Sonoma County, California
Sonoma County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 483,878 and its county seat and largest city is Santa Rosa. It is located to the north of Marin County and the south of Mendocino County and it is west of Napa County and Lake County. Sonoma County comprises the Santa Rosa, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area and it is the northwestern county in the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region. Sonoma is the county and largest producer of California’s Wine Country region, which includes Napa, Mendocino. It possesses thirteen approved American Viticultural Areas and over 250 wineries, in 2002, Sonoma County ranked as the 32nd county in the United States in agricultural production. More than 7.4 million tourists each year, spending more than $1 billion in 2006. Sonoma County is the home of Sonoma State University and Santa Rosa Junior College, Sonoma County is home to several Native American tribes. By the 1830s, European settlement had set a new direction that would prove to radically alter the course of land use, Sonoma County has rich agricultural land, albeit largely divided between two nearly monocultural uses as of 2007, grapes and pasturage.
The voters have twice approved open space initiatives that have provided funding for public acquisition of natural areas, preserving forested areas, coastal habitat, and other open space. The Pomo, Coast Miwok and Wappo peoples were the earliest human settlers of Sonoma County, spaniards and other Europeans claimed and settled in the county from the late 16th to mid-19th century, seeking timber and farmland. The Russians were the first newcomers to establish a permanent foothold in Sonoma County and this settlement and its outlying Russian settlements came to include a population of several hundred Russian and Aleut settlers and a stockaded fort with artillery. However, the Russians abandoned it in 1841 and sold the fort to John Sutter and Mexican land grantee of Sacramento. The Mission San Francisco Solano, founded in 1823 as the last and northernmost of 21 California missions, is in the present City of Sonoma, El Presidio de Sonoma, or Sonoma Barracks, was established in 1836 by Comandante General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo.
The City of Sonoma was the site of the Bear Flag Revolt in 1846, Sonoma was one of the original counties formed when California became a state in 1850, with its county seat originally the town of Sonoma. However, by the early 1850s, the town of Sonoma had declined in importance in terms of commerce and population, its county buildings were crumbling, and it was relatively remote. As a result, elements in the newer, rapidly growing towns of Petaluma, Santa Rosa, the dispute ultimately was between the bigger, richer commercial town of Petaluma and the more centrally located, growing agricultural center of Santa Rosa. Allegedly, several Santa Rosans, not caring to wait, decided to take action and, one night, rode down the Sonoma Valley to Sonoma, took the county seals and records, some of the countys land was annexed from Mendocino County between 1850 and 1860
Toxicodendron diversilobum, commonly named Pacific poison oak or western poison oak, is a woody vine or shrub in the Anacardiaceae family. It is widely distributed in western North America, inhabiting conifer and mixed forests, grasslands. Like other members of the Toxicodendron genus, T. diversilobum causes itching, Toxicodendron diversilobum is found in California, the Baja California Peninsula, Oregon and British Columbia. The related T. pubescens is native to the Southeastern United States, T. diversilobum and T. rydbergii hybridize in the Columbia River Gorge area. Toxicodendron diversilobum is common in habitats, from mesic riparian zones to xeric chaparral. It thrives in shady and dappled light through full and direct sunlight conditions, the vining form can climb up large shrub and tree trunks into their canopies. Sometimes it kills the plant by smothering or breaking it. Toxicodendron diversilobum is extremely variable in habit and leaf appearance. The plant is deciduous, so that after cold weather sets in.
Without leaves the stems may sometimes be identified by occasional black marks where its milky sap may have oozed and dried, the leaves are divided into three leaflets,3.5 to 10 centimetres long, with scalloped, toothed, or lobed edges. They generally resemble the leaves of a true oak, though tend to be more glossy. Leaves are typically bronze when first unfolding in February to March, bright green in the spring, yellow-green to reddish in the summer, white flowers form in the spring, from March to June. If they are fertilized, they develop into greenish-white or tan berries, botanist John Howell observed that the toxicity of T. Toxicodendron diversilobum leaves and twigs have a surface oil, which causes an allergic reaction. It causes contact dermatitis – an immune-mediated skin inflammation – in four-fifths of humans, most, if not all, will become sensitized over time with repeated or more concentrated exposure to urushiol. The active components of urushiol have been determined to be unsaturated congeners of 3-heptadecylcatechol with up to three double bonds in an unbranched C17 side chain, in poison ivy, these components are unique in that they contain a -CH2CH2- group in an unbranched alkyl side chain.
