A castle is a type of fortified structure built in Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages by European nobility. Scholars debate the scope of the castle, but usually consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble. Usage of the term has varied over time and has applied to structures as diverse as hill forts. Over the approximately 900 years that castles were built, they took on a great many forms with different features, although some, such as curtain walls. A European innovation, castles originated in the 9th and 10th centuries, after the fall of the Carolingian Empire resulted in its territory being divided among individual lords and princes. Although their military origins are often emphasised in castle studies, the structures served as centres of administration. Many castles were built from earth and timber, but had their defences replaced by stone. Early castles often exploited natural defences, lacking features such as towers and arrowslits, in the late 12th and early 13th centuries, a scientific approach to castle defence emerged.
This led to the proliferation of towers, with an emphasis on flanking fire, many new castles were polygonal or relied on concentric defence – several stages of defence within each other that could all function at the same time to maximise the castles firepower. These changes in defence have been attributed to a mixture of castle technology from the Crusades, such as concentric fortification, not all the elements of castle architecture were military in nature, so that devices such as moats evolved from their original purpose of defence into symbols of power. Some grand castles had long winding approaches intended to impress and dominate their landscape, while castles continued to be built well into the 16th century, new techniques to deal with improved cannon fire made them uncomfortable and undesirable places to live. As a result, true castles went into decline and were replaced by artillery forts with no role in civil administration, and country houses that were indefensible. From the 18th century onwards, there was a renewed interest in castles with the construction of castles, part of a romantic revival of Gothic architecture.
The word castle is derived from the Latin word castellum, which is a diminutive of the word castrum, meaning fortified place. The Old English castel, Old French castel or chastel, French château, Spanish castillo, Italian castello, the word castle was introduced into English shortly before the Norman Conquest to denote this type of building, which was new to England. In its simplest terms, the definition of a castle accepted amongst academics is a fortified residence. Feudalism was the link between a lord and his vassal where, in return for service and the expectation of loyalty. Castles served a range of purposes, the most important of which were military, administrative, as well as defensive structures, castles were offensive tools which could be used as a base of operations in enemy territory
The Pale or the English Pale was the part of Ireland that was directly under the control of the English government in the late Middle Ages. It had been reduced by the late 15th century to an area along the east coast stretching from Dalkey, south of Dublin, the inland boundary went to Naas and Leixlip around the Earldom of Kildare, towards Trim and north towards Kells. In this district, many townlands have English or French names, the Norman invasion of Ireland, beginning in 1169, brought much of Ireland briefly under the theoretical control of the Plantagenet Kings of England. From the 13th century onwards, the Hiberno-Norman occupation in the rest of Ireland at first faltered, across most of Ireland the Normans increasingly assimilated into Irish culture after 1300. They made alliances with neighbouring autonomous Gaelic lords, in the long periods when there was no large royal army in Ireland, the Norman lords, like their Gaelic neighbours in the provinces, acted as effectively independent rulers in their own areas.
Parts can still be seen west of Clane on the grounds of what is now Clongowes Wood College, the military power of the crown itself was greatly weakened by the Hundred Years War, and the Wars of the Roses. The Parliament of Ireland was created, often sitting at Drogheda until the Tudors took greater interest in Irish affairs from 1485, the Pale generally consisted of fertile lowlands which were easier for the garrison to defend from ambush than hilly or wooded ground. For reasons of trade and administration, a version of English became the official language and its closest modern derivative is said to be the accent used by natives of Fingal. In 1366, so that the English Crown could assert its authority over the settlers, a parliament was assembled in Kilkenny, the statute decreed that inter-marriage between English settlers and Irish natives was forbidden. It forbade the settlers using the Irish language and adopting Irish modes of dress or other customs, the adoption of Gaelic Brehon property law, in particular, undermined the feudal nature of the Lordship.
