The Yurok, whose name means "downriver people" in the neighboring Karuk language, are Native Americans who live in northwestern California near the Klamath River and Pacific coast. Their autonym is Olekwo'l meaning "Persons." Today they live on the Yurok Indian Reservation, on several rancherías, including the Cher-Ae Heights Indian Community of the Trinidad Rancheria, throughout Humboldt County, beyond. They are enrolled in seven different federally recognized tribes today, they ate lots of berries and meats. Yuroks did not hunt whales, they waited until a drift whale washed up onto the beach or place near the water and dried the flesh. Traditionally, the Yurok lived in permanent villages along the Klamath River; some of the villages date back to the 14th century. They fished for salmon along rivers, gathered ocean fish and shellfish, hunted game, gathered plants; the major currency of the Yurok nations was the dentalium shell. Alfred L. Kroeber wrote of the Yurok perception of the shell: "Since the direction of these sources is'downstream' to them, they speak in their traditions of the shells living at the downstream and upstream ends of the world, where strange but enviable peoples live who suck the flesh of univalves."Their first contact with non-Natives was when Spanish explorers entered their territory in 1775.
Fur traders and trappers from the Hudson's Bay Company came in 1827. Following encounters with white settlers moving into their aboriginal lands during a gold rush in 1850, the Yurok were faced with disease and massacres that reduced their population by 75%. In 1855, following the Klamath and Salmon River War, the Lower Klamath River Indian Reservation was created by executive order; the Reservation boundaries included a portion of the Yurok's aboriginal territory and most of the Yurok villages. As a result, the Yurok people were not forcibly removed from their traditional homelands, they continue to live in these same villages today. On November 24, 1993, the Yurok Tribe adopted a constitution that details the jurisdiction and territory of their lands. Under the Hoopa-Yurok Settlement Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100-580, qualified applicants had the option of enrolling in the Yurok Tribe. Of the 3,685 qualified applicants for the Settlement Roll, 2,955 people chose Yurok membership. 227 of those members had a mailing address on the Yurok reservation, but a majority lived within 50 miles of the reservation.
The Yurok Tribe is the largest group of Native Americans in the state of California, with more than 5,600 enrolled members living in or around the reservation. The Yurok reservation of 63,035 acres has an 80% poverty rate and 70% of the inhabitants do not have telephone service or electricity, according to the tribe's Web page. Fishing and gathering remain important to tribal members. Basket weaving and woodcarving are important arts. A traditional hamlet of wooden plank buildings, called Sumeg, was built in 1990; the Jump Dance and Brush Dance are part of tribal ceremonies. Yurok is one of two Algic languages spoken in the other being Wiyot. Between twenty and one hundred people speak the Yurok language today; the language is passed through singing. Language classes have been offered through Humboldt State University and through annual language immersion camps. An unusual feature of the language is that certain nouns change depending upon whether there is one, two, or three of the object. For instance, one human being would be ko:ra' or ko'r, two human beings would be ni'iyel, three human beings would be nahkseyt.
Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. Alfred L. Kroeber put the 1770 population of the Yurok at 2500. Sherburne F. Cook agreed, but raised this estimate to 3100. By 1870, the Yurok population had declined to 1350. By 1910 it was reported as 668 or 700; the United States Census for the year 2000 indicates that there were 4413 Yurok living in California, combining those of one tribal descent and those with ancestors of several different tribes and groups. There were 5,793 Yurok living throughout the United States; the Yurok Indian Reservation is California's largest tribe, with 6000 members. Today Yurok people are enrolled in seven federally recognized tribes: Big Lagoon Rancheria Blue Lake Rancheria Cher-Ae Heights Indian Community of the Trinidad Rancheria Elk Valley Rancheria Resighini Rancheria Tolowa Dee-ni' Nation Yurok Indian Reservation. In 2010, 217 sacred artifacts were returned to the Yurok tribe by the Smithsonian Institution.