Toxicodendron diversilobum skin contact first causes itching, evolves into dermatitis with inflammation, colorless bumps, severe itching, in the dormant deciduous seasons the plant can be difficult to recognize, however leafless branches and twigs contact causes allergic reactions. Urushiol volatilizes when burned, and human exposure to T. diversilobum smoke is extremely hazardous, from wildfires, controlled burns, the smoke can poison people who thought they were immune. Branches used to toast food over campfires can cause reactions internally and externally, urushiol is found in the skin of mangos, posing a danger to people already sensitized to T. diversilobum when eating the fruit while it is still in the rind
The opossums, known as possums, are marsupial mammals of the order Didelphimorphia /daɪˌdɛlfᵻˈmɔːrfiə/). The largest order of marsupials in the Western Hemisphere, it comprises 103 or more species in 19 genera, opossums originated in South America, and entered North America in the Great American Interchange following the connection of the two continents. Their unspecialized biology, flexible diet, and reproductive habits make them successful colonizers and survivors in diverse locations and conditions, the word opossum is borrowed from the Powhatan language and was first recorded between 1607 and 1611 by John Smith and William Strachey. Both men encountered the language at the British settlement of Jamestown, stracheys notes describe the opossum as a beast in bigness of a pig and in taste alike, while Smith recorded it hath an head like a swine. Tail like a rat. of the bigness of a cat, the Powhatan word ultimately derives from a Proto-Algonquian word meaning white dog or dog-like beast. The opossum is known as a possum, particularly in the Southern United States.
Didelphimorphia refers to the fact that, like all marsupials, these animals have two wombs, didelphimorphs are small to medium-sized marsupials, ranging in size from a small mouse to a large house cat. They tend to be omnivores, although there are many exceptions. Most members of this taxon have long snouts, a braincase. By mammalian standards, this is an unusually full jaw, the incisors are very small, the canines large, and the molars are tricuspid. Didelphimorphs have a stance and the hind feet have an opposable digit with no claw. Like some New World monkeys, opossums have prehensile tails, like all marsupials, the fur consists of awn hair only, and the females have a pouch. The tail and parts of the feet bear scutes, the stomach is simple, with a small cecum. Notably, the male opossum has a forked penis bearing twin glandes, opossums have a remarkably robust immune system, and show partial or total immunity to the venom of rattlesnakes and other pit vipers. Opossums are about eight times less likely to carry rabies than wild dogs, although all living opossums are essentially opportunistic omnivores, different species vary in the amount of meat and vegetation they include in their diet.
Members of the Caluromyinae are essentially frugivorous, whereas the lutrine opossum, the yapok is particularly unusual, as it is the only living semi-aquatic marsupial, using its webbed hindlimbs to dive in search of freshwater mollusks and crayfish. As a marsupial, the female opossum has a system that includes a bifurcated vagina, a divided uterus and a marsupium. The average estrous cycle of the opossum is about 28 days, opossums do possess a placenta, but it is short-lived, simple in structure, unlike that of placental mammals, is not fully functional
Umbellularia californica is a large hardwood tree native to coastal forests of California and slightly extended into the state of Oregon. It is endemic to the California Floristic Province and it is the sole species in the genus Umbellularia. The tree was known as Oreodaphne californica. In Oregon, this tree is known as Oregon myrtle, while in California it is called California bay laurel and it has been called pepperwood, cinnamon bush, peppernut tree, headache tree, mountain laurel, and balm of heaven. The trees pungent leaves have a flavor to bay leaves, though stronger. The dry wood has a range from blonde to brown. It is considered a world-class tonewood and is sought after by luthiers and woodworkers, the tree is a host of the pathogen that causes sudden oak death. This tree mostly inhabits redwood forests, California mixed woods, yellow pine forest, bays occur in oak woodlands only close to the coast, or in extreme northern California where moisture is sufficient. During the Miocene, oak-laurel forests were found in Central and Southern California, typical tree species included oaks ancestral to present-day California oaks, and an assemblage of trees from the laurel family, including Nectandra, Ocotea and Umbellularia.
