescence is a single flower with three green or reddish sepals and three petals in shades of red, purple, pink, white, yellow, or green. At the center of the flower there are six stamens and three stigmas borne on a very short style, if any; the fruit is fleshy and capsule-like or berrylike. The seeds have large, oily elaiosomes.[3][4]

Occasionally individuals have four-fold symmetry, with four bracts (leaves), four sepals, and four petals in the blossom.[8][better source needed]

Species[edit]

The Trillium genus has traditionally been divided into two subgenera, T. subg. Trillium and T. subg. Phyllantherum, based on whether the flowers are pedicellate or sessile (resp.). The former is considered the more primitive group of species.[3]

Unless otherwise noted, the species names used in this section have been accepted by The Plant List.[9]

North American species[edit]

More than three dozen Trillium species are found in North America.[3]

Subgenus Trillium[edit]

The species in this subgenus bear pedicellate flowers (on a short stalk) but lack mottled leaves.[10]

Subgenus Phyllantherum[edit]

The species in this subgenus bear sessile flowers (with no stalk) and have mottled leaves.[12]

Asian species[edit]

The remaining names accepted by The Plant List[9] belong to species found in Asia.

Other species[edit]

Distribution[edit]

Trillium species are native to North America and Asia.[3][4]

Canada[edit]

Trillium species are found across Canada, from Newfoundland to southern British Columbia; the greatest diversity of species are found in Ontario, Quebec, and Nova Scotia.[3]

  • Alberta: T. ovatum
  • British Columbia: T. ovatum
  • Manitoba: T. cernuum
  • New Brunswick: T. cernuum, T. erectum, T. undulatum
  • Newfoundland: T. cernuum
  • Northwest Territories: none
  • Nova Scotia: T. cernuum, T. erectum, T. grandiflorum, T. undulatum
  • Nunavut: none
  • Ontario: T. cernuum, T. erectum, T. flexipes, T. grandiflorum, T. undulatum
  • Prince Edward Island: T. cernuum, T. undulatum
  • Quebec: T. cernuum, T. erectum, T. grandiflorum, T. undulatum
  • Saskatchewan: T. cernuum
  • Yukon: none

United States[edit]

Except for the desert regions of the Southwestern United States, Trillium species are found throughout the contiguous U.S. states. In the Western United States, species are found from Washington to central California, east to the Rocky Mountain states of Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado. In the Eastern United States, species range from Maine to northern Florida, west to the Mississippi River Valley. Trillium species are especially diverse in the Southeastern United States, in Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina, and South Carolina.[3]

