Redoutable-class submarine (1967)
The Le Redoutable-class submarine was a ballistic missile submarine class of the French Marine Nationale. In French, the type is called Sous-marin Nucléaire Lanceur d'Engins "Missile-launching nuclear submarine"; when commissioned, they constituted the strategic part of the naval component of the French nuclear triad called Force de frappe. The class entered active service in 1971 with Redoutable, six submarines were built in total. All have since been decommissioned; the structural changes in Inflexible have seen it regarded as a different class from the early boats. The class has been superseded by firing the larger M45 missile; the first submarine, was ordered in 1963, built at Cherbourg, launched in 1967 and commissioned in 1971. The first of the class were armed with the M1 MSBS, the French term for a submarine-launched ballistic missile; this was replaced by the M2 MSBS beginning in 1974, in turn replaced by the M20 MSBS beginning in 1977. All except Redoutable were upgraded from 1985 to fire the second generation MIRV capable M4 missile – Tonnant was recommissioned in 1987.
Redoutable has been preserved since 2002 as a museum ship at the Cité de la Mer naval museum in Cherbourg-Octeville, France. With the reactor compartment replaced by a new section, she is the only complete ballistic missile submarine open to the public. List of submarines of France 1500 ton-class Robert. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1947–1995. London: Conway Maritime Press. Pp. 96, 122–123. ISBN 1-55750-132-7. Miller, David. An Illustrated Guide to Modern Submarines. Arco. ISBN 0-66805-495-6. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
The Vanguard class is a class of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines in service with the Royal Navy. The class was introduced in 1994 as part of the Trident nuclear programme, includes four boats: Vanguard, Victorious and Vengeance, they were built between 1986 and 1999 at Barrow-in-Furness by Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering, now owned by BAE Systems. All four boats are based at 40 km west of Glasgow, Scotland. Since the decommissioning of the Royal Air Force WE.177 free-fall thermonuclear weapons in 1998, the four Vanguard submarines are the sole platforms for the United Kingdom's nuclear weapons. Each submarine is armed with up to 16 UGM-133 Trident II missiles; the class is scheduled to be replaced starting 2028, though its replacement would not enter service until early 2030s. Beginning in the late 1960s, the United Kingdom operated four Resolution-class submarines, each armed with sixteen US-built UGM-27 Polaris missiles; the Polaris missile was supplied to Britain following the terms of the 1963 Polaris Sales Agreement.
This nuclear deterrent system was known as the UK Polaris programme. In the early 1980s the British government began studies examining options for replacing the Resolution-class submarines and its Polaris missiles, both of which would be approaching the end of their service lives within little over a decade. On the 24 January 1980, the House of Commons backed government policy, by 308 votes to 52, to retain an independent nuclear deterrent. Options that were examined built ballistic missile. However, it would be expensive, would be full of uncertainty and would not be available within the required time period, thus the option was considered "unattractive". Retain fitted on a new submarine class, it was concluded that any initial capital savings would have been lost beyond the 1990s, due to the high cost of sustaining a small stockpile of bespoke missiles kept only in British service. A European solution and the US UGM-73 Poseidon were briefly considered, but rejected on capability and uncertainty grounds.
The clear favourite was the UGM-96 Trident I, which as well as being a cost-effective solution — given the US would operate the missile in vast numbers — delivered the overall best long-term capability insurances against Soviet advancements in ballistic missile defence. Subsequently on 10 July 1980, the Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher wrote to US President Jimmy Carter requesting the purchase of Trident I missiles on a similar basis as the 1963 Polaris Sales Agreement. However, following the acceleration of the US UGM-133 Trident II missiles, Thatcher wrote to US President Ronald Reagan in 1982 requesting the United Kingdom be allowed to procure the improved system instead. An agreement was made in March 1982 between the two countries, under the agreement, Britain made a 5% research and development contribution. Beginning in 1985, both HMNB Clyde and the Royal Naval Armaments Depot Coulport at Faslane underwent extensive redevelopment in preparation for the Vanguard class submarines and Trident II missiles.