Only one native species from the family, Umbellularia californica. In the north, it reaches its distributional limit through southwest Oregon to Newport, Lincoln County, Oregon, on the coast and it is found in the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains. It occurs at altitudes from sea level up to 1600 m, an isolated, more northern occurrence of the species can be found in Tacoma, around Snake Lake near the Tacoma Nature Center. It is a tree growing to 30 m tall with a trunk up to 80 cm thick. The largest recorded tree is in Mendocino County, the fragrant leaves are smooth-edged and lance-shaped, 3–10 cm long and 1. 5–3 cm broad, similar to the related bay laurel, though usually narrower, and without the crinkled margin of that species. The flowers are small, yellow or yellowish-green, produced in small umbels, the fruit, known as California bay nut, is a round and green berry 2–2.5 cm long and 2 cm broad, lightly spotted with yellow, maturing purple. Under the thin, leathery skin, it consists of an oily, fleshy covering over a hard, thin-shelled pit.
Umbellularia is in fact related to the avocados genus Persea. The fruit ripens around October–November in the native range, Umbellularia has long been valued for its many uses by Native Americans throughout the trees range, including the Cahuilla, Pomo, Yuki and Salinan people
Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails, in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter, particularly urban walks. On the other hand, in the United Kingdom, and the Republic of Ireland, the word hiking is often used in the UK, along with rambling and fell walking. The term bushwalking is endemic to Australia, having been adopted by the Sydney Bush Walkers club in 1927, in New Zealand a long, vigorous walk or hike is called tramping. It is an activity with numerous hiking organizations worldwide. In the United States, the Republic of Ireland, a day hike refers to a hike that can be completed in a single day. However, in the United Kingdom, the walking is used, as well as rambling. In Northern England, Including the Lake District and Yorkshire Dales, fellwalking describes hill or mountain walks, hiking sometimes involves bushwhacking and is sometimes referred to as such. This specifically refers to walking through dense forest, undergrowth, or bushes.
In extreme cases of bushwhacking, where the vegetation is so dense that human passage is impeded, the Australian term bushwalking refers to both on and off-trail hiking. Common terms for hiking used by New Zealanders are tramping, walking or bushwalking, trekking is the preferred word used to describe multi-day hiking in the mountainous regions of India, Nepal, North America, South America, Iran and in the highlands of East Africa. Hiking a long-distance trail from end-to-end is referred to as trekking, in North America, multi-day hikes, usually with camping, are referred to as backpacking. The idea of taking a walk in the countryside for pleasure developed in the 18th-century, in earlier times walking generally indicated poverty and was associated with vagrancy. Thomas West, an English priest, popularized the idea of walking for pleasure in his guide to the Lake District of 1778. To this end he included various stations or viewpoints around the lakes, published in 1778 the book was a major success.
Another famous early exponent of walking for pleasure, was the English poet William Wordsworth, in 1790 he embarked on an extended tour of France and Germany, a journey subsequently recorded in his long autobiographical poem The Prelude. His famous poem Tintern Abbey was inspired by a visit to the Wye Valley made during a tour of Wales in 1798 with his sister Dorothy Wordsworth. Wordsworths friend Coleridge was another keen walker and in the autumn of 1799, he and Wordsworth undertook a three weeks tour of the Lake District. John Keats, who belonged to the generation of Romantic poets began, in June 1818, a walking tour of Scotland, Ireland
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Arbutus menziesii is a species of tree in the family Ericaceae, native to the western coastal areas of North America, from British Columbia to California. It is known as the madroño, madroña, or bearberry, the name strawberry tree may be found in relation to A. menziesii. The Concow tribe calls the tree dis-tā’-tsi or kou-wät′-chu, in British Columbia it is simply referred to as arbutus. Its species name was given it in honour of the Scottish naturalist Archibald Menzies, Arbutus menziesii is an evergreen tree with rich orange-red bark that when mature naturally peels away in thin sheets, leaving a greenish, silvery appearance that has a satin sheen and smoothness. The exposed wood sometimes feels cool to the touch, in spring, it bears sprays of small bell-like flowers, and in autumn, red berries. The berries dry up and have hooked barbs that latch onto larger animals for migration and it is common to see madronas of about 10 to 25 metres in height, but with the right conditions trees may reach up to 30 metres.
