Port of Spain
Port of Spain is the capital city of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago and the countrys third-largest municipality, after Chaguanas and San Fernando. The city has a population of 37,074, a metropolitan population of 128,026. The city serves primarily as a retail and administrative centre and it has been the capital of the island since 1757 and it is an important financial services centre for the Caribbean and is home to two of the largest banks in the region. Port of Spain was the de facto capital of the short-lived West Indies Federation, caricom was established in Chaguaramas, west of Port of Spain. The city is home to the largest container port on the island and is one of several shipping hubs of the Caribbean. Bauxite from Guyana is trans-shipped via facilities at Chaguaramas, about 8 kilometres west of the city, the pre-lenten Carnival is the citys main annual cultural festival and tourist attraction. Today, Port of Spain is a city in the Caribbean region. Trinidad and Tobago hosted the Fifth Summit of the Americas in 2009 whose guests included US President Barack Obama, Port of Spain is home to the biggest and most successful stock exchange in the Caribbean, the Trinidad and Tobago Stock Exchange.
The iconic Nicholas Tower, as well as skyscrapers, are well known throughout the region. These buildings dominate the citys skyline, some of the tallest skyscrapers in the Caribbean are located in Port of Spain. The Port of Spain was founded near the site of the Amerindian fishing village of Cumucurapo, located in the today known as Mucurapo. In 1560, a Spanish garrison was posted near the foot of the Laventille Hills, the part of todays downtown Port of Spain closest to the sea was once an area of tidal mudflats covered by mangroves. The first Spanish buildings here, in the 16th and 17th centuries, were open mud-plastered ajoupas, the fort was a mud-walled enclosure with a shack inside, a flagpole, two or three cannon, and few Spanish soldiers. This was captured during Walter Raleighs expedition in April 1595, the Caribs were transient, travelling to the mainland and up the Orinoco River. The French naval commander Comte DEstrées visited in 1680, and reported there was no Port of Spain. The last Spanish Governor of Trinidad, Don José Maria Chacón and he compelled the islands Cabildo to move to Port of Spain, and he limited its powers to the municipality.
The 1783 Cedula of Population, which encouraged the settlement of French Catholics in the island, led to a increase in the towns population. Along the sea shore was the Plaza del Marina, a parade ground, by 1786, the town had a population of about 3,000
History of Trinidad and Tobago
The history of Trinidad and Tobago begins with the settlements of the islands by Amerindians, specifically the Island Carib and Arawak peoples. Both islands were explored by Christopher Columbus on his voyage in 1498. Trinidad remained in Spanish hands until 1797, but it was settled by French colonists. Tobago changed hands between the British, French and Courlanders, but eventually ended up in British hands following the second Treaty of Paris, in 1889 the two islands were incorporated into a single crown colony. Trinidad and Tobago obtained its independence from the British Empire in 1962, prior to the arrival of Europeans, the island- called Kairi- was inhabited by the indigenous Arawak people, and Carib people. The islands proximity to the continent makes it likely that it was among the first islands to be settled, the island probably was taken by three migration waves from the continent. The first contact with Europeans occurred when Christopher Columbus, who was on his voyage of exploration.
Columbus discovery is significant because it marked the first sighting of the island by Europeans, Trinidad is reported to have been densely populated at the beginning of the colonial period. As a consequence of this and Tobago became the focus of Spanish slaving raids, in 1530 Antonio Sedeño was granted a contract to settle Trinidad, with an eye toward discovering long-rumored El Dorado and controlling the trade in slaves. In 1532 he attempted to establish a settlement, but was driven off the following the Battle of Cumucurapo. He withdrew to Margarita, but he returned a year later, after failing to attract more settlers to Trinidad, Sedeño was forced to withdraw in 1534. In 1553 Juan Sedeño was authorised to settle Trinidad, but the contract was never fulfilled, in 1569 Juan Troche Ponce de León built the town of the Circumcision, probably around modern Laventille. In 1570 this settlement was abandoned, in 1592 Antonio de Berrio established the first lasting settlement, the town of San José de Oruña.
