A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Huntsville is a city in and the county seat of Walker County, Texas. The population was 38,548 as of the 2010 census, it is the center of the Huntsville micropolitan area. Huntsville is 70 miles north of Houston in the East Texas Piney Woods on Interstate 45, which runs between Houston and Dallas, it is home to Sam Houston State University, the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, Huntsville State Park, HEARTS Veterans Museum of Texas. The city served as the residence of Sam Houston, recognized in Huntsville by the Sam Houston Memorial Museum and a statue on Interstate 45; the city had its beginning about 1836, when Pleasant and Ephraim Gray opened a trading post on the site. Ephraim Gray became first postmaster in 1837, naming it after his hometown, Alabama. Huntsville became the home of Sam Houston, who served as President of the Republic of Texas, Governor of the State of Texas, Governor of Tennessee, U. S. Senator, Tennessee congressman. Houston led the Texas Army in the Battle of San Jacinto, the decisive victory of the Texas Revolution.
He has been noted for his life among the Cherokees of Tennessee, – near the end of his life – for his opposition to the American Civil War, a unpopular position in his day. Huntsville has two of Houston's homes, his grave, the Sam Houston Memorial Museum. Houston's life in Huntsville is commemorated by his namesake Sam Houston State University, by a 70 ft statue. Huntsville was the home of Samuel Walker Houston, a prominent African-American pioneer in the field of education, he was born into slavery on February 12, 1864 to a slave owned by Sam Houston. Samuel W. Houston founded the Galilee Community School in 1907, which became known as the Houstonian Normal and Industrial Institute, in Walker County, Texas. In 1995, on the grounds of the old Samuel W. Houston Elementary School, the Huntsville Independent School District, along with the Huntsville Arts Commission and the high school's Ex-Students Association, commissioned the creation of The Dreamers, a monument to underscore the black community's contributions to the growth and development of Huntsville and Walker County.
As of the census of 2010, there were 35,078 people, 10,266 households, 7,471 families residing in the city. The population density was 1438.3/km sq. There were 11,508 housing units at an average density of 1143.8/km sq. The racial makeup of the city was 65.78% White, 26.14% African American, 0.33% Native American, 1.11% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 4.91% from Race other races, 1.65% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 16.22% of the population. There were 10,266 households out of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.0% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 46.7% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.97. In the city, the population was spread out with 15.1% under the age of 18, 29.3% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 16.3% from 45 to 64, 8.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 152.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 163.8 males. The prison population is included in the city's population, which results in a skewed sex ratio; the median income for a household in the city was $27,075, the median income for a family was $40,562. Males had a median income of $27,386 versus $22,908 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,576. About 13.1% of families and 23.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.9% of those under age 18 and 14.7% of those age 65 or over. Huntsville is located at 30°42′41″N 95°32′54″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a land area of 35.86 square miles in 2010. At the area code level, land area covers 559.661 sq. mi. and water area 7.786 sq. mi. Huntsville is about 70 miles north of Houston, it is part of the Texas Triangle megaregion. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters.
According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Huntsville has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. As of 2005 the largest employer in Huntsville is the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, with 6,744 employees. In 1996 the TDCJ had 5,219 employees in Huntsville. Robert Draper of the Texas Monthly described Huntsville as the "company town" of the TDCJ; as of 1996 the TDCJ employed over twice the number of people employed by Sam Houston State University, the city's second-largest employer. As of 2005 Sam Houston State remained the second-largest employer in Huntsville, with 2,458 employees; the university has a strong role in the study of criminology. The third-largest employer is the Huntsville Independent School District, with 974 employees; the fourth-largest employer, Huntsville Memorial Hospital, has 540 employees. 517 employees work for Wal-Mart. As of 2007 Huntsville's average income was lower than Texas's average income. Huntsville has the headquarters of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, the Tex
Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land is the fifth-most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States, encompassing nine counties along the Gulf Coast in southeastern Texas. With a population of 6,490,180 people as of the 2010 United States Census, the MSA is the second-most populous in Texas after the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. Colloquially referred to as Greater Houston, the 10,000-square-mile region centers on Harris County, the third-most populous county in the nation, which contains the city of Houston—the largest economic and cultural center of the South—with a population of 2.3 million. Greater Houston is part of the Texas Triangle megaregion along with the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, Greater Austin, Greater San Antonio. Houston has been among the fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the United States; the area grew 25.2% between 1990 and 2000—adding more than 950,000 people—while the nation's population increased only 13.2% over the same period, from 2000 to 2007 alone, the area added over 910,000 people.
The Greater Houston Partnership projects the metropolitan area will add between 4.1 and 8.3 million new residents between 2010 and 2050. Greater Houston has the sixth-highest metropolitan-area gross domestic product in the United States, valued at $526 billion in 2016. A major trade center anchored by the Port of Houston, Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land has the second-highest trade export value of all MSAs, at over $84 billion in 2016, accounting for 42% of the total exports of Texas. Metropolitan Houston is home to the headquarters of 21 Fortune 500 companies, ranking fourth among all MSAs. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan statistical area has a total area of 10,062 square miles, of which 8,929 sq mi is land and 1,133 sq mi is water; the region is smaller than the state of Massachusetts and larger than New Jersey. The Office of Management and Budget combines the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugarland MSA with four micropolitan statistical areas to form the Houston–The Woodlands, TX Combined Statistical Area.