Rosyth dockyard underwent significant redevelopment. The work included enhanced "handling, armament processing, docking, engineering and refitting facilities" at an estimates cost of £550 million. Due to the huge scale of the Vanguard-class design, the Devonshire Dock Hall was built for the construction of the boats. Construction started in 1982 and was completed in 1986; the Vanguard class were designed in the early 1980s by Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering based at Barrow-in-Furness, now BAE Systems Maritime – Submarines. They were designed from the outset as nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines, able to accommodate the UGM-133 Trident II missiles; as such, the missile compartment is based on the same system used on the American Ohio class, equipped with the UGM-133 Trident II. This requirement lead to the Vanguard-class design being larger than the previous Polaris-equipped Resolution class, at nearly 16,000 tonnes they are the largest submarines built for the Royal Navy. Thatcher laid the keel of the first boat, HMS Vanguard, on 3 September 1986 at the Devonshire Dock Hall in Barrow-in-Furness.
Vanguard was launched in 1992 and commissioned in 1993. 1992 saw a debate over whether the fourth vessel, should be cancelled, however the Ministry of Defence ordered it in July 1992. Vengeance was commissioned in 1999. On 4 December 2006 Prime Minister Tony Blair revealed plans to spend up to £20 billion on a new generation of ballistic missile submarines to replace the Vanguard class. In order to reduce costs and show Britain's commitment to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, Blair suggested that submarine numbers could be cut from four to three, while the number of nuclear warheads would be cut by 20% to 160. On 23 September 2009 Prime Minister Gordon Brown confirmed that this reduction to three submarines was still under consideration. In February 2011, the Defence Secretary Liam Fox stated that four submarines would be needed if the UK was to retain a credible nuclear deterrent. On 18 May 2011 the British government approved the initial assessment phase for the construction of a new class of four submarines, paving the way for the ordering of the first long-lead items and preparations for the main build to begin in the future.
This new class of submarine, now known as the Dreadnought class, will retain th
Airbus Defence and Space
Airbus Defence and Space is a division of Airbus responsible for defence and aerospace products and services. The division was formed in January 2014 during the corporate restructuring of European Aeronautic Defence and Space, comprises the former Airbus Military and Cassidian divisions, it is the world's second largest space company after Boeing and one of the top ten defence companies in the world. Airbus Defence and Space has its corporate headquarters in Ottobrunn, is led by Dirk Hoke, the Chief Executive Officer; the company has four programme lines: Military Aircraft, Space Systems, Communication-Intelligence-Security, Unmanned Aerial Systems. With its presence in 35 countries, the company employs 40,000 people from 86 nationalities and contributes to 21% of Airbus revenues. In 2017 Airbus ranked 94th on the Fortune Global 500 list, was one of the "World's Most Admired Companies"; as early as 1995 the German aerospace and defence company DaimlerChrysler Aerospace and its British counterpart British Aerospace were said to be eager to create a transnational aerospace and defence company.
The two companies envisaged including the French company Aérospatiale, the other major European aerospace company, but only after its privatisation. The first stage of this integration was seen as the transformation of Airbus from a consortium of British Aerospace, DASA, Aérospatiale and Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA into an integrated company. However, the merger faltered, British Aerospace abandoned the DASA merger in favour of purchasing its British rival, Marconi Electronic Systems, the electronics division of General Electric Company; the merger of British Aerospace and MES to form BAE Systems was announced on 19 January 1999 and completed on 30 November. DASA and the Spanish aircraft company Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA agreed to merge on 11 June 1999. On 14 October 1999 DASA agreed to merge with Aérospatiale-Matra to create the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company. 10 July 2000 was "Day One" for the new company which became the world's second-largest aerospace company after Boeing and the second-largest European arms manufacturer after BAE Systems.