In Tobago, the first Dutch colony of Nieuw-Walcheren was short-lived,68 colonists established Fort Vlissingen near modern Plymouth in 1628. They were reinforced by a few hundred settlers from Zeeland in 1629 and 1632. The settlement was destroyed and its inhabitants were massacred by the Spanish on 1 January 1637, attempted colonies by Courland in 1637,1639, and 1642 and England in 1649,1642, and 1647 all failed. In May and September 1654, Courish and Dutch colonies were reestablished successfully, the Courish colony of Neu-Kurland was centered at Fort Jacob on Great Courland Bay. The Dutch colony on the side of the island had three forts, Lampsinsberg and Bellavista
Yoruba religious beliefs are part of itan, the complex cultural concepts which make up the Yoruba society. According to Kola Abimbola, the Yoruba have evolved a robust cosmology, in brief, it holds that all human beings possess what is known as Ayanmo and are expected to eventually become one in spirit with Olodumare. Furthermore, the thoughts and actions of each person in Ayé interact with all living things. Each person attempts to achieve transcendence and find their destiny in Orun-Rere, ones ori-inu must grow in order to consummate union with ones Iponri. Those who stop growing spiritually, in any of their lives, are destined for Orun-Apadi. Life and death are said to be cycles of existence in a series of physical bodies while ones spirit evolves toward transcendence and this evolution is said to be most evident amongst the Orishas, the divine viziers of Olorun. Iwapẹlẹ meditative recitation and sincere veneration is sufficient to strengthen the ori-inu of most people, well-balanced people, it is believed, are able to make positive use of the simplest form of connection between their Oris and the omnipotent Olu-Orun, an adura for divine support.
Prayer to ones Ori Orun produces a sensation of joy. Elegbara initiates contact with spiritual realm on behalf of the petitioner, and transmits the prayer to Ayé and he transmits this prayer without distorting it in any way. Thereafter, the petitioner may be satisfied with a personal answer, in the event that he or she is not, the Ifá oracle of the Orisha Orunmila may be consulted. All communication with Orun, whether simplistic in the form of a prayer or complicated in the form of that done by an initiated Babalawo. In the Yoruba belief system, Olodumare has ase over all that is, Olodumare is the most important state of existence. Regarded as being all-encompassing, no gender can be assigned, hence, it is common to hear references to it or they. They are the owner of all heads, for during human creation, perhaps one of the most important human endeavors extolled within the Yoruba literary corpus is the quest to better ones Iwa. Central to this is the theme of righteousness, both individual and collective, the Yoruba regard Olodumare as the principal agent of creation.
According to a Yoruba account of creation, during a stage in this process. The earth being one of these was visited but deemed too wet for conventional life, after a successful period of time, a number of divinities led by Obatala were sent to accomplish the task of helping earth develop its crust. On one of their visits to the realm, the arch-divinity Obatala took to the equipped with a mollusk that concealed some form of soil, winged beasts
Christianity is a Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, who serves as the focal point for the religion. It is the worlds largest religion, with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, Christians believe that Jesus is the Son of God and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles Creed and his incarnation, earthly ministry and resurrection are often referred to as the gospel, meaning good news. The term gospel refers to accounts of Jesuss life and teaching, four of which—Matthew, Luke. Christianity is an Abrahamic religion that began as a Second Temple Judaic sect in the mid-1st century, following the Age of Discovery, Christianity spread to the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world through missionary work and colonization. Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization, throughout its history, Christianity has weathered schisms and theological disputes that have resulted in many distinct churches and denominations.
Worldwide, the three largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the denominations of Protestantism. There are many important differences of interpretation and opinion of the Bible, concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds. They began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith, even agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. The Baptists have been non-creedal in that they have not sought to establish binding authoritative confessions of faith on one another. Also rejecting creeds are groups with roots in the Restoration Movement, such as the Christian Church, the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada, the Apostles Creed is the most widely accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists and this particular creed was developed between the 2nd and 9th centuries.
Its central doctrines are those of the Trinity and God the Creator, each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period. The creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Most Christians accept the use of creeds, and subscribe to at least one of the mentioned above. The central tenet of Christianity is the belief in Jesus as the Son of God, Christians believe that Jesus, as the Messiah, was anointed by God as savior of humanity, and hold that Jesus coming was the fulfillment of messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. The Christian concept of the Messiah differs significantly from the contemporary Jewish concept, having become fully human, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, but did not sin
Native American religion
Native American religions are the spiritual practices of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Traditional Native American ceremonial ways can vary widely, and are based on the histories and beliefs of individual tribes, clans. Early European explorers describe individual Native American tribes and even small bands as each having their own religious practices, theology may be monotheistic, henotheistic, animistic, or some combination thereof. Traditional beliefs are passed down in the forms of oral histories, stories and principles. From the 1600s European Catholic and Protestant denominations sent missionaries to convert the tribes to Christianity and this forcible conversion and suppression of Indigenous languages and cultures continued through the 1970s. This government persecution and prosecution continued until 1978 with the passage of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act, some non-Native anthropologists estimate membership in traditional Native American religions in the 21st century to be about 9000 people.