The Act was never implemented successfully, even in the Pale itself, at a higher social level, there was extensive intermarriage between the Gaelic Irish aristocracy and Anglo-Norman lords, beginning not long after the invasion. The tax base shrank to a fraction of what it had been in 1300. There was a proverb quoted by Sir John Davies that “whoso lives by west of the Barrow, lives west of the law. ”The earls of Kildare ruled as Lords Deputy from 1470, aided by alliances with the Gaelic lords. This lasted until the 1520s, when the earls passed out of royal favour, a book was published in 1596 entitled “A Perambulation of Leinster and Louth, of which consist the English Pale”. The word pale derives ultimately from the Latin word pālus, meaning stake, from this came the figurative meaning of boundary and eventually the phrase beyond the pale, as something outside the boundary. Also derived from the concept was the idea of a pale as an area within which local laws were valid. The term was used not only for the Pale in Ireland but for various other English colonial settlements, in addition, the term Pale of Settlement was applied to the area in the west of Imperial Russia where Jews were permitted to reside.
This barrier consisted of a ditch, raised some ten or twelve feet from the ground, with a hedge of thorn on the outer side
Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge
Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge was the second son of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, and Isabella of Castile. At the age of forty, he was beheaded for his part in the Southampton Plot and he was the father of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and the grandfather of King Edward IV and King Richard III. Richard was born about 20 July 1375 at Conisbrough Castle, the son of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York. His godfather was King Richard II, Richard was two years younger than his brother, Edward. There is no record of his birth or baptism and others put his birth in 1385. Richard II was in York on 20 July 1385, and in 1375 the future king was only eight years old, it was unlikely he would have been a godfather at that age, and with his father still alive. Strangely, Richard received no lands from his father and was mentioned neither in his fathers will nor his brothers will and this circumstance has been taken by G. L. Pugh, further largess from the king might have been expected when Richard came of age, according to G. L.
Harriss, Richard of York received no favours from the new King, Henry IV. After Henry IVs accession, Richards annuities, his source of income, were either paid irregularly. From April 1403 to October 1404, Richard commanded a force defending Herefordshire against the Welsh rebel leader Owain Glyndŵr. However, it was during this period, according to T. B, that Richard established the relationships with the Mortimer and Cherleton families that brought about his marriage to Anne de Mortimer. Richard was knighted in July of that year, perhaps in anticipation of this embassy, as a result, he lacked the resources to equip himself properly for the expedition. Perhaps partly for this reason, Cambridge conspired with Lord Scrope and Sir Thomas Grey to depose King Henry and place his late wife Annes brother Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, on 31 July, Mortimer revealed the plot to the king. Later, he served on the commission that condemned Cambridge to death, although Cambridge pleaded with the king for clemency, he was beheaded on 5 August 1415 and buried in the chapel of Gods House at Southampton.
The fleet set sail for France a few later, on 11 August 1415. The Southampton Plot is dramatised in Shakespeares Henry V, and in the anonymous play, although Cambridges title was forfeited, he was not attainted, and his four-year-old son Richard was his heir. In the parliament of 1461, King Edward IV had the sentence that had passed on his grandfather, Earl of Cambridge, annulled as irregular. Early in 1408 Richard married Anne de Mortimer, the eldest of the four children of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, Anne was a niece of Richards stepmother Joan Holland
Battle of Wakefield
The Battle of Wakefield took place in Sandal Magna near Wakefield, in West Yorkshire in Northern England, on 30 December 1460. It was a battle of the Wars of the Roses. For several years before the battle, the Duke of York had become opposed to the weak King Henrys court. After King Henry became his prisoner for the time, he laid claim to the throne. Instead, he accepted the title of Protector, and a promise that he or his heirs would succeed Henry, Margaret of Anjou and several prominent nobles were irreconcilably opposed to this accord, and massed their armies in the north. Richard of York marched north to deal with them, but found he was outnumbered, although he occupied Sandal Castle, York sortied from the castle on 30 December. The Duke of York was killed and his army was destroyed, many of the prominent Yorkist leaders, King Henry VI ascended the throne when he was only nine months old. He grew up to be a king, and prone to spells of mental illness. There were increasingly bitter divisions among the officials and councillors who governed in Henrys name, by the early 1450s, the most important rivalry was that between Richard of York and Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset.