The condor feathers and deerskins had been part of the Smithonian's collection for 100 years and represent one of the largest Native American repatriations. The regalia will be used on display at the tribe's cultural center. Rick Bartow, painter and sculptor Archie Thompson, elder who helped revitalize the Yurok language Lucy Thompson, first indigenous Californian woman to be published Yurok Indian Reservations Yurok languages Yurok traditional narratives Cook, Sherburne F. 1956. "The Aboriginal Population of the North Coast of California". Anthropological Records 16:81-130. University of California, Berkeley. Cook, Sherburne F. 1976. The Conflict between the California Indian and White Civilization. University of California Press, Berkeley. Kroeber, A. L. 1925. Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 78. Washington, D. C. Kroeber, A. L. 1976. Yurok Myths. University of California Press, Berkeley. Hinton, Leanne. Flutes of Fire: Essays on California Indian Languages.
Berkeley: Heyday Books, 1994. ISBN 0-930588-62-2. Pritzke
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
An oceanic climate known as a marine climate or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, features mild summers and mild winters, with a narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental and highland climates. Oceanic climates are defined as having a monthly mean temperature below 22 °C in the warmest month, above 0 °C in the coldest month, it lacks a dry season, as precipitation is more evenly dispersed throughout the year. It is the predominant climate type across much of Western Europe including the United Kingdom, the Pacific Northwest region of the United States and Canada, portions of central Mexico, southwestern South America, southeastern Australia including Tasmania, New Zealand, as well as isolated locations elsewhere. Oceanic climates are characterised by a narrower annual range of temperatures than in other places at a comparable latitude, do not have the dry summers of Mediterranean climates or the hot summers of humid subtropical.
Oceanic climates are most dominant in Europe, where they spread much farther inland than in other continents. Oceanic climates can have considerable storm activity as they are located in the belt of the stormy westerlies. Many oceanic climates have frequent cloudy or overcast conditions due to the near constant storms and lows tracking over or near them; the annual range of temperatures is smaller than typical climates at these latitudes due to the constant stable marine air masses that pass through oceanic climates, which lack both warm and cool fronts. Locations with oceanic climates tend to feature cloudy conditions with precipitation, though it can experience clear, sunny days. London is an example of an oceanic climate, it experiences constant precipitation throughout the entire year. Despite this, thunderstorms are quite rare since hot and cold air masses meet infrequently in the region. In most areas with an oceanic climate, precipitation comes in the form of rain for the majority of the year.
However, some areas with this climate see some snowfall annually during winter. Most oceanic climate zones, or at least a part of them, experience at least one snowfall per year. In the poleward locations of the oceanic climate zone, snowfall is more commonplace. Overall temperature characteristics of the oceanic climates feature cool temperatures and infrequent extremes of temperature. In the Köppen climate classification, Oceanic climates have a mean temperature of 0 °C or higher in the coldest month, compared to continental climates where the coldest month has a mean temperature of below 0 °C. Summers are cool, with the warmest month having a mean temperature below 22 °C. Poleward of the latter is a zone of the aforementioned subpolar oceanic climate, with long but mild winters and cool and short summers. Examples of this climate include parts of coastal Iceland, Norway, the Scottish Highlands, the mountains of Vancouver Island, Haida Gwaii in Canada, in the Northern Hemisphere and extreme southern Chile and Argentina in the Southern Hemisphere, the Tasmanian Central Highlands, parts of New Zealand.
Oceanic climates are not always found in coastal locations on the aforementioned parallels. The polar jet stream, which moves in a west to east direction across the middle latitudes, advances low pressure systems and fronts. In coastal areas of the higher middle latitudes, the prevailing onshore flow creates the basic structure of most oceanic climates. Oceanic climates are a reflection of the ocean adjacent to them. In the fall and early spring, when the polar jet stream is most active, the frequent passing of marine weather systems creates the frequent fog, cloudy skies, light drizzle associated with oceanic climates. In summer, high pressure pushes the prevailing westerlies north of many oceanic climates creating a drier summer climate; the North Atlantic Gulf Stream, a tropical oceanic current that passes north of the Caribbean and up the East Coast of the United States to North Carolina heads east-northeast to the Azores, is thought to modify the climate of Northwest Europe. As a result of the Gulf Stream, west-coast areas located in high latitudes like Ireland, the UK, Norway have much milder winters than would otherwise be the case.