In January 2001 Airbus Industrie was transformed from an inherently inefficient consortium structure to a formal joint stock company, with legal and tax procedures being finalised on 11 July. On 16 June 2003 EADS acquired BAE's 25 % share in Astrium, the satellite and space system manufacturer, to become the sole owner. EADS paid £84 million, however due to the lossmaking status of the company BAE invested an equal amount for "restructuring", it was subsequently renamed EADS Astrium, had the divisions Astrium Satellites, Astrium Space Transportation and Astrium Services. On 1 July 2003 EADS Defence & Security Systems was founded with the merger of the activities of missile systems, defence electronics, military aircraft and telecommunications of the EADS Group. Tom Enders became the first CEO of the new division; the predecessor company was established in January 1999 as the Airbus Military Company SAS to manage the Airbus A400M project, taking over from the Euroflag consortium. In May 2003, the company was restructured as Airbus Military Sociedad Limitada prior to the execution of the production contract.
The Military Transport Aircraft Division was a division of EADS which designs and commercialises EADS-CASA light and medium transport aircraft, headquartered in Madrid, Spain. In 1999 was Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA in the EADS Group incorporated. In Spain it was still referred to as EADS-CASA; the EADS-CASA division Military Transport Aircraft Division was responsible for the development and sales of the leichten- and medium Transport and utility aircraft within the EADS Group. On 16 December 2008, EADS announced that the Military Transport Aircraft Division and Airbus Military SL as a new business unit in the Airbus SAS integrated. Airbus Military was formally created in April 2009 by the integration of the former Military Transport Aircraft Division and Airbus Military Sociedad Limitada into Airbus; the division manufactured tanker and mission aircraft including Airbus A330 MRTT, Airbus A400M, CASA C-212 Aviocar, CASA/IPTN CN-235 and EADS CASA C-295. After the merger, it acquired the production of Eurofighter Typhoon, earlier under Cassidian.
Eurocopter, earlier under Airbus Military, was reorganized as Airbus Helicopters. Astrium was formed in 2000 by the merger of Matra Marconi Space with the space division of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG and Computadores Redes e Ingeniería SA. Henceforth Astrium was a joint venture between BAE Systems. On 16 June 2003 the minority shareholder, BAE Systems, sold its 25% share to EADS, making EADS the sole shareholder. Astrium became EADS Astrium Satellites and in a wider restructuring became the major constituent of EADS Astrium, which included EADS Astrium Space Transportation and EADS Astrium Services. In this restructuring the former Astrium Space Infrastructure division merged with EADS Launchers & Vehicles division to form EADS SPACE Transportation, which became EADS Astrium Space Transportation. Paradigm Secure Communications created by Astrium in the frame of the Skynet 5 contract for the UK Ministry of Defence became the major constituent of EADS SPACE Services. CASA Espacio became part of EADS Astrium on 1 January 2004.
EADS Astrium was the sole shareholder of Infoterra Ltd. On 1 July 2006, the French subsidiary of EADS Astrium, EADS Astrium SAS, merged with o
The tonne referred to as the metric ton in the United States and Canada, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms or one megagram. It is equivalent to 2,204.6 pounds, 1.102 short tons or 0.984 long tons. Although not part of the SI, the tonne is accepted for use with SI units and prefixes by the International Committee for Weights and Measures; the tonne is derived from the weight of 1 cubic metre of pure water. The SI symbol for the tonne is't', adopted at the same time as the unit in 1879, its use is official for the metric ton in the United States, having been adopted by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology. It is a symbol, not an abbreviation, should not be followed by a period. Use of upper and lower case is significant, use of other letter combinations is not permitted and would lead to ambiguity. For example,'T','MT','Mt','mt' are the SI symbols for the tesla, megatesla and millitonne respectively. If describing TNT equivalent units of energy, this is equivalent to 4.184 petajoules.
