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Trilobite

Trilobites are a group of extinct marine arachnomorph arthropods that form the class Trilobita. Trilobites form one of the earliest-known groups of arthropods; the first appearance of trilobites in the fossil record defines the base of the Atdabanian stage of the Early Cambrian period, they flourished throughout the lower Paleozoic era before beginning a drawn-out decline to extinction when, during the Devonian, all trilobite orders except the Proetids died out. Trilobites disappeared in the mass extinction at the end of the Permian about 252 million years ago; the trilobites were among the most successful of all early animals, existing in oceans for 300 million years. By the time trilobites first appeared in the fossil record, they were highly diversified and geographically dispersed; because trilobites had wide diversity and an fossilized exoskeleton, they left an extensive fossil record. The study of their fossils has facilitated important contributions to biostratigraphy, evolutionary biology, plate tectonics.

Trilobites are placed within the arthropod subphylum Schizoramia within the superclass Arachnomorpha, although several alternative taxonomies are found in the literature. Trilobites had many lifestyles. Most lifestyles expected of modern marine arthropods are seen in trilobites, with the possible exception of parasitism; some trilobites are thought to have evolved a symbiotic relationship with sulfur-eating bacteria from which they derived food. The largest trilobites weighed 4.5 kilograms. Trilobites make a sudden appearance in the fossil record. There appears to be a considerable evolutionary gap from possible earlier precursors such as Spriggina floundersi, found in the 550 million year old Ediacaran-age rocks of Australia, thus predates trilobites by some 30 million years; the heat of the Cambrian sea may have contributed to trilobite emergence. However, evidence does suggest that significant diversification had occurred before trilobites were preserved in the fossil record, allowing for the "sudden" appearance of diverse trilobite groups with complex derived characteristics.

Morphological similarities between trilobites and earlier arthropod-like creatures such as Spriggina and other "trilobitomorphs" of the Ediacaran period of the Precambrian are ambiguous enough to make a detailed analysis of their ancestry complex. Morphological similarities between early trilobites and other Cambrian arthropods make analysis of ancestral relationships difficult as well. Early trilobites show all the features of the trilobite group as a whole; the earliest trilobites known from the fossil record are redlichiids and ptychopariid bigotinids dated to some 540 to 520 million years ago. Contenders for the earliest trilobites include Fritzaspis spp.. Hupetina antiqua and Serrania gordaensis. All trilobites are thought to have originated in present-day Siberia, with subsequent distribution and radiation from this location. All Olenellina lack facial sutures, this is thought to represent the original state; the earliest sutured trilobite found so far, occurs at the same time as the earliest Olenellina, suggesting the trilobites origin lies before the start of the Atdabanian, but without leaving fossils.

Other groups show secondary lost facial sutures, such as all some Phacopina. Another common feature of the Olenellina suggests this suborder to be the ancestral trilobite stock: early protaspid stages have not been found because these were not calcified, this is supposed to represent the original state. Earlier trilobites could shed more light on the origin of trilobites. Three specimens of a trilobite from Morocco, Megistaspis hammondi, dated 478 million years old contain fossilized soft parts. Trilobites saw diversity over time. For such a long-lasting group of animals, it is no surprise that trilobite evolutionary history is marked by a number of extinction events where some groups perished and surviving groups diversified to fill ecological niches with comparable or unique adaptations. Trilobites maintained high diversity levels throughout the Cambrian and Ordovician periods before entering a drawn-out decline in the Devonian, culminating in the final extinction of the last few survivors at the end of the Permian period.

Principal evolutionary trends from primitive morphologies, such as exemplified by Eoredlichia, include the origin of new types of eyes, improvement of enrollment and articulation mechanisms, increased size of pygidium, development of extreme spinosity in certain groups. Changes included narrowing of the thorax and increasing or decreasing numbers of thoracic segments. Specific changes to the cephalon are noted. Several morphologies appeared independently within different major taxa. Effacement, the loss of surface detail in the cephalon, pygidium, or the thoracic furrows, is a common evolutionary trend. Notable examples of this were the orders Agnostida and Asaphida, the suborder Illaenina of the Corynexochida. Effacement is bel

Basque–Icelandic pidgin

The Basque–Icelandic pidgin was a Basque-based pidgin spoken in Iceland in the 17th century. It consisted of Basque and Romance words. Basque whale hunters who sailed to the Icelandic Westfjords used the pidgin as a means of rudimentary communication with locals, it might have developed in Westfjords, where the manuscripts were written, but since it had influences from many other European languages, it is more that it was created elsewhere and brought to Iceland by Basque sailors. Basque entries are mixed with words from Dutch, French and Spanish; the Basque–Icelandic pidgin is thereby not a mixture between Basque and Icelandic, but between Basque and other languages. It was named from the fact that it was translated into Icelandic. Only a few manuscripts have been found containing Basque–Icelandic glossary, knowledge about the pidgin is limited. Basque whalers were among the first to catch whales commercially, they started coming to Iceland around 1600. In 1615, after becoming shipwrecked and getting into a conflict with the locals, Basque sailors were massacred in an event that would be known as the Slaying of the Spaniards.