The lowland attributes of western Europe help drive marine air masses into continental areas, enabling cities such as Dresden and Vienna to have maritime climates in spite of being located well inland from the ocean. Oceanic climates in Europe occur in Northwest Europe, from Ireland and Great Britain eastward to central Europe. Most of France, the Netherlands, Germany, the north coast of Spain, the western Azores off the coast of Portugal, the south of Kosovo and southern portions of Sweden have oceanic climates. Examples of oceanic climates are found in Glasgow, Bergen, Dublin, Bilbao, Donostia-San Sebastian, Bayonne, Züri
The Majestic (film)
The Majestic is a 2001 American romantic period drama film directed and produced by Frank Darabont, written by Michael Sloane, starring Jim Carrey, Bob Balaban, Brent Briscoe, Jeffrey DeMunn, Amanda Detmer, Allen Garfield, Hal Holbrook, Laurie Holden, Martin Landau, Ron Rifkin, David Ogden Stiers, James Whitmore. Filmed in Ferndale, California, it premiered on December 11, 2001, was released in the United States on December 21, 2001. Jim Carrey's performance in The Majestic was a departure from his previous work, which until had been comedy films; the film received unfavorable reviews from critics, was a box office bomb, with a gross of $37 million worldwide against a budget of $72 million, losing an estimated $49 million. The film was released in the United Kingdom on May 24, 2002, failed to reach the Top 10. In 1951, in the midst of the Second Red Scare, Peter Appleton is an up and coming young screenwriter in Hollywood, he learns from studio lawyer Leo Kubelsky and his own attorney Kevin Bannerman that he has been accused of being a communist because he attended an antiwar meeting in his college years, a meeting he claims he only attended to impress a girl.
In an instant, Peter's new film Ashes to Ashes is pushed back for a few months, the credit is given to someone else, his movie star girlfriend Sandra Sinclair leaves him, his contract with the studio is dropped. Peter gets drunk and goes for a drive up the coast where he accidentally drives his car off a bridge to avoid an opossum, he comes to on an ocean beach experiencing amnesia. Peter is found by Stan Keller who helps him to the nearby town of Lawson and the local doctor named Doc Stanton to tend to his wounds; as the town welcomes him, Harry Trimble arrives and believes Peter to be his son Luke who went MIA during World War II nine years ago. Due to his amnesia, Peter accepts himself being treated as Luke by the rest of the town led by Mayor Ernie Cole as Sheriff Cecil Coleman tells Doc to "tell her slowly." Peter warms up to the town including getting to know Harry and Luke's girlfriend Adele Stanton, Doc's daughter. Peter adjusts to the new life and helps to renovate the Majestic, a movie theater that had become derelict due to hard times.
Bob Leffert, a veteran of the war who knew Luke, does not believe Peter is Luke and fears Peter may be setting the town up for heartbreak given they had lost sixty other young men during the war. Despite this, Peter helps to restore the theater, invigorate the town, encourages Mayor Cole to display a memorial commissioned by President Franklin D. Roosevelt after the war that the town did not have the heart to display. Meanwhile, Peter's disappearance leads Congressional committee member Elvin Clyde to believe Peter is a communist and he sends two federal agents Ellerby and Saunders to California to search for him where they follow a lead on his car showing up on a beach. Peter recovers from his amnesia. Harry suffers from a fatal heart attack before the reel change. After examining him, Doc reports. Peter can not come to admit the truth allowing Harry to die believing. After the funeral, Peter admits the truth to Adele, who had suspected it and supports his decision to tell the rest of town. Before he can do so, federal agents Ellery and Saunders as well as Leo and some police officers arrive.
When Sheriff Coleman asks if they need any help with anything, the federal agents reveal Peter's true identity to the whole town and give Peter a summons to appear before a congressional committee in Los Angeles. During their meeting, Leo advises Peter to agree to reveal a list of other named "communists" as to clear his own name; the next day, Peter has an argument with Adele over this decision and she gives him a letter she had gotten from the real Luke as he boards the train. On the train, Peter reads the letter which contains Luke stating his awareness that he might die in the war for a real cause as well as a pocket sized version of the U. S. Constitution. Peter changes his mind at the session, watched by all of Lawson and confronts Congressman Doyle during the televised session. Peter gives an impassioned speech about American ideals which sways the crowd and forces the lawmakers to let him go free; as Peter discusses the result with Kevin, he learns that the girl he met in college was the one that had named him to the committee.