York had been Lieutenant in France for several years and resented being supplanted in that office by Somerset and his rival, belonged to the Beaufort family, who were distant cousins of King Henry. Originally illegitimate, the Beauforts had been made legitimate by an Act of Parliament but were barred from the line of succession to the throne. However, there was always the possibility that this could be circumvented and the Beaufort line eventually produced King Henry VII, York was appointed Lieutenant of Ireland, effectively exiling him from court, while Somerset increased his influence over the King. Then in 1453, Henry VI suffered a mental breakdown. The Great Council of peers appointed York Lord Protector and he governed the country responsibly, during Henrys madness his Queen, Margaret of Anjou, had given birth to a son, which dashed Yorks hopes of becoming king if Henry died. Fearing arrest for treason and his most prominent allies, at the First Battle of St Albans, many of Yorks and Salisburys rivals and enemies were killed, including Somerset, the Earl of Northumberland and Lord Clifford.
After the battle, York reaffirmed his loyalty to King Henry and he was reappointed Lord Protector and Lieutenant of Ireland. After an uneasy peace during which attempts at reconciliation failed, hostilities broke out again in 1459, Richard of York once again feared indictment for rebellion by a Great Council dominated by his opponents. York and the Nevilles promptly abandoned their troops and fled, the next day, the outnumbered and leaderless Yorkist army surrendered
High King of Ireland
The High Kings of Ireland were sometimes historical and sometimes legendary figures who had, or who are claimed to have had, lordship over the whole of Ireland. Medieval and early modern Irish literature portrays an almost unbroken sequence of High Kings, ruling from the Hill of Tara over a hierarchy of lesser kings, stretching back thousands of years. The concept of kingship is first articulated in the 7th century, but only became a political reality in the Viking Age. Early Irish kingship was sacred in character, in the early narrative literature a king is a king because he marries the sovereignty goddess, is free from blemish, enforces symbolic buada and avoids symbolic geasa. According to 7th and 8th century law tracts, a hierarchy of kingship and clientship progressed from the rí tuaithe through the ruiri to a rí ruirech. Each king ruled directly only within the bounds of his own petty kingdom and was responsible for ensuring good government by exercising fír flaithemon. His responsibilities included convening its óenach, collecting taxes, building works, external relations, emergency legislation, law enforcement.
The lands in a petty kingdom were held allodially by various fine of freemen, the king occupied the apex of a pyramid of clientship within the petty kingdom. This pyramid progressed from the population at its base up to the heads of noble fine held in immediate clientship by the king. Thus the king was drawn from the dominant fine within the cenél, the kings of the Ulster Cycle are kings in this sacred sense, but it is clear that the old concept of kingship coexisted alongside Christianity for several generations. Diarmait mac Cerbaill, king of Tara in the middle of the 6th century, diarmait died at the hands of Áed Dub mac Suibni, some accounts from the following century state that he died by the mythic Threefold death appropriate to a sacral king. Adomnáns Life tells how Saint Columba forecast the same death for Áed Dub, a second sign that sacred kingship did not disappear with the arrival of Christianity is the supposed lawsuit between Congal Cáech, king of the Ulaid, and Domnall mac Áedo.
Congal was supposedly blinded in one eye by Domnalls bees, from whence his byname Cáech, the business of Irish succession is rather complicated because of the nature of kingship in Ireland before the Norman take-over of 1171. Ireland was divided into a multiplicity of kingdoms, with some kings owing allegiance to others from time to time, Kings were often succeeded by their sons, but often other branches of the dynasty took a turn—whether by agreement or by force of arms is rarely clear. Unfortunately the king-lists and other sources reveal little about how. To add to the uncertainty, genealogies were often edited many generations to improve an ancestors standing within a kingdom, the uncertain practices in local kingship cause similar problems when interpreting the succession to the high kingship. The High King of Ireland was essentially a ceremonial, pseudo-federal overlord, in the case of the southern branch of the Uí Neill, this would have been the Kingdom of Meath. High Kings from the northern branch ruled various kingdoms in what became the province of Ulster
Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville
Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville, Countess of March, Baroness Mortimer, known as Jeanne de Joinville, was the daughter of Sir Piers de Geneville and Joan of Lusignan. She inherited the estates of her grandparents, Geoffrey de Geneville, 1st Baron Geneville and she was one of the wealthiest heiresses in the Welsh Marches and County Meath, Ireland. She was the wife of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and she succeeded as suo jure 2nd Baroness Geneville on 21 October 1314 upon the death of her grandfather, Geoffrey de Geneville. As a result of her husbands insurrection against King Edward II of England, following the execution of her husband in 1330 for usurping power in England, Joan was once more taken into custody. In 1336, her lands were restored to her after she received a pardon for her late husbands crimes from Edward IIs son and successor. Joan was born on 2 February 1286 at Ludlow Castle in Shropshire and she was the eldest child of Sir Piers de Geneville, of Trim Castle and Ludlow, whose father Sir Geoffrey de Geneville, 1st Baron Geneville, was Justiciar of Ireland.