Basques continued to sail to Iceland, but for the second half of the 17th century French and Spanish whalers are more mentioned in Icelandic sources. Only a few anonymous glossaries have been found. Two of them were found among the documents of 18th century scholar Jón Ólafsson of Grunnavík, titled: Vocabula Gallica. Written in the latter part of the 17th century, a total of 16 pages containing 517 words and short sentences, 46 numerals. Vocabula Biscaica. A copy written in the 18th century by Jón Ólafsson, the original is lost. Contains a total of 229 words and short sentences, 49 numerals; this glossary contains several pidgin phrases. These manuscripts were found in the mid-1920s by the Icelandic philologist Jón Helgason in the Arnamagnæan Collection at the University of Copenhagen, he copied the glossaries, translated the Icelandic words into German and sent the copies to professor C. C. Uhlenbeck at Leiden University in the Netherlands. Uhlenbeck had expertise in Basque, but since he retired from the university in 1926, he gave the glossaries to his post-graduate student Nicolaas Gerard Hendrik Deen.

Deen consulted with the Basque scholar Julio de Urquijo, in 1937, Deen published his doctoral thesis on the Basque–Icelandic glossaries. It was called Glossaria duo vasco-islandica and written in Latin, though most of the phrases of the glossaries were translated into German and Spanish. In 1986 Jón Ólafsson's manuscripts were brought back from Denmark to Iceland. There is evidence of a third contemporary Basque–Icelandic glossary. In a letter, the Icelandic linguist Sveinbjörn Egilsson mentioned a document with two pages containing "funny words and glosses" and he copied eleven examples of them; the glossary itself has been lost, but the letter is still preserved at the National Library of Iceland. There is no pidgin element in the examples. A fourth Basque–Icelandic glossary was found at the Houghton Library at Harvard University, it had been collected by the German historian Konrad von Maurer when he visited Iceland in 1858, the manuscript is from the late 18th century or the early 19th century.

The glossary was discovered around 2008, the original owner hadn't identified the manuscript as containing Basque text. Only two of the pages contain Basque–Icelandic glossary, the surrounding material includes unrelated things such as instructions about magic and casting love spells, it is clear that the copyist wasn't aware that they were copying Basque glossary, as the text has the heading "A few Latin glosses". Many of the entries are corrupted or wrong made by someone not used to writing. A large number of the entries aren't a part of Deen's glossary, so the manuscript is thought to be a copy of an unknown Basque–Icelandic glossary. A total of 68 words and phrases could be with some uncertainty; the manuscript Vocabula Biscaica contains the following phrases which contain a pidgin element: A majority of these words are of Basque origin: atorra, atorra'shirt' balia, balea'baleen whale' berria, berria'new' berrua, beroa'warm' biskusa, loan word bizkoxa'biscuit', nowadays meaning gâteau Basque bocata bustana, buztana'tail' eta, eta'and' galsardia, galtzerdia'the sock' gissuna, gizona'the man' locaria, lokarria'the tie/lace' sagarduna, sagardoa'the cider' ser, zer'what' sumbatt, zenbat'how many' travala, old Basque trabaillatu, related to French travailler and Spanish trabajar'to work' usnia, esnea'the milk' bura,'butter', from Basque Lapurdian loan word burra Some of the words are of Germanic origin: cavinit, old Dutch equivalent of modern German gar nichts'nothing at all' or Low German kein bit niet'not a bit' for in the sentence sumbatt galsardia for could be derived from many different Germanic languages for mi, English'for me' or Low German'för mi' for ju, English'for you' or Low German'för ju'And others come from the Romance languages: cammisola, Spanish camisola'shirt' fenicha, Spanish fornicar'to fornicate' mala, French or Spanish mal'bad' or'evil' trucka, Spanish trocar'to exchange'Although there are quite a few Spanish and French words listed in the glossaries, this is not a sign of the pidgin language, but rather a result of French and Spanish influence on the Basque language throughout the ages, since Basque has taken many loan words from its neighbouring languages.

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Eudlo railway station

Eudlo railway station is located on the North Coast line in Queensland, Australia. It serves the town of Eudlo in the Sunshine Coast Region, it is one of few stations. Eudlo railway station opened in 1891 as part of the section of the North Coast railway line from Landsborough to Yandina. In 1908, two goods trains collided in Yandina due to a signalling error. In 1911, a railway worker riding a railway tricycle was struck by a train. Although the tricycle was described as "smashed to atoms", the worker was not injured. In 1912, two trains collided. In 1924, a number of carriages were derailed from a goods train. In 1931, a wagon carrying petrol was derailed. In 1933, there was a head-on collision of the Townsville Express and a goods train, derailing the parlour car and the sleeping cars of the passenger train. On 2 September 1939, a passenger train was waiting at the Eudlo station for a freight train to pass, when a failure of the points resulted in the freight train colliding head-on with the passenger train.

Realising the collision was imminent, the fireman of the freight train jumped from the train but was killed by a wagon that overturned onto him. Fourteen other railway crew and passengers were injured. In 1942, eleven wagons were smashed. In 2009, the platform was extended at its northern end with plywood materials. Intended as an interim arrangement until a permanent extension was built, the temporary platform remains. Opposite the platform lies a passing loop. Eudlo is serviced by City network services to Brisbane and Gympie North. To relieve congestion on the single track North Coast line, the rail service is supplemented by a bus service operated by Kangaroo Bus Lines on weekdays between Caboolture and Nambour as route 649. Media related to Eudlo railway station at Wikimedia Commons Eudlo station Queensland Rail Eudlo station Queensland's Railways on the Internet