In ideal conditions madronas can reach a thickness of 5 to 8 feet at the trunk, much like an oak tree. The leaves are evergreen, lasting a few years before detaching, the stain lasts until the leaves naturally detach at the end of their lifespan. Madrones are native to the western coast of North America, from British Columbia to California and they are mainly found in Puget Sound, the Oregon Coast Range, and California Coast Ranges, but are scattered on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountain ranges. They are rare south of Santa Barbara County, with isolated stands south to Palomar Mountain in California, however other Arbutus species are endemic to the area. The trees are difficult to transplant and a seedling should be set in its permanent spot while still small, transplant mortality becomes significant once a madrone is more than 1 foot tall. The site should be sunny, well drained, and lime-free, in its native range, a tree needs no extra water or food once it has become established.
Water and nitrogen fertilizer will boost its growth, but at the cost of making it susceptible to disease. This plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Societys Award of Garden Merit, native Americans ate the berries, but because the berries have a high tannin content and are thus astringent, they more often chewed them or made them into a cider. They used the berries to make necklaces and other decorations and leaves were used to treat stomachaches, skin ailments, and sore throats. The bark was made into a tea to be drunk for these medicinal purposes. Many mammal and bird species feed off the berries, including American robins, cedar waxwings, band-tailed pigeons, varied thrushes, mule deer, ring-tailed cats, mule deer will eat the young shoots when the trees are regenerating after fire. It is important as a nest site for many birds, the wood is durable and has a warm color after finishing, so it has become more popular as a flooring material, especially in the Pacific Northwest
Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species, but has come to include all plants and other organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans. Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems, humans have historically tended to separate civilization from wildlife in a number of ways including the legal and moral sense. Some animals, have adapted to suburban environments and this includes such animals as domesticated cats, dogs and gerbils. The global wildlife population has decreased by 52 percent between 1970 and 2014, according to a report by the World Wildlife Fund, anthropologists believe that the Stone Age people and hunter-gatherers relied on wildlife, both plants and animals, for their food. In fact, some species may have been hunted to extinction by human hunters. Today, hunting and gathering wildlife is still a significant food source in parts of the world. In other areas and non-commercial fishing are seen as a sport or recreation. Meat sourced from wildlife that is not traditionally regarded as game is known as bush meat, in November 2008, almost 900 plucked and oven-ready owls and other protected wildlife species were confiscated by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks in Malaysia, according to TRAFFIC.
The animals were believed to be bound for China, to be sold in wild meat restaurants, most are listed in CITES which prohibits or restricts such trade.60. Many Amazon species, including peccaries, turtles, turtle eggs, armadillos, others in these informal markets, such as monkeys and parrots, are destined for the pet trade, often smuggled into the United States. Still other Amazon species are popular ingredients in traditional medicines sold in local markets, the medicinal value of animal parts is based largely on superstition. Many animal species have spiritual significance in different cultures around the world, for example, eagles and their feathers have great cultural and spiritual value to Native Americans as religious objects. In Hinduism the cow is regarded sacred, muslims conduct sacrifices on Eid-ul-Adha to commemorate the sacrificial spirit of Ibrahim in love of God. Camels, sheep and cows may be offered as sacrifice during the three days of Eid, many nations have established their tourism sector around their natural wildlife.
South Africa has, for example, many opportunities for tourists to see the wildlife in its national parks. In South India the Periar Wildlife Sanctuary, Bandipur National Park and Mudamalai Wildlife Sanctuary are situated around, India is home to many national parks and wildlife sanctuaries showing the diversity of its wildlife, much of its unique fauna, and excels in the range. This subsection focuses on forms of wildlife destruction. Exploitation of wild populations has been a characteristic of man since our exodus from Africa 130,000 –70,000 years ago
In biology, the canopy is the aboveground portion of a plant community or crop, formed by the collection of individual plant crowns. In forest ecology, canopy refers to the layer or habitat zone, formed by mature tree crowns. Sometimes the term canopy is used to refer to the extent of the layer of leaves of an individual tree or group of trees. Shade trees normally have a canopy that blocks light from lower growing plants. Canopy structure is the organization or spatial arrangement of a plant canopy, leaf Area Index, leaf area per unit ground area, is a key measure used to understand and compare plant canopies. It is taller than the understory layer, dominant and co-dominant canopy trees form the uneven canopy layer. Canopy trees are able to photosynthesize relatively rapidly due to abundant light, the canopy layer provides protection from strong winds and storms, while intercepting sunlight and precipitation, leading to a relatively sparsely vegetated understory layer. Forest canopies are home to flora and fauna not found in other layers of forests.