Joan had two sisters and Beatrice who both became nuns at Aconbury Priory. She had two half-sisters from her mothers first marriage to Bernard Ezi III, Lord of Albret, Dame dAlbret and they both went to Ireland where they took seisin of Meath on 28 October of that same year. The baron died on 21 October 1314 at the House of the Friars Preachers at Trim, Joan married Roger Mortimer, eldest son of Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Baron Wigmore, and Margaret de Fiennes on 20 September 1301 at the manor of Pembridge. Marriage to Joan was highly beneficial to Mortimer as it brought him much influence, three years in 1304 he succeeded as Baron Mortimer, making Joan Baroness Mortimer. He was knighted on Whitsunday 22 May 1306 by King Edward I, the knighting ceremony took place in Westminster Abbey and was known as the Feast of the Swan as all those present made their personal vows upon two swans. Two hundred and fifty-nine other young men received knighthoods along with Mortimer including the Prince of Wales who would shortly afterwards succeed his father as Edward II, following the ceremony was a magnificent banquet held at the Great Hall of Westminster.
Upon taking seizen of her Irish lands in 1308, Joan and Mortimer travelled back and he described their union as having been a mutually beneficial secure medieval partnership. Together Joan and Mortimer had twelve surviving children, Margaret Mortimer, married Thomas de Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley, Roger Mortimer, married Joan Le Botiller Geoffrey Mortimer, Lord of Towyth, married Jeanne de Lezay, by whom he had issue. He was killed in a tournament at Shrewsbury sometime after 1328, Joan Mortimer, married James Audley, 2nd Baron Audley, by whom she had issue. She had issue by her second husband, Maud Mortimer, married John de Charlton, Lord of Powys, by whom she had issue. Blanche Mortimer, married Peter de Grandison, 2nd Baron Grandison, Mortimer was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland on 23 November 1316 and left for Ireland with a large force in February 1317. While there, he fought against the Scots Army led by Edward Bruce, the brother of Robert the Bruce, and Bruces Norman-Irish allies
Siege of Drogheda
The Siege of Drogheda took place on 3–11 September 1649 at the outset of the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. The coastal town of Drogheda was held by the Irish Catholic Confederation, after Aston rejected an offer to surrender, the town was stormed and much of the garrison was executed and an unknown but significant number of civilians were killed by the Parliamentarian troops. The outcome of the siege and the extent to which civilians were targeted is a significant topic of debate among historians. Since 1642, most of Ireland had been under the control of the Irish Catholic Confederation who had much of the country in the aftermath of the 1641 Irish rebellion. In 1648, the Irish Confederates allied themselves with the English Royalists to oppose the English Parliamentarians, with his New Model Army, Oliver Cromwell landed in Ireland in August 1649 to re-conquer the country on behalf of the English Parliament. Just before Cromwells landing, Dublin had been secured for the Parliamentarians at the Battle of Rathmines, after their defeat there the Royalists, under James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde, retreated in disarray.
Some of their Protestant regiments defected to the Parliamentarians and Ormonde had to rally the remaining dispersed forces so as to put together a new field army, on 23 August, the Royalists held a council of war at Drogheda. In attendance was James Tuchet, 3rd Earl of Castlehaven, Richard Nugent, 2nd Earl of Westmeath, Sir Arthur Aston, Sir Thomas Armstrong, Sir Robert Stewart, at the meeting it was resolved that the town should be held and four regiments were chosen for its defence. The garrison was composed of both English Royalists and Irish Confederate troops under Sir Aston, with a strength of about 2,550. The army was half Catholic, including Irish and some English Catholics, ormondes strategy was not to confront the Parliamentary forces in battle but to hold the towns in the east of Ireland and let his allies hunger and sickness weaken the invaders. Cromwells tactics at Drogheda were determined by a need to take the towns on Irelands east coast quickly to ensure re-supply for his troops.