Many adherents of traditional spiritual ways attend Christian services, at least some of the time, since the 80 years of those prior legal persecutions ended with AIRFA, some sacred sites in the United States are now protected areas under law. European Christian missionaries were active and established missions and religious schools among Native peoples. According to Jacob Neusner, Native American Christianity is often fundamentalist in theology, conservative in their practice, for example, St. David Pendleton Oakerhater, who was canonized as an Episcopal saint but was a Sun Dancer, as well. According to James Treat, Native American Christians have constructed and maintained their, Religious identities with a variety of considerations in mind. Many native Christians accomplish this identification without abandoning or rejecting native religious traditions. ”In response, in part Smith said, “In our zeal to tell you of the good news of Jesus Christ, we were closed to the value of your spirituality.
We ask you to us and to walk together with us in the Spirit of Christ, so our peoples may be blessed. Two years after Smith’s Apology, the All Native Circle Conference was formed in 1988 as a conference of the United Church of Canada. It is “based on different Aboriginal cultural ways of life and languages. ”It understands and honours “the cultural values and ministry of Native Peoples. ”The Earth Lodge Religion was founded in northern California and southern Oregon tribes such as the Wintun. It spread to such as the Achomawi and Siletz. It was known as the Warm House Dance among the Pomo and it predicted occurrences similar to those predicted by the Ghost Dance, such as the return of ancestors or the worlds end. The Earth Lodge Religion impacted the practice, the Dream Dance, belonging to the Klamath. Ghost Dance is a general term that encompasses different religious revitalization movements in the Western United States
The Borough of Chaguanas is the largest borough and fastest-growing city in Trinidad and Tobago. Located in Central Trinidad about 18 km south of Port of Spain, it grew in size due to its proximity to the Woodford Lodge sugar refinery. It remained a town until the 1980s when it began to grow rapidly as it drew people for its bargain shopping. However, its growth has seen property values increase dramatically. Chaguanas became a borough in 1990, prior to that it was part of the County of Caroni, the current mayor is His Worship Gopaul Boodhan and the Borough Council has historically been dominated by the United National Congress. Chaguanas was named for the Chaguanes Amerindian tribe, the area was settled by the time of the British conquest of Trinidad in 1797. The town originated on what was H. E, the Princess Margaret Highway, built by the US military during World War II, joined the Southern Main Road at Chaguanas. Construction of the Sir Solomon Hochoy Highway extended the south to San Fernando.
The Carlsen Air Force Base was a former United States Army Air Forces World War II airbase constructed in Carlsen Field in 1942, the airbase included an emergency landing strip, Tobago. Edinburgh Field became the combat base for USAAF bombers and Naval airships on Trinidad as well as Navy fighters with a complex of runways and taxiways that surpassed even Waller Field. This lasted until 3 November 1943 when, it was renamed Carlsen Field and it was used by the Royal Air Force and was defended by US Army infantry and AA units. When the Navy began lighter-than-air operations in the Caribbean in the fall of 1943, the facility was formally disestablished on 1950, and today the former air and naval airship base has been turned into a dairy and agricultural area south of Chaguanas and is all but unrecognizable. Much of the airfield area is owned by National Flour Mills. In the 20th century Chaguanas grew rapidly as a bazaar town, the construction of Lange Park in the early 1980s attracted a middle-class community moving south from Port of Spain and the East-West Corridor and north from San Fernando.
Its central location made it attractive to working in north Trinidad. Orchard Gardens was constructed as a middle class community. In October 1990 Chaguanas was elevated to the status of borough under the provisions of the Municipal Corporations Act No.21 of 1990, Chaguanas is low-lying and is just upstream from the Caroni Swamp. The Caparo River runs through the town, the Chaguanas Main Road runs East to West from Felicity to Longdenville
The Island Caribs, known as the Kalinago or simply Caribs, are an indigenous people of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean. They may have descended from the Mainland Caribs of South America, at the time of Spanish contact, the Caribs were one of the dominant groups in the Caribbean, which owes its name to them. They lived throughout the Windward Islands and possibly the southern Leeward Islands, historically it was thought their ancestors were mainland Caribs who conquered the islands from their previous inhabitants, known as the Igneri. In the early period, the Caribs had a reputation as warriors who raided neighboring islands. Early Europeans claimed that they practiced cannibalism – the word derives from a corruption of their name. Today, the Caribs and their descendants continue to live in the Antilles, the Garifuna or Black Caribs, a group of mixed Carib and African ancestry, live principally in Central America. The Caribs are believed to have migrated from the Orinoco River area in South America to settle in the Caribbean islands about 1200 AD, the Taíno had settled the island chains earlier in history, migrating from the mainland.