The highest terrestrial biodiversity resides in the canopy of tropical rainforests, many rainforest animals have evolved to live solely in the canopy, and never touch the ground. The canopy of a rainforest is typically about 10m thick, the canopy is below the emergent layer, a sparse layer of very tall trees, typically one or two per hectare. With an abundance of water and an ideal temperature in rainforests, light. In the permaculture and forest gardening community, the canopy is the highest of seven layers, Canopy Canopy research Canopy walkway Hemispherical photography Stratification Treefall gap Wildfire Crown shyness Rainforest size-asymmetric competition Lowman, M. D. and H. B. ISBN 0-12-457553-6, ISBN 978-0-12-457553-0 Moffett, M. W, the High Frontier, Exploring the Tropical Rainforest Canopy. Plant Canopies, Their Growth and Function, ISBN 0-521-39563-1, ISBN 978-0-521-39563-2 International Canopy Access Network
A stream is a body of water with a current, confined within a bed and banks. Streams are important as conduits in the cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge. The biological habitat in the vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone. Given the status of the ongoing Holocene extinction, streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats, the study of streams and waterways in general is known as surface hydrology and is a core element of environmental geography. Brook A stream smaller than a creek, especially one that is fed by a spring or seep and it is usually small and easily forded. A brook is characterised by its shallowness and its bed being composed primarily of rocks, creek In North America and New Zealand, a small to medium-sized natural stream. Sometimes navigable by motor craft and may be intermittent, in parts of Maryland, New England, the UK and India, a tidal inlet, typically in a salt marsh or mangrove swamp, or between enclosed and drained former salt marshes or swamps.
In these cases, the stream is the stream, the course of the seawater through the creek channel at low. River A large natural stream, which may be a waterway, runnel the linear channel between the parallel ridges or bars on a shoreline beach or river floodplain, or between a bar and the shore. Tributary A contributory stream, or a stream which does not reach the sea, sometimes called a branch or fork. There are a number of names for a stream. Allt is used in Highland Scotland, beck is used in Yorkshire, Dumfriesshire, Cumbria and Lincolnshire. Bourne or winterbourne is used in the chalk downland of southern England, brook is used in the Midlands and Cheshire. Burn is used in Scotland and North East England, gill or ghyll is seen in the north of England and other areas influenced by Old Norse. Rivulet is an term encountered in Victorian era publications, stream is used in Southern England. Syke is used in lowland Scotland and Cumbria for a seasonal stream, branch is used to name streams in Maryland and Virginia.
Falls is used to name streams in Maryland, for streams/rivers which have waterfalls on them, little Gunpowder Falls and The Jones Falls are actually rivers named in this manner, unique to Maryland. Kill in New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey comes from a Dutch language word meaning riverbed or water channel, run in Ohio, Michigan, New Jersey, Virginia, or West Virginia can be the name of a stream
The cougar, commonly known as the mountain lion, panther, or catamount, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas. Its range, from the Canadian Yukon to the southern Andes of South America, is the greatest of any large wild terrestrial mammal in the Western Hemisphere, an adaptable, generalist species, the cougar is found in most American habitat types. It is the second-heaviest cat in the New World, after the jaguar and largely solitary by nature, the cougar is properly considered both nocturnal and crepuscular, although there are daytime sightings. The cougar is more related to smaller felines, including the domestic cat, than to any species of subfamily Pantherinae. The cougar is a predator and pursues a wide variety of prey. Primary food sources are ungulates, particularly deer, but livestock and it hunts species as small as insects and rodents. This cat prefers habitats with dense underbrush and rocky areas for stalking, the cougar is territorial and survives at low population densities.