The normal campaigning season, when armies could live off the land, Cromwell had landed in Ireland late in the year and campaigning through the winter necessitated securing a constant re-supply from the sea. Cromwell therefore favoured rapid assaults on fortified places over time-consuming blockades to secure the all-important ports, Cromwell arrived at Drogheda on 3 September and his siege guns, brought up by sea, arrived two days later. His total force was about 12,000 men and eleven heavy, 48-pounder, droghedas defences consisted of medieval curtain walls. These were high but relatively thin, making them vulnerable to cannon fire, Cromwell positioned his forces on the south side of the River Boyne in order to concentrate them for the assault, leaving the northern side of the town open and covered by a small screen of cavalry. A squadron of Parliamentarian ships blockaded the harbour of the town, the officers and soldiers of this Garrison were the flower of their Army. And their great expectation was, that our attempting this place would put fair to us, they being confident of the resolution of their men.
The Parliamentary commander set up his batteries at two points near the Duleek gate, on side of St Marys Church, where they would have an interlocking field of fire
County Meath is a county in Ireland. It is in the province of Leinster and is part of the Mid-East Region and it is named after the historic Kingdom of Meath. Meath County Council is the authority for the county. The population of the county is 194,942 according to the 2016 census, the county is drained by the River Boyne. Meath is the 14th largest of Ireland’s 32 counties in area and it is the second largest of Leinster’s 12 counties in size and third largest in terms of population. The county town is Navan, where the county hall and government are located, although Trim, County Meath has the only two Gaeltacht areas in the province of Leinster, at Ráth Cairn and Baile Ghib. There are eighteen historic baronies in the county and they include the baronies of Morgallion and Ratoath. While baronies continue to be officially defined units, they are no longer used for administrative purposes. Their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003, There are 40 elected members in Meath County Council.
Fine Gael hold 13 seats, Fianna Fáil hold 10, Sinn Féin hold 8, There are 2 Dáil constituencies, Meath West and Meath East. Before, there was only one constituency, the two current constituencies are within the borders of the county. The constituencies include part of the county of Westmeath. Together they return 6 deputies to Dáil Éireann, part of the county along the Irish Sea coast, known as East Meath which includes Julianstown and Laytown-Bettystown-Mornington are part of the Louth constituency for general elections. Fianna Fáil currently hold no seats, Fine Gael have 2 in each constituency, Labour has 1 in the East constituency, the county is colloquially known by the nickname The Royal County due to its history as the seat of the High King of Ireland. It formed from the part of the former Kingdom of Mide. The seat of the High King of Ireland was at Tara, the archaeological complex of Brú na Bóinne is 5,000 years old and includes the burial sites of Newgrange and Dowth, in the north-east of the county.
It is a UNESCO designated World Heritage Site, the Hill of Tara, an ancient historical site. Castles at Trim, Dunsany, religious ruins at Trim, Slane, Skryne
The term Norman architecture is used to categorise styles of Romanesque architecture developed by the Normans in the various lands under their dominion or influence in the 11th and 12th centuries. In particular the term is used for English Romanesque architecture. Ancient Romes invention of the arch is the basis of all Norman architecture, the more inclusive term romanesque was used of the Romance languages in English by 1715, and was applied to architecture of the eleventh and twelfth centuries from 1819. The Norman arch is a point of Norman architecture. Grand archways are designed to evoke feelings of awe and are commonly seen as the entrance to large religious buildings such as cathedrals. Viking invaders arrived at the mouth of the river Seine in 911, at a time when Franks were fighting on horseback and Frankish lords were building castles. Over the next century the population of the territory ceded to the Vikings, now called Normans, adopted these customs as well as Christianity and the langue doïl.