In French and most varieties of English, tonne is the correct spelling. It is pronounced the same as ton, but when it is important to clarify that the metric term is meant, rather than short ton, the final "e" can be pronounced, i.e. "tonny". In Australia, it is pronounced. Before metrication in the UK the unit used for most purposes was the Imperial ton of 2,240 pounds avoirdupois or 20 hundredweight, equivalent to 1,016 kg, differing by just 1.6% from the tonne. The UK Weights and Measures Act 1985 explicitly excluded from use for trade certain imperial units, including the ton, unless the item being sold or the weighing equipment being used was weighed or certified prior to 1 December 1980, then only if the buyer was made aware that the weight of the item was measured in imperial units. In the United States metric ton is the name for this unit used and recommended by NIST. Both spellings are acceptable in Canadian usage. Ton and tonne are both derived from a Germanic word in general use in the North Sea area since the Middle Ages to designate a large cask, or tun.
A full tun, standing about a metre high, could weigh a tonne. An English tun of wine weighs a tonne, 954 kg if full of water, a little less for wine; the spelling tonne pre-dates the introduction of the SI in 1960. In the United States, the unit was referred to using the French words millier or tonneau, but these terms are now obsolete; the Imperial and US customary units comparable to the tonne are both spelled ton in English, though they differ in mass. One tonne is equivalent to: Metric/SI: 1 megagram. Equal to 1000000 grams or 1000 kilograms. Megagram, Mg, is the official SI unit. Mg is distinct from milligram. Pounds: Exactly 1000/0.453 592 37 lb, or 2204.622622 lb. US/Short tons: Exactly 1/0.907 184 74 short tons, or 1.102311311 ST. One short ton is 0.90718474 t. Imperial/Long tons: Exactly 1/1.016 046 9088 long tons, or 0.9842065276 LT. One long ton is 1.0160469088 t. For multiples of the tonne, it is more usual to speak of millions of tonnes. Kilotonne and gigatonne are more used for the energy of nuclear explosions and other events in equivalent mass of TNT loosely as approximate figures.
When used in this context, there is little need to distinguish between metric and other tons, the unit is spelt either as ton or tonne with the relevant prefix attached. *The equivalent units columns use the short scale large-number naming system used in most English-language countries, e.g. 1 billion = 1,000 million = 1,000,000,000.†Values in the equivalent short and long tons columns are rounded to five significant figures, see Conversions for exact values.ǂThough non-standard, the symbol "kt" is used for knot, a unit of speed for aircraft and sea-going vessels, should not be confused with kilotonne. A metric ton unit can mean 10 kilograms within metal trading within the US, it traditionally referred to a metric ton of ore containing 1% of metal. The following excerpt from a mining geology textbook describes its usage in the particular case of tungsten: "Tungsten concentrates are traded in metric tonne units (originally designating one tonne of ore containing 1% of WO3, today used to measure WO3 quantities in 10 kg units.
One metric tonne unit of tungsten contains 7.93 kilograms of tungsten." Note that tungsten is known as wolfram and has the atomic symbol W. In the case of uranium, the acronym MTU is sometimes considered to be metric ton of uranium, meaning 1,000 kg. A gigatonne of carbon dioxide equivalent is a unit used by the UN climate change panel, IPCC, to measure the effect of a technolo
A torpedo tube is a cylinder shaped device for launching torpedoes. There are two main types of torpedo tube: underwater tubes fitted to submarines and some surface ships, deck-mounted units installed aboard surface vessels. Deck-mounted torpedo launchers are designed for a specific type of torpedo, while submarine torpedo tubes are general-purpose launchers, are also capable of deploying mines and cruise missiles. Most modern launchers are standardised on a 12.75-inch diameter for light torpedoes or a 21-inch diameter for heavy torpedoes, although other sizes of torpedo tube have been used: see Torpedo classes and diameters. A submarine torpedo tube is a more complex mechanism than a torpedo tube on a surface ship, because the tube has to accomplish the function of moving the torpedo from the normal atmospheric pressure within the submarine into the sea at the ambient pressure of the water around the submarine, thus a submarine torpedo tube operates on the principle of an airlock. The diagram on the right illustrates the operation of a submarine torpedo tube.