Peter attempts to return to his former career, but finds he cannot deal with the ridiculousness of the studio executives' ideas and leaves Hollywood. Peter instead returns to Lawson fearing an unwelcome reception. Instead, he receives a hero's welcome from the town's citizens who have come to respect him as an individual. Peter resumes ownership and management of The Majestic, gets married to Adele, they have a son together. Jim Carrey as Peter Appleton, a screenwriter who loses his memory and is mistaken for another person named Luke Trimble. Bob Balaban as Elvin Clyde, a member of congress who presides over Peter Appleton's hearing. Brent Briscoe as Cecil Coleman, the sheriff of Lawson. Jeffrey DeMunn as Ernie Cole, the Mayor of Lawson, a druggist. Amanda Detmer as Sandra Sinclair, Peter's movie star ex-girlfriend who plays Emily in Sand Pirates of the Sahara. Allen Garfield as Leo Kubelsky, a studio lawyer, friends with Peter. Hal Holbrook as Congressman Doyle, a congressman who presides over Peter Appleton's hearing.
Laurie Holden as Adele Stanton, the girlfriend of Luke Trimble and the daughter of Doc Stanton. Martin Landau as Harry Trimble, the father of Luke Trimble. Ron Rifkin as Kevin Bannerman, Peter's attorney. David Ogden Stiers as the residential doctor of Lawson and the father of Adele. James Whitmore as Stan Keller, an
Eugene Bondurant Sledge was a United States Marine, university professor, author. His 1981 memoir With the Old Breed: At Peleliu and Okinawa chronicled his combat experiences during World War II and was subsequently used as source material for the Ken Burns PBS documentary The War, as well as the HBO miniseries The Pacific, in which he is portrayed by Joseph Mazzello. Sledge was enrolled in the Marion Military Institute, but instead chose to volunteer for the U. S. Marine Corps in December 1942, he was placed in the V-12 officer training program and was sent to Georgia Tech, where he and half of his detachment "flunked out" so they would be allowed to serve their time as enlistees and not "miss the war". Once he was out of school, he was assigned duty as an enlisted man and was assigned to K Company, 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division, where he served with Corporal R. V. Burgin and PFC Merriell "Snafu" Shelton, he achieved the rank of Corporal in the Pacific Theater and saw combat as a 60 mm mortarman at Peleliu and Okinawa.
When fighting grew too close for effective use of the mortar, he served in other duties such as stretcher bearer and as a rifleman. During his service, Sledge kept notes of; when the war ended, he compiled these notes into the memoir With the Old Breed. After being posted to Peking after the war, he was discharged from the Marine Corps in February 1946 with the rank of Corporal. After the war ended, Sledge attended Auburn University, where he was a member of the Phi Delta Theta fraternity, receiving a Bachelor of Science degree in business administration in the summer of 1949. Sledge, like many other war veterans, had a hard time readjusting to civilian life: "As I strolled the streets of Mobile, civilian life seemed so strange. People rushed around in a hurry about insignificant things. Few seemed to realize how blessed they were to be untouched by the horrors of war. To them, a veteran was a veteran – all were the same, whether one man had survived the deadliest combat or another had pounded a typewriter while in uniform."
Once an avid hunter, Sledge gave up his hobby. He found that he could not endure the thought of wounding a bird and said that killing a deer felt like shooting a cow in a pasture, his father found him weeping after a dove hunt where Sledge had to kill a wounded dove, in the ensuing conversations he told his father he could no longer tolerate seeing any suffering. A key turning point in his life and career followed when his father advised him that he could substitute bird watching as a hobby. Sledge started to assist the conservation department in its banding study efforts, the origin of his well-known passion for the science of ornithology; when he enrolled at Auburn University, the clerk at the Registrar's office asked him if the Marine Corps had taught him anything useful. Sledge replied: "Lady, there was a killing war; the Marine Corps taught me how to try to survive. Now, if that don't fit into any academic course, I'm sorry, but some of us had to do the killing — and most of my buddies got killed or wounded."