Caribs traded with the Eastern Taíno of the Caribbean Islands, the Caribs produced the silver products which Ponce de Leon found in Taíno communities. None of the insular Amerindians mined for gold but obtained it by trade from the mainland, the Caribs were skilled boat builders and sailors. They appeared to have owed their dominance in the Caribbean basin to their mastery of warfare, according to Floyd, The question arose in Columbuss time whether Indians could be enslaved and Queen Isabel had ruled against it. These attacks and the some of the perpetrators, at least, were cannibals. On 3 June 1511, Ferdinand declared war on the Caribs, others were assimilated during the colonial period, a few retained areas such as in Dominica. Small populations survive, specifically in the Carib Territory in northeast Dominica, the so-called Black Caribs of St. They intermarried with the Carib and formed the last native culture to resist the British and it was not until 1795 that British colonists transported the so-called Black Caribs to Roatan Island, off Honduras.
Their descendants continue to live today and are known as the Garifuna ethnic group. Carib resistance delayed the settlement of Dominica by Europeans, the so-called Black Carib communities that remained in St. Vincent and Dominica retained a degree of autonomy well into the 19th century. The last known speakers of Island Carib died in the 1930s, the Kalinago of Dominica maintained their independence for many years by taking advantage of the islands rugged terrain. The islands east coast includes a 3, 700-acre territory formerly known as the Carib Territory that was granted to the people by the British Crown in 1903, there are only 3,000 Caribs remaining
Trinidad and Tobago
During the same period, the island of Tobago changed hands among Spanish, French and Courlander colonizers, more times than any other island in the Caribbean. Trinidad and Tobago were ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens, the country Trinidad and Tobago obtained independence in 1962, becoming a republic in 1976. Trinidad and Tobago is the third richest country by GDP per capita in the Americas after the United States, furthermore, it is recognised as a high-income economy by the World Bank. Unlike most of the English-speaking Caribbean, the economy is primarily industrial, with an emphasis on petroleum. The countrys wealth is attributed to its reserves and exploitation of oil. Historian E. L. Joseph claimed that Trinidads Amerindian name was Iere or Land of the Humming Bird, derived from the Arawak name for hummingbird, Boomert claims that neither cairi nor caeri means hummingbird and tukusi or tucuchi does. Others have reported that kairi and iere simply mean island, christopher Columbus renamed it La Isla de la Trinidad, fulfilling a vow made before setting out on his third voyage of exploration.
Trinidad and Tobago are islands situated between 10°2 and 11°12 N latitude and 60°30 and 61°56 W longitude, at the closest point, Trinidad is just 11 kilometres from Venezuelan territory. Trinidad is 4,768 km2 in area with a length of 80 km. Tobago has an area of about 300 km2, or 5. 8% of the area, is 41 km long and 12 km at its greatest width. Trinidad and Tobago lie on the shelf of South America. The terrain of the islands is a mixture of mountains and plains, the highest point in the country is found on the Northern Range at El Cerro del Aripo, which is 940 metres above sea level. As the majority of the live in the island of Trinidad. There are four municipalities in Trinidad, Port of Spain. The main town in Tobago is Scarborough, Trinidad is made up of a variety of soil types, the majority being fine sands and heavy clays. The alluvial valleys of the Northern Range and the soils of the East-West Corridor are the most fertile, the Northern Range consists mainly of Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous metamorphic rocks.
The Northern Lowlands consist of shallow marine clastic sediments. South of this, the Central Range fold and thrust belt consists of Cretaceous and Eocene sedimentary rocks, the Naparima Plains and the Nariva Swamp form the southern shoulder of this uplift
Traditional African religions
The traditional beliefs and practices of African people include various traditional religions. Generally, these traditions are oral rather than scriptural, include belief in a creator, belief in spirits, veneration of the dead, use of magic. The role of humanity is generally seen as one of harmonizing nature with the supernatural, afro-American religions are practiced in the Americas such as Candomblé, Santería, and Haitian Vodou. One religious ceremony practiced in Gabon and Cameroon is the Okuyi, when this trance-like state is witnessed and understood, practitioners are privy to a way of contemplating the pure or symbolic embodiment of a particular mindset or frame of reference. This builds skills at separating the feelings elicited by this mindset from their situational manifestations in daily life, such separation and subsequent contemplation of the nature and sources of pure energy or feelings serves to help participants manage and accept them when they arise in mundane contexts. This facilitates better control and transformation of these energies into positive, culturally appropriate behavior, followers of traditional African religions pray to various spirits as well as to their ancestors.