The diagram does show the working of a submarine torpedo launch. A torpedo tube has a considerable number of interlocks for safety reasons. For example, an interlock prevents the breech muzzle door from opening at the same time; the submarine torpedo launch sequence is, in simplified form: Open the breech door in the torpedo room. Load the torpedo into the tube. Hook up the wire-guide connection and the torpedo power cable. Shut and lock the breech door. Turn on power to the torpedo. A minimum amount of time is required for torpedo warmup. Fire control programs are uploaded to the torpedo. Flood the torpedo tube; this may be done manually or automatically, from sea or from tanks, depending on the class of submarine. The tube must be vented during this process to allow for complete filling and eliminate air pockets which could escape to the surface or cause damage when firing. Open the equalizing valve to equalize pressure in the tube with ambient sea pressure. Open the muzzle door. If the tube is set up for Impulse Mode the slide valve will open with the muzzle door.
If Swim Out Mode is selected, the slide valve remains closed. The slide valve allows water from the ejection pump to enter the tube; when the launch command is given and all interlocks are satisfied, the water ram operates, thrusting a large volume of water into the tube at high pressure, which ejects the torpedo from the tube with considerable force. Modern torpedoes have a safety mechanism that prevents activation of the torpedo unless the torpedo senses the required amount of G-force; the power cable is severed at launch. However, if a guidance wire is used, it remains connected through a drum of wire in the tube. Torpedo propulsion systems vary but electric torpedoes swim out of the tube on their own and are of a smaller diameter. 21" weapons with fuel-burning engines start outside the tube. Once outside the tube the torpedo begins its run toward the target as programmed by the fire control system. Attack functions are programmed but with wire guided weapons, certain functions can be controlled from the ship.
For wire-guided torpedoes, the muzzle door must remain open because the guidance wire is still connected to the inside of the breech door to receive commands from the submarine's fire-control system. A wire cutter on the inside of the breech door is activated to release the wire and its protective cable; these are drawn clear of the ship prior to shutting the muzzle door. The drain cycle is a reverse of the flood cycle. Water can be moved as necessary; the tube must be vented to drain the tube since it is by gravity. Open the breech door and remove the remnants of the torpedo power cable and the guidance wire basket; the tube must be wiped dry to prevent a buildup of slime. This process is called "diving the tube" and tradition dictates that "ye who shoots, dives". Shut and lock the breech door. Spare torpedoes are stored behind the tube in racks. Speed is a desirable feature of a torpedo loading system. There are various manual and hydraulic handling systems for loading torpedoes into the tubes. Prior to the Ohio class, US SSBNs utilized manual block and tackle which took about 15 minutes to load a tube.
SSNs prior to the Seawolf class used a hydraulic system, much faster and safer in conditions where the ship needed to maneuver. The German Type 212 submarine uses a new development of the water ram expulsion system, which ejects the torpedo with water pressure to avoid acoustic detection. List of torpedoes by diameter The Fleet Type Submarine Online 21-Inch Submerged Torpedo Tubes United States Navy Restricted Ordnance Pamphlet 1085, June 1944 Torpedo tubes of German U-Boats
The French Navy, informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces. Dating back to 1624, the French Navy is one of the world's oldest naval forces, it has participated in conflicts around the globe and played a key part in establishing the French colonial empire. The French Navy consists of six main branches and various services: the Force d'Action Navale, the Forces Sous-marines, the Maritime Force of Naval Aeronautics, the Fusiliers Marins, the Marins Pompiers, the Maritime Gendarmerie; as of June 2014, the French Navy employed a total of 36,776 personnel along with 2,800 civilians. Its reserve element consisted of 4,827 personnel of the Operational Reserve; as a blue-water navy, it operates a wide range of fighting vessels, which include the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle, various aeronaval forces, attack submarines and ballistic missile submarines, patrol boats and support ships. The history of French naval power dates back to the Middle Ages, had three loci of evolution: The Mediterranean Sea, where the Ordre de Saint-Jean de Jérusalem had its own navy, the Levant Fleet, whose principal ports were Fréjus and Toulon.