The metropolitan area is located in the Gulf Coastal Plains biome, its vegetation is classified as temperate grassland. Much of the urbanized area was built on forested land, swamp, or prairie, remnants of which can still be seen in surrounding areas. Of particular note is the Katy Prairie to the west, the Big Thicket to the northeast, the Galveston Bay ecosystem to the south. Additionally, the metropolitan region is crossed by a number of creeks and bayous which provide essential drainage during rainfall events; the upper drainage basin of Buffalo Bayou is impounded by two large flood control reservoirs, Barker Reservoir and Addicks Reservoir, which provide a combined 400,000 acre-feet of storage during large rainfall events and cover a total land area of 26,100 acres. Greater Houston's flat topography, susceptibility to high-intensity rainfall events, high level of impervious surface, inadequately-sized natural drainage channels make it susceptible to catastrophic flooding events. Underpinning Houston's land surface are unconsolidated clays, clay shales, poorly cemented sands up to several miles deep.
The region's geology developed from stream deposits formed from the erosion of the Rocky Mountains. These sediments consist of a series of sands and clays deposited on decaying organic matter that, over time, transformed into oil and natural gas. Beneath these tiers is a water-deposited layer of a rock salt; the porous layers were forced upward. As it pushed upward, the salt dragged surrounding sediments into dome shapes trapping oil and gas that seeped from the surrounding porous sands; this thick, rich soil provides a good environment for rice farming in suburban outskirts into which the city continues to grow near Katy. Evidence of past rice farming is still evident in developed areas as an abundance of rich, loamy top soil exists; the Houston region is earthquake-free. While the city of Houston contains over 150 to 300 active surface faults with an aggregate length of up to 310 miles, the clay below the surface precludes the buildup of friction that produces ground-shaking in earthquakes; these faults move at a smooth rate in what is termed "fault creep".
A number of tropical storms and hurricanes have hit the area, including: 1900 Galveston Hurricane, which devastated Galveston and was the deadliest natural disaster in United States history, killing between 8,000 and 12,000. Hurricane Carla, the most recent Category 4 hurricane to strike Texas until Harvey in 2017. Hurricane Alicia, which struck the area as a Category 3, was at the time, the costliest Atlantic hurricane. Tropical Storm Allison, until Harvey, brought the worst flooding in Houston history and was the first tropical storm to be retired. Hurricane Rita, which triggered one of the largest evacuations in United States history in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. Tropical Storm Erin, a minor tropical storm that struck Texas, but brought severe impacts to Oklahoma. Hurricane Ike, which brought devastating storm surge to the coast and wind damage into the city. Hurricane Harvey, which brought devastating flooding that resulted in excess of $100 billion in damages to the region; as defined by the Office of Management and Budget, the m
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
San Jacinto County, Texas
San Jacinto County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 26,384, its county seat is Coldspring. The county's name comes from the Battle of San Jacinto which, in 1836, secured Texas' independence from Mexico and established a republic. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 628 square miles, of which 569 square miles is land and 59 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 59 Interstate 69 is under construction and will follow the current route of U. S. 59 in most places. U. S. Highway 190 State Highway 150 State Highway 156The TTC-69 component of the once-planned Trans-Texas Corridor went through San Jacinto County. Trinity County Polk County Liberty County Montgomery County Walker County Sam Houston National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 22,246 people, 8,651 households, 6,401 families residing in the county; the population density was 39 people per square mile. There were 11,520 housing units at an average density of 20 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 83.64% White, 12.64% Black or African American, 0.46% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 1.63% from other races, 1.28% from two or more races. 4.87% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 8,651 households out of which 30.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.20% were married couples living together, 9.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.00% were non-families. 22.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.20% under the age of 18, 7.40% from 18 to 24, 24.90% from 25 to 44, 26.60% from 45 to 64, 15.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 100.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,220, the median income for a family was $37,781.
Males had a median income of $34,614 versus $22,313 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,144. About 15.10% of families and 18.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.80% of those under age 18 and 17.60% of those age 65 or over. District 3: Robert Nichols - first elected in 2006. District 18: Ernest Bailes - first elected in 2016 School districts include Coldspring-Oakhurst Consolidated Independent School District Shepherd Independent School District Cleveland Independent School District Willis Independent School District Coldspring Point Blank Shepherd Cape Royale Oakhurst List of museums in the Texas Gulf Coast National Register of Historic Places listings in San Jacinto County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in San Jacinto County San Jacinto County government's website San Jacinto County from the Handbook of Texas Online San Jacinto, TXGenWeb Focuses on genealogical research in San Jacinto County
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820