  • Alabama: T. catesbaei, T. cuneatum, T. decipiens, T. decumbens, T. flexipes, T. lancifolium, T. maculatum, T. pusillum, T. recurvatum, T. rugelii, T. sessile, T. stamineum, T. sulcatum, T. underwoodii, T. vaseyi
  • Alaska: none
  • Arizona: none
  • Arkansas: T. pusillum, T. recurvatum, T. sessile, T. viridescens
  • California: T. albidum, T. angustipetalum, T. chloropetalum, T. × crockerianum, T. kurabayashii, T. ovatum
  • Colorado: T. ovatum
  • Connecticut: T. cernuum, T. erectum, T. grandiflorum, T. undulatum
  • Delaware: T. cernuum, T. erectum, T. flexipes, T. grandiflorum
  • District of Columbia: T. cernuum
  • Florida: T. decipiens, T. lancifolium, T. maculatum, T. underwoodii
  • Georgia: T. catesbaei, T. cuneatum, T. decipiens, T. decumbens, T. discolor, T. erectum, T. grandiflorum, T. lancifolium, T. luteum, T. maculatum, T. persistens, T. reliquum, T. rugelii, T. simile, T. sulcatum, T. underwoodii, T. undulatum, T. vaseyi
  • Hawaii: none
  • Idaho: T. ovatum, T. petiolatum
  • Illinois: T. cernuum, T. erectum, T. flexipes, T. grandiflorum, T. nivale, T. recurvatum, T. sessile, T. viride
  • Indiana: T. cernuum, T. erectum, T. flexipes, T. grandiflorum, T. nivale, T. recurvatum, T. sessile
  • Iowa: T. cernuum, T. flexipes, T. grandiflorum, T. nivale, T. recurvatum
  • Kansas: T. sessile, T. viridescens
  • Kentucky: T. cuneatum, T. erectum, T. flexipes, T. grandiflorum, T. luteum, T. nivale, T. pusillum, T. recurvatum, T. sessile, T. sulcatum, T. undulatum
  • Louisiana: T. foetidissimum, T. gracile, T. ludovicianum, T. pusillum, T. recurvatum
  • Maine: T. cernuum, T. erectum, T. grandiflorum, T. undulatum
  • Maryland: T. cernuum, T. erectum, T. grandiflorum, T. nivale, T. pusillum, T. sessile, T. undulatum
  • Massachusetts: T. cernuum, T. erectum, T. grandiflorum, T. undulatum
  • Michigan: T. cernuum, T. erectum, T. flexipes, T. grandiflorum, T. nivale, T. recurvatum, T. sessile, T. undulatum
  • Minnesota: T. cernuum, T. flexipes, T. grandiflorum, T. nivale
  • Mississippi: T. cuneatum, T. foetidissimum, T. ludovicianum, T. pusillum, T. recurvatum, T. stamineum
  • Missouri: T. flexipes, T. nivale, T. pusillum, T. recurvatum, T. sessile, T. viride, T. viridescens
  • Montana: T. ovatum
  • Nebraska: T. nivale
  • Nevada: none
  • New Hampshire: T. cernuum, T. erectum, T. grandiflorum, T. undulatum
  • New Jersey: T. cernuum, T. erectum, T. grandiflorum, T. undulatum
  • New Mexico: none
  • New York: T. cernuum, T. erectum, T. flexipes, T. grandiflorum, T. sessile, T. undulatum
  • North Carolina: T. catesbaei, T. cuneatum, T. discolor, T. erectum, T. grandiflorum, T. luteum, T. pusillum, T. rugelii, T. sessile, T. simile, T. sulcatum, T. undulatum, T. vaseyi
  • North Dakota: T. cernuum
  • Ohio: T. cernuum, T. erectum, T. flexipes, T. grandiflorum, T. nivale, T. recurvatum, T. sessile, T. undulatum
  • Oklahoma: T. pusillum, T. sessile, T. viridescens
  • Oregon: T. albidum, T. kurabayashii, T. ovatum, T. petiolatum
  • Pennsylvania: T. cernuum, T. erectum, T. flexipes, T. grandiflorum, T. nivale, T. sessile, T. undulatum
  • Rhode Island: T. cernuum, T. erectum, T. undulatum
  • South Carolina: T. catesbaei, T. cuneatum, T. discolor, T. erectum, T. grandiflorum, T. lancifolium, T. maculatum, T. persistens, T. pusillum, T. reliquum, T. rugelii, T. undulatum, T. vaseyi
  • South Dakota: T. cernuum, T. flexipes, T. nivale
  • Tennessee: T. catesbaei, T. cuneatum, T. decumbens, T. erectum, T. flexipes, T. grandiflorum, T. lancifolium, T. luteum, T. pusillum, T. recurvatum, T. rugelii, T. sessile, T. simile, T. stamineum, T. sulcatum, T. undulatum, T. vaseyi
  • Texas: T. gracile, T. pusillum, T. recurvatum, T. viridescens
  • Utah: none
  • Vermont: T. cernuum, T. erectum, T. grandiflorum, T. undulatum
  • Virginia: T. cernuum, T. erectum, T. flexipes, T. grandiflorum, T. pusillum, T. sessile, T. sulcatum, T. undulatum
  • Washington: T. ovatum, T. petiolatum
  • West Virginia: T. cernuum, T. erectum, T. flexipes, T. grandiflorum, T. nivale, T. pusillum, T. sessile, T. sulcatum, T. undulatum
  • Wisconsin: T. cernuum, T. flexipes, T. grandiflorum, T. nivale, T. recurvatum
  • Wyoming: T. ovatum

Asia[edit]

In Asia, the range of Trillium species extends from the Himalayas across China, Korea, Japan, and eastern Russia to the Kuril Islands; the greatest diversity of Trillium species is found on the islands of Japan and Sakhalin.

Ecology[edit]

Trilliums are myrmecochorous, with ants as agents of seed dispersal. Ants are attracted to the elaiosomes on the seeds and collect them and transport them away from the parent plant; the seeds of Trillium camschatcense and T. tschonoskii, for example, are collected by the ants Aphaenogaster smythiesi and Myrmica ruginodis. Sometimes beetles interfere with the dispersal process by eating the elaiosomes off the seeds, making them less attractive to ants.[41]

Conservation[edit]

Trillium grandiflorum (great white trillium)

Picking parts off a trillium plant can kill it even if the rhizome is left undisturbed;[42] some species of trillium are listed as threatened or endangered and collecting these species may be illegal. Laws in some jurisdictions may restrict the commercial exploitation of trilliums and prohibit collection without the landowner's permission. In the US states of Michigan[42] and Minnesota[43] it is illegal to pick trilliums. In New York it is illegal to pick the red trillium.[44]

In 2009, a Private Members Bill was proposed in the Ontario legislature that would have made it illegal to in any way injure the common Trillium grandiflorum (white trillium) in the province (with some exceptions), however the bill was never passed;[45] the rare Trillium flexipes (drooping trillium) is also protected by law in Ontario, because of its decreasing Canadian population.[46]

High white-tailed deer population density has been shown to decrease or eliminate trillium in an area, particularly white trillium.[47]

Medicinal uses[edit]

Several species contain sapogenins, they have been used traditionally as uterine stimulants, the inspiration for the common name birthwort. In a 1918 publication, Joseph E. Meyer called it "beth root", probably a corruption of "birthroot". He claimed that an astringent tonic derived from the root was useful in controlling bleeding and diarrhea.[48]

Culture[edit]

The white trillium (Trillium grandiflorum) serves as the official flower and emblem of the Canadian province of Ontario, it is an official symbol of the Government of Ontario. The large white trillium is the official wildflower of Ohio.[49] In light of their shared connection to the flower, the Major League Soccer teams in Toronto and Columbus compete with each other for the Trillium Cup.