Norman Barons built timber castles on earthen mounds, beginning the development of motte-and-bailey castles, by 950 they were building stone keeps. The Normans were among the most travelled peoples of Europe, exposed to a variety of cultural influences including the Near East, some of which became incorporated in their art. In England, Norman nobles and bishops had influence before the Norman Conquest of 1066, edward the Confessor was brought up in Normandy, and in 1042 brought masons to work on Westminster Abbey, the first Romanesque building in England. In 1051 he brought in Norman knights who built castles as a defence against the Welsh. The Norman arch is the round arch, Norman mouldings are carved or incised with geometric ornament, such as chevron patterns, frequently termed zig-zag mouldings, around arches. The cruciform churches often had deep chancels and a crossing tower which has remained a feature of English ecclesiastical architecture. Hundreds of parish churches were built and the great English cathedrals were founded from 1083, after a fire damaged Canterbury Cathedral in 1174 Norman masons introduced the new Gothic architecture.
Around 1191 Wells Cathedral and Lincoln Cathedral brought in the English Gothic style, nicholas Church, Surrey Southwell Minster St. Mary the Virgin, Oxfordshire St. Swithuns in Nately Scures, Hampshire, an example of a Norman single-cell apsidal church. His successor Máel Coluim III overthrew him with English and Norman assistance, the Benedictine order founded a monastery at Dunfermline. Her sixth and youngest son who became King David built St. Margarets Chapel at the start of the 12th century, Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline grid reference NT089872 St Andrew Cathedral grid reference NO516166 St. With rare examples of late 12th century Norman Transitional architecture[3 The Normans first landed in Ireland in 1169, within five years earthwork castles were springing up, and in a further five, work was beginning on some of the earliest of the great stone castles
Trim, County Meath
Trim is a town in County Meath, Ireland. It is situated on the River Boyne and has a population of 8,268, the town is noted for Trim Castle - the largest Cambro-Norman castle in Ireland. It was once the county town but today that honour belongs to Navan, One of the two cathedrals of the United Dioceses of Meath and Kildare — St Patricks cathedral — is located north of the river. Trim won the Irish Tidy Towns Competition in 1972,1984, at an early date, a monastery was founded at Trim, which lay within the petty kingdom of the Cenél Lóegairi. When domestic politics endangered the position of Lommáns foundation, the church of Armagh assimilated Lommán into the dossier of St. Patrick, attackers burned the church several times in the twelfth century, during which it was refounded as an St. Marys Abbey under Augustinian rule. The abbey church was the sanctuary for Our Lady of Trim, the statue made Trim a major pilgrimage site from at least 1397. During the Reformation the statue was burned and Henry VIII dissolved the abbey, the abbeys bell tower, the Yellow Steeple, is the primary remnant of St.
Marys. With the spelling Áth Truim, the bishopric is listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. Its territory was joined to that of Meath Diocese, lying 61 m above sea level on the River Boyne, Trim became one of the most important Hiberno-Norman settlements in the Middle Ages. In the 15th century the Norman-Irish parliament met in Trim, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington is reputed to have been born in Dangan Castle between Trim and Summerhill, and a large column to him was erected in the town in 1817. Trim Castle is Irelands largest Norman castle and it was built in the late 12th century following the Norman invasion of Ireland. Trim and the lands were granted to Hugh de Lacy, Lord of Meath. Richard II of England stayed there before being ousted from power, once a candidate to be the countrys capital, the town has occupied a role as one of the outposts of the Pale, and sessions of the Irish Parliament were sometimes held here, as in 1542. It was designated by Elizabeth I of England as the location for a Protestant Dublin University.
However this was revised by Sir Francis Drake, who advocated the case for locating the University in Dublin, in 1649 after the sacking of Drogheda, the garrison of Trim fled to join other Irish forces and the town was occupied by the army of Oliver Cromwell. There were many disturbances in neighbouring villages in the Irish Rebellion of 1798, most infamously the battle on the Hill of Tara. Trim was represented by Arthur Wellesley in the Irish Parliament from 1790 to 1797, following the Great Irish Famine of 1846–1849, the practices of agriculture in the hinterland altered, with a change in emphasis from tillage to stock raising. This resulted in a change in the life of Trim
Castleknock is a suburb of Dublin and a civil parish in Fingal, Ireland. It is located 8 km west of the centre of Dublin, the N3 Navan Road serves the area. The Royal Canal and the Dublin-Sligo railway line pass through the area from east to west, the village of Castleknock is in the Dublin 15 postal area. The Dublin Suburban Rail the Western Suburban Railway Line or Maynooth Line running from Dublin Connolly to Maynooth, Castleknock railway station opened on 2 July 1990. As part of the governments Transport 21 strategy, a Metro line was planned, from the suburb of Tallaght, through the neighbourhood of Castleknock. Another stop will be provided at the Millennium Park with the line going around the perimeter rather than cutting through it as had originally been envisaged. It will proceed around by McDonalds before its major stop in Dublin 15 adjacent to Draíocht, the Civic Offices, and the shopping centre. Its path will continue around the Westend side of the centre, past Westpoint where it will cross the Navan Road.