He found his salvation in science, as it kept the flashbacks of Okinawa at bay. Close, constant study of nature prevented him from going mad, he returned to Auburn in 1953, where he worked as a research assistant until 1955. That same year he graduated from API with a Master of Science degree in botany. From 1956 to 1960, Sledge worked as a research assistant, he published numerous papers on helminthology and in 1956 joined the Helminthological Society of Washington. He received his doctorate in biology from the University of Florida in 1960, he was employed by the Division of Plant Industry for the Florida State Department of Agriculture from 1959 to 1962. In the summer of 1962, Sledge was appointed Assistant Professor of Biology at Alabama College. In 1970, he became a professor, a position he held until his retirement in 1990, he taught zoology, comparative vertebrate anatomy, other courses during his long tenure there. Sledge was popular with his students, organized field trips and collections around town.
In 1989, he received an honorary rank of colonel from Marion Military Institute. Sledge died after a long battle with stomach cancer, in 2001, he was survived by his wife of nearly 50 years and their two sons and Henry. In 1981, Sledge published With the Old Breed: At Peleliu and Okinawa, a memoir of his World War II service with the United States Marine Corps. With the Old Breed was reprinted in 1990 and again in 2007. In 1992, Sledge was featured in the documentary film Peleliu 1944: Horror in the Pacific. In April 2007, it was announced that With the Old Breed, along with Robert Leckie's Helmet for My Pillow, would form the basis for the HBO series The Pacific, from the same producers as Band of Brothers. A second memoir, China Marine: An Infantryman's Life after World War II, was published posthumously, its initial hard bound edition, with foreword by Stephen E. Ambrose, was published May 10, 2002 by University of Alabama Press and did not have the subtitle listed, it was republished in a 2003 paperback edition with the subtitle by Oxford University Press.
China Marine discussed his postwar service in Peiping, his return home to Mobile, his recovery from the psychological trauma of warfare. Sledge was entitled to campa
To cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs. The term can be used to describe municipally owned corporations. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located; this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter or municipal charter is a legal document establishing a municipality, such as a city or town. In Canada, charters are granted by provincial authorities; the Corporation of Chennai is the oldest Municipal Corporation in the world after UK. The title "corporation" was used in boroughs from soon after the Norman conquest until the Local Government Act 2001. Under the 2001 act, county boroughs were renamed "cities" and their corporations became "city councils". After the Partition of Ireland, the corporations in the Irish Free State were Dublin, Cork and Waterford and Drogheda, Sligo and Wexford. Dún Laoghaire gained borough status in 1930 as “The Corporation of Dun Laoghaire".
Galway's borough status, lost in 1840, was restored in 1937. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 allowed municipal corporations to be established within the new Provinces of New Zealand; the term fell out of favour following the abolition of the Provinces in 1876. In the United States, such municipal corporations are established by charters that are granted either directly by a state legislature by means of local legislation, or indirectly under a general municipal corporation law after the proposed charter has passed a referendum vote of the affected population. Under the enterprise meaning of the term, municipal corporations are "organisations with independent corporate status, managed by an executive board appointed by local government officials, with majority public ownership"; some MOCs rely on revenue from user fees, distinguishing them from agencies and special districts funded through taxation, although this is not always the case. Municipal corporation follows a process of externalization that requires new skills and orientations from the respective local governments, follow common changes in the institutional landscape of public services.
They are argued to be more efficient than bureaucracy but have higher failure rates because of their legal and managerial autonomy. Unincorporated area German town law Municipal incorporationA Brief Summary of Municipal Incorporation Procedures by State - University of Georgia Characteristics and State Requirements for Incorporated Places - United States CensusMunicipal disincorporation / dissolutionDissolving Cities - University of California, Berkeley Municipal Disincorporation in California - California City Finance
Trinity Sunday is the first Sunday after Pentecost in the Western Christian liturgical calendar, the Sunday of Pentecost in Eastern Christianity. Trinity Sunday celebrates the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, the three Persons of God: the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit. Trinity Sunday is celebrated in all the Western liturgical churches: Roman Catholic, Lutheran, United Church of Christ, Methodist; the Sundays following Pentecost, until Advent, are numbered from this day. In traditional Catholic usage, the First Sunday After Pentecost is on the same day as Trinity Sunday. In the revised Roman rite, Ordinary Time resumes one week earlier, on the Monday after Pentecost, with the Sundays that would otherwise fall on Pentecost and Trinity Sunday omitted that year. In the Church of England, following the pre-Reformation Sarum use, the following Sunday is the "First Sunday after Trinity", while the Episcopal Church in the United States of America now follows the Catholic usage, calling it the Second Sunday after Pentecost.