Trillium is the literary magazine of Ramapo College of New Jersey, which features poetry, fiction, photography, and other visual arts created by Ramapo students.[50]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Trillium". Tropicos. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  2. ^ "Trillium". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Case, Frederick W. "Trillium". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  4. ^ a b c d Liang, Songyun; Soukup, Victor G. "Trillium". Flora of China – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  5. ^ "Trilliums Species". United States Forest Service. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
  6. ^ "Trillium". County-level distribution maps from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014.
  7. ^ Zomlefer, Wendy B.; Williams, Norris H.; Whitten, W. Mark; Judd, Walter S. (2001). "Generic Circumscription and Relationships in the Tribe Melanthieae (Liliales, Melanthiaceae), with Emphasis on Zigadenus: Evidence from ITS and trnL-F Sequence Data". American Journal of Botany. 88 (9): 1657–1669. doi:10.2307/3558411. JSTOR 3558411. PMID 21669700.
  8. ^ Kevin Kirkland, Two 4-petaled trilliums found, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 11, 2013; Trillium erectum and Trillium grandiflorum examples are given.
  9. ^ a b "Trillium". The Plant List. Missouri Botanical Garden. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 7 August 2019.CS1 maint: others (link)
  10. ^ Case, Frederick W. "Trillium subg. Trillium". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  11. ^ "Trillium × crockerianum". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  12. ^ Case, Frederick W. "Trillium subg. Phyllantherum". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  13. ^ "Trillium oostingii". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  14. ^ "Trillium apetalon". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  15. ^ Makino, T. (1910). "Observations on the Flora of Japan". Botanical Magazine. Tokyo. 24: 137. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
  16. ^ "Trillium apetalon". Keeping It Green Nursery. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
  17. ^ "Trillium camschatcense". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  18. ^ "Trillium camschatcense". Flora of China – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  19. ^ "Trillium channellii". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  20. ^ Fukuda, Ichiro; Freeman, John D.; Itou, Masakazu (1996). "Trillium channellii, sp. nov. (Trilliaceae), in Japan, and T. camschatcense Ker Gawler, Correct Name for the Asiatic diploid Trillium". Novon. 6: 164–171.
  21. ^ "Trillium govanianum". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  22. ^ "Trillium govanianum". Flora of China – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  23. ^ a b "Trillium". Flora of Pakistan – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  24. ^ "Trillium × hagae". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  25. ^ "Trillium × komarovii". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  26. ^ "Trillium × miyabeanum". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  27. ^ "Trillium smallii". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  28. ^ "Trillium taiwanense". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  29. ^ "Trillium taiwanense". Flora of China – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  30. ^ "Trillium tschonoskii". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  31. ^ "Trillium tschonoskii". Flora of China – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  32. ^ "Trillium × yezoense". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  33. ^ "Trillium parviflorum V.G.Soukup". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 23 July 2019 – via The Plant List.
  34. ^ "Trillium parviflorum". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  35. ^ Case, Frederick W. "Trillium parviflorum". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). New York and Oxford. Retrieved 23 July 2019 – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  36. ^ Case, Frederick W. "Trillium rivale". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). New York and Oxford. Retrieved July 16, 2019 – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  37. ^ Weakley, Alan. "Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States".
  38. ^ "Search for Trillium tenesseense". NatureServe.
  39. ^ "Trillium lancifolium". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  40. ^ "Trillium tennesseense". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  41. ^ Ohara, M.; Higashi, S. (1987). "Interference by ground beetles with the dispersal by ants of seeds of Trillium species (Liliaceae)". The Journal of Ecology. 75 (4): 1091–98. doi:10.2307/2260316. JSTOR 2260316.
  42. ^ a b O'Connor, R. P.; Penskar, M. R. (2004). "Special plant abstract for Trillium undulatum (painted trillium)" (PDF). Lansing, MI, USA: Michigan Natural Features Inventory.
  43. ^ Wisconsin 2005 Minnesota Code – 18H.18 — Conservation of Certain Wildflowers. US Codes and Statutes: Minnesota.
  44. ^ Nuffer, B. (April 2009). "Red Trillium". New York State Conservationist. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.
  45. ^ Legislative Assembly of Ontario An Act to amend the Floral Emblem Act. Bill 184, Ontario Trillium Protection Act 2009.
  46. ^ "Drooping trillium". Government of Ontario. 2014-07-17. Retrieved 2018-09-22.
  47. ^ Rooney, Thomas P.; Gross, Kevin (2003). "A Demographic Study of Deer Browsing Impacts on Trillium grandiflorum". Plant Ecology. 168 (2): 267–277. doi:10.1023/A:1024486606698. JSTOR 20146481.
  48. ^ Meyer, J. E. The Herbalist and Herb Doctor. Hammond, IN: Indiana Herb Gardens, 1918, p. 50.
  49. ^ Adoption of the Ohio State Wildflower
  50. ^ "Trillium". Ramapo College of New Jersey.

External links[edit]