The Ordre, both a religious and military order, recruited knights from the families of French nobility. Members who had fulfilled their service at sea were granted the rank of Knights Hospitaller, elites who served as the officer corps; the Ordre was one of the ancestors of modern French naval schools including the French Naval Academy. The Manche along Normandy which, since William the Conqueror, always tendered capable marines and sailors from its numerous active seaports; the first true French Royal Navy was established in 1624 by Cardinal Richelieu, chief minister to King Louis XIII. During the French Revolution, la Marine Royale was formally renamed la Marine Nationale. Under the First French Empire and the Second French Empire, the navy was designated as the Imperial French Navy. Institutionally, the navy has never lost its short familiar nickname, la Royale; the symbol of the French Navy was since its origin a golden anchor, beginning in 1830, was interlaced by a sailing rope. This symbol was featured on all naval vessels and uniforms.
Although anchor symbols are still used on uniforms, a new naval logo was introduced in 1990. Authorized by Naval Chief of Staff Bernard Louzeau, the modern design incorporates the tricolour by flanking the bow section of a white warship with two ascending red and blue spray foams, the inscription "Marine nationale". Cardinal Richelieu supervised the Navy until his death in 1643, he was succeeded by his protégé, Jean Baptiste Colbert, who introduced the first code of regulations of the French Navy, established the original naval dockyards in Brest and Toulon. Colbert and his son, the Marquis de Seignelay, between them administered the Navy for twenty-nine years. During this century, the Navy cut its teeth in the Anglo-French War, the Franco-Spanish War, the Second Anglo-Dutch War, the Franco-Dutch War, the Nine Years' War. Major battles in these years include the Battle of Beachy Head, the Battles of Barfleur and La Hougue, the Battle of Lagos, the Battle of Texel; the 1700s opened with the War of the Spanish Succession, over a decade long, followed by the War of the Austrian Succession in the 1740s.
Principal engagements of these wars include the Battle of Vigo Bay and two separate Battles of Cape Finisterre in 1747. The most grueling conflict for the Navy, was the Seven Years' War, in which it was destroyed. Significant actions include the Battle of Cap-Français, the Battle of Quiberon Bay, another Battle of Cape Finisterre; the Navy regrouped and rebuilt, within 15 years it was eager to join the fray when France intervened in the American Revolutionary War. Though outnumbered everywhere, the French fleets held the British at bay for years until victory. After this conflict and the concomitant Anglo-French War, the Navy emerged at a new height in its history. Major battles in these years include the Battle of the Chesapeake, the Battle of Cape Henry, the Battle of Grenada, the invasion of Dominica, three separate Battles of Ushant. Within less than a decade, the Navy was decimated by the French Revolution when large numbers of veteran officers were dismissed or executed for their noble lineage.
Nonetheless, the Navy fought vigorously through the French Revolutionary Wars as well as the Quasi-War. Significant actions include a fourth Battle of Ushant, the Battle of Groix, the Atlantic campaign of May 1794, the French expedition to Ireland, the Battle of Tory Island, the Battle of the Nile. Other engagements of the Revolutionary Wars ensued in the early 1800s, including the Battle of the Malta Convoy and the Algeciras Campaign; the Quasi-War wound down with single-ship actions including USS Constellation vs La Vengeance and USS Enterprise vs Flambeau. When Napoleon was crowned Emperor in 1804, he attempted to restore the Navy to a position that would enable his plan for an invasion of England, his dreams were dashed by the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, where the British all but annihilated a combined Franco-Spanish fleet, a disaster that guaranteed British naval superiority throughout the Napoleonic Wars. Still, the Navy did not shrink from action: among the engagements of this time were the Battle of the Basque Roads, the Battle of Grand Port, the Mauritius campaign of 1809–11, the Battle of Lissa, After Nap