The liturgical colour used on Trinity Sunday is white. In the Catholic Church it is known as the Solemnity of the Most Holy Trinity. Prior to the reforms of the Second Vatican Council, it marked the end of a three-week period when church weddings were forbidden; the period began on the fifth Sunday after Easter. Trinity Sunday was established as a Double of the Second Class by Pope John XXII to celebrate the Trinity, it was raised to the dignity of a Double of the First Class by Pope Pius X on 24 July 1911. During the Middle Ages during the Carolingian period, devotion to the Blessed Trinity was a important feature of private devotion and inspired several liturgical expressions; the prescribed liturgical color is white. In the traditional Divine Office, the Athanasian Creed is said on this day at Prime. Before 1960, it was said on all Sundays after Epiphany and Pentecost which do not fall within Octaves or on which a feast of Double rank or higher was celebrated or commemorated, as well as on Trinity Sunday.
The 1960 reforms reduced it to once a year, on this Sunday. In the 1962 Missal, the Mass for the First Sunday After Pentecost is not said or commemorated on Sunday, but is used during the week if the ferial Mass is being said; the Thursday after Trinity Sunday is observed as the Feast of Corpus Christi. In some countries, including the United States and Spain, it may be celebrated on the following Sunday, when parishioners are more to attend Mass and be able to celebrate the feast; the Athanasian Creed, although not used, is recited in certain Anglican churches those of High Church tendency. Its use is prescribed in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England for use on certain Sundays at Morning Prayer, including Trinity Sunday, it is found in many modern Anglican prayer books, it is in the Historical Documents section of the 1979 Book of Common Prayer, but its use is not provided for in the rubrics of that prayer book. Trinity Sunday has the status of a Principal Feast in the Church of England and is one of seven principal feast days in the Episcopal Church.
Thomas Becket was consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury on the Sunday after Pentecost, his first act was to ordain that the day of his consecration should be held as a new festival in honour of the Holy Trinity. This observance spread from Canterbury throughout the whole of western Christendom. Anglican parishes with an Anglo-Catholic churchmanship observe Corpus Christi on the following Thursday, or in some cases the following Sunday. In traditional Methodist usage, The Book of Worship for Church and Home provides the following Collects for Trinity Sunday: Almighty and everlasting God, who hast given unto us thy servants grace, by the confession of a true faith, to acknowledge the glory of the eternal Trinity, in the power of the divine majesty to worship the unity: We beseech thee to keep us steadfast in this faith and evermore defend us from all adversities who livest and reignest, one God, world without end. Amen. Almighty and everlasting God, who hast revealed thyself as Father and Holy Spirit,and dost live and reign in the perfect unity of love: Grant that we may always hold and joyfully to this faith, living in praise of thy divine majesty, may be one in thee.
Amen. Trinity Sunday is the Sunday following Pentecost, eight weeks after Easter Sunday; the earliest possible date is May 17. The latest possible date is June 20. In the early Church, no special Office or day was assigned for the Holy Trinity; when the Arian heresy was spreading, the Fathers prepared an Office with canticles, responses, a Preface, hymns, to be recited on Sundays. In the Sacramentary of St. Gregory the Great there are the Preface of the Trinity; the Micrologies, written during the pontificate of Gregory VII, call the Sunday after Pentecost a Dominica vacans, with no special Office, but add that in some places they recited the Office of the Holy Trinity composed by Bishop Stephen of Liège. By others the Office was said on the Sunday before Advent. Alexander II, refused a petition for a special feast on the plea, that such a feast was not customary in the Roman Church which daily honoured the Holy Trinity by the Gloria Patri, etc. but he did not forbid the celebration where it existed.
John XXII ordered the feast for the entire Church on the first Sunday after Pentecost. A new Office had been made by the