Public transport in Castleknock is provided by Dublin Bus routes 37 and 38, the 37 bus runs from Blanchardstown Town Centre to Wilton Terrace, Baggot Street. Also, The 38 bus runs from Burlington Rd. Towards Damastown, St. Brigid is the patron saint of the village. Cnucha, the daughter of Concadh Cas, From the land of Luimncach broad and green, the woman was buried, a grief it was. In the very middle of the hill, So that from that on Cnucha Is its name until the judgment, the Barony of Castleknock was originally a feudal lordship created in the 12th century for the Tyrell family, it passed by inheritance to the Burnell family. The first Baron, Hugh Tyrrel, gave lands in the barony at Kilmainham to the Knights of St. John who continue in the today in the form of St. John Ambulance. Later, civil parishes, based on the boundaries of the Ecclesiastical parishes of the Established church were used to sub-divide the barony and this table lists the nine civil parishes of the barony. Note 1, the entire barony lies north of the River Liffey, the parish of St Judes, which consists of six townlands, is situated on both banks of the Liffey.
According to the 6 inch historical maps from the Ordnance Survey of Ireland that were created in 1829, only the map of 1889, at a scale of 25 inches, displays the parish. Within the civil parish of Castleknock, there are 22 townlands per the table below, like all civil parishes in Ireland, this civil parish is derived from, and co-extensive with, a pre-existing parish of the Church of Ireland. In 1837, Lewis directory reported that the living was a vicarage in the diocese of Dublin which was
Oliver Cromwell was an English military and political leader and Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England and Ireland. Cromwell was born into the gentry, albeit to a family descended from the sister of King Henry VIIIs minister Thomas Cromwell. Little is known of the first 40 years of his life as only four of his letters survive alongside a summary of a speech he delivered in 1628. He became an Independent Puritan after undergoing a conversion in the 1630s. He was a religious man, a self-styled Puritan Moses. He was elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in 1628 and for Cambridge in the Short and he entered the English Civil War on the side of the Roundheads or Parliamentarians. Cromwell was one of the signatories of King Charles Is death warrant in 1649 and he was selected to take command of the English campaign in Ireland in 1649–1650. Cromwells forces defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country, during this period, a series of Penal Laws were passed against Roman Catholics, and a substantial amount of their land was confiscated.
Cromwell led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650 and 1651, as a ruler, he executed an aggressive and effective foreign policy. He died from natural causes in 1658 and was buried in Westminster Abbey, the Royalists returned to power in 1660, and they had his corpse dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded. In a 2002 BBC poll in Britain, sponsored by military historian Richard Holmes was selected as one of the ten greatest Britons of all time. However, his measures against Catholics in Scotland and Ireland have been characterised as genocidal or near-genocidal, Cromwell was born in Huntingdon on 25 April 1599 to Robert Cromwell and Elizabeth Steward. Katherine married Morgan ap William, son of William ap Yevan of Wales, Henry suggested to Sir Richard Williams, who was the first to use a surname in his family, that he use Cromwell, in honour of his uncle Thomas Cromwell. They had ten children, but Oliver, the child, was the only boy to survive infancy. Jasper was the uncle of Henry VII and great uncle of Henry VIII, Cromwells paternal grandfather Sir Henry Williams was one of the two wealthiest landowners in Huntingdonshire.
Cromwells father Robert was of modest means but still a part of the gentry class, as a younger son with many siblings, Robert inherited only a house at Huntingdon and a small amount of land. This land would have generated an income of up to £300 a year, near the bottom of the range of gentry incomes, Cromwell himself in 1654 said, I was by birth a gentleman, living neither in considerable height, nor yet in obscurity. He was baptised on 29 April 1599 at St Johns Church and he went on to study at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, a recently founded college with a strong Puritan ethos