Individual territory sizes depend on terrain and abundance of prey, while large, it is not always the apex predator in its range, yielding to the jaguar, gray wolf, American black bear, and grizzly bear. It is reclusive and mostly avoids people, fatal attacks on humans are rare, but have recently been increasing in North America as more people enter their territories. Intensive hunting following European colonization of the Americas and the human development of cougar habitat has caused populations to drop in most parts of its historical range. In particular, the cougar was extirpated in eastern North America in the beginning of the 20th century, reports of eastern cougars still surface, although it was declared extirpated in 2011. With its vast range across the length of the Americas, P. concolor has dozens of names and various references in the mythology of the indigenous Americans and in contemporary culture. Currently, it is referred to as puma by most scientists, Mountain lion was a term first used in writing in 1858 from the diary of George A.
Jackson of Colorado. Other names include catamount, mountain screamer, and painter, lexicographers regard painter as a primarily upper-Southern US regional variant on panther. The word panther is used to specifically designate the black panther, a melanistic jaguar or leopard, and the Florida panther. P. concolor holds the Guinness record for the animal with the greatest number of names, Cougar may be borrowed from the archaic Portuguese çuçuarana, the term was originally derived from the Tupi language susuarana, meaning similar to deer. A current form in Brazil is suçuarana and it may be borrowed from the Guaraní language term guaçu ara or guazu ara. Less common Portuguese terms are onça-parda or leão-baio, or unusually non-native puma or leão-da-montanha, people in rural regions often refer to both the cougar and the jaguar as simply gata, and outside of the Amazon, both are colloquially referred to as simply onça by many people
Santa Rosa, California
Santa Rosa is a city in and the county seat of Sonoma County, United States. Its estimated 2014 population was 174,170, before the arrival of Europeans, the wide valley containing Santa Rosa was home to a strong and populous tribe of Pomo natives known as the Bitakomtara. The Bitakomtara controlled the valley closely, barring passage to others until permission was arranged and those who entered without permission were subject to harsh penalties. The tribe gathered at ceremonial times on Santa Rosa Creek near present-day Spring Lake Regional Park, upon the arrival of Europeans, the Pomos were decimated by smallpox brought from Europe, and by the eradication efforts of Anglo settlers. By 1900 the Pomo population had decreased by 95%, the first known permanent European settlement of Santa Rosa was the homestead of the Carrillo family, in-laws to Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, who settled the Sonoma pueblo and Petaluma area. This is supposedly the origin of the name of Matanzas Creek as, because of its use as a slaughtering place, by the 1850s, a Wells Fargo post and general store were established in what is now downtown Santa Rosa.
The U. S. Census records, among others, show that after California became a state, Santa Rosa grew steadily early on, despite lagging behind nearby Petaluma in the 1850s. According to the U. S. Census, in 1870 Santa Rosa was the eighth largest city in California and development after that were steady but never rapid. According to a 1905 article in the Press Democrat newspaper reporting on the Battle of the Trains, the 1906 San Francisco earthquake essentially destroyed the entire downtown, but the citys population did not greatly suffer. However, after that period the population growth of Santa Rosa, famed director Alfred Hitchcock filmed his thriller Shadow of a Doubt in Santa Rosa in 1943, the film gives glimpses of Santa Rosa in the 1940s. Many of the buildings seen in the film no longer exist due to major reconstruction following the strong earthquakes in October 1969. However, like the rough-stone Northwestern Pacific Railroad depot, a scene at the bank was filmed at the corner of Fourth Street and Mendocino Avenue, the KRESS building on Fourth Street is visible.
However, the courthouse and bank are now gone, the Coen brothers 2001 film The Man Who Wasnt There is set in Santa Rosa c. Santa Rosa grew following World War II, the city was a convenient location for San Francisco travelers bound for the Russian River. The population increased by 2/3 between 1950 and 1970, an average of 1,000 new residents a year over the 20 years, some of the increase was from immigration, and some from annexation of portions of the surrounding area. Santa Rosa continued as a center for civil defense activity until 1972 when the Federal Emergency Management Agency was created in its place. When the City Council adopted the citys first modern General Plan in 1991, in the 21 years following 1970, Santa Rosa grew by about 3,000 residents a year—triple the average growth during the previous twenty years. Santa Rosa 2010, the 1991 General Plan, called for a population of 175,000 in 2010, the Council expanded the citys urban boundary to include all the land planned for future annexation, and declared it would be Santa Rosas ultimate boundary