These secondary spirits serve as intermediaries between humans and the primary God, most African societies believe in a single Supreme Creator God. Some recognize a dual God and Goddess such as Mawu-Lisa, there are more similarities than differences in all traditional African religions. Often, the supreme God is worshiped through consultation or communion with lesser deities, the deities and spirits are honored through libation, sacrifice. The will of God is sought by the believer through consultation of oracular deities, in many traditional African religions, there is a belief in a cyclical nature of reality. The living stand between their ancestors and the unborn, Traditional African religions embrace natural phenomena – ebb and tide and waning moon and drought – and the rhythmic pattern of agriculture. According to Gottlieb and Mbiti, The environment and nature are infused in every aspect of traditional African religions and this is largely because cosmology and beliefs are intricately intertwined with the natural phenomena and environment.
All aspects of weather, lightning, day, sun, natural phenomena are responsible for providing people with their daily needs. For example, in the Serer religion, one of the most sacred stars in the cosmos is called Yoonir the, since Africa is a large continent with many ethnic groups and cultures, there is not one single technique of casting divination. The practice of casting may be done with small objects, such as bones, cowrie shells, strips of leather, some castings are done using sacred divination plates made of wood or performed on the ground. In traditional African societies, many people seek out diviners on a regular basis, there are generally no prohibitions against the practice. Those who divine for a living are sought for their wisdom as counselors in life, virtue in traditional African religion is often connected with carrying out obligations of the communal aspect of life. Examples include social behaviors such as the respect for parents and elders, raising children appropriately, providing hospitality, and being honest, trustworthy, in some traditional African religions, morality is associated with obedience or disobedience to God regarding the way a person or a community lives
Antillean Creole is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar and vocabulary include elements of Carib and African languages, Antillean Creole is related to Haitian Creole but has a number of distinctive features, they are mutually intelligible. The language was more widely spoken in the Lesser Antilles. While the islands of Dominica and Saint Lucia are officially English-speaking, there are efforts to preserve the use of Antillean Creole, as well as in Trinidad & Tobago and its neighbour, Venezuela. In recent decades, Creole has gone from being seen as a sign of lower status, banned in school playgrounds. Since the 1970s, there has been a revival of Creole in the French-speaking islands of the Lesser Antilles, with writers such as Raphaël Confiant. Edouard Glissant has written theoretically and poetically about its significance and its history, Grenadian, St. Lucian, Trinidadian and Venezuelan speakers of Antillean Creole call the language patois. It is spoken in various Creole-speaking immigrant communities in the United States Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, Antillean Creole has approximately 1 million speakers and is a means of communication for migrant populations traveling between neighbouring English- and French-speaking territories.
Pierre Belain dEsnambuc was a French trader and adventurer in the Caribbean who established the first permanent French colony, Saint-Pierre, Belain sailed to the Caribbean in 1625, hoping to establish a French settlement on the island of St. Christopher. In 1626, he returned to France, where he won the support of Cardinal Richelieu to establish French colonies in the region, Richelieu became a shareholder in the Compagnie de Saint-Christophe, created to accomplish this with dEsnambuc at its head. The company was not particularly successful, and Richelieu had it reorganized as the Compagnie des Îles de lAmérique, in 1635, dEsnambuc sailed to Martinique with one hundred French settlers to clear land for sugarcane plantations. After six months on Martinique, dEsnambuc returned to St. Christopher and his nephew, Jacques Dyel du Parquet, inherited dEsnambucs authority over the French settlements in the Caribbean. Dyel du Parquet became governor of the island and he remained in Martinique and did not concern himself with the other islands.
The French permanently settled on Martinique and Guadeloupe after being driven off Saint Kitts, Fort Royal on Martinique was a major port for French battle ships in the region from which the French were able to explore the region. In 1638, Dyel du Parquet decided to have Fort Saint Louis built to protect the city against enemy attacks, the king would name the governor general of the company, and the company would name he governors of the various islands. However, by the late 1640s, Mazarin had little interest in colonial affairs, in 1651, it dissolved itself, selling its exploitation rights to various parties. The Du Paquet family bought Martinique and Saint Lucia for 60,000 livres, the sieur dHouël bought Guadeloupe, Marie-Galante, La Desirade and the Saintes. The Knights of Malta bought Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin, which were made dependencies of Guadeloupe, in 1665, the Knights sold the islands that they had acquired to the newly formed Compagnie des Indes occidentales