Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, in short, often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is the capital and largest city, in the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, and the northeast is predominantly flatland. The inland is a larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold. The southern tip of the country has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography and Herzegovina is a region that traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally and socially, the country has a rich history, the Ottomans brought Islam to the region, and altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country. This was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I.
In the interwar period, Bosnia was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the country proclaimed independence in 1992, which was followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. The country is home to three ethnic groups or, constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second and Croats third, a native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. The terms Herzegovinian and Bosnian are maintained as a rather than ethnic distinction. Moreover, the country was simply called Bosnia until the Austro-Hungarian occupation at the end of the 19th century and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is itself complex and consists of 10 cantons, the country has been a member of the Council of Europe since April 2002 and a founding member of the Mediterranean Union upon its establishment in July 2008.
The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could be derived from Illyrian Bass-an-as which would be a diversion of the Proto-Indo-European root bos or bogh, meaning the running water. According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia adapted the Latin designation Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna, the name Herzegovina originates from Bosnian magnate Stephen Vukčić Kosačas title, Herceg of Hum and the Coast. Hum, formerly Zahumlje, was a medieval principality that was conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century. Bosnia is located in the western Balkans, bordering Croatia to the north and west, Serbia to the east and it has a coastline about 20 kilometres long surrounding the city of Neum. It lies between latitudes 42° and 46° N, and longitudes 15° and 20° E, the countrys name comes from the two regions Bosnia and Herzegovina, which have a very vaguely defined border between them
In France, an andouille may be a large andouillette, in Cajun cooking, an andouille is a different kind of sausage. Andouillette is a sausage made with pork, intestines or chitterlings, wine, onions. Tripe, which is the lining of a cow, is sometimes an ingredient in the filler of an andouillette. True andouillette will be an oblong tube, if made with the small intestine, it is a plump sausage generally about 25 mm in diameter but often it is much larger, possibly 7–10 cm in diameter, and stronger in scent when the colon is used. True andouillette is rarely seen outside France and has a strong, distinctive odour related to its intestinal origins, although sometimes repellent to the uninitiated, this aspect of andouillette is prized by its devotees. The original composition of andouillette sausages is not known and there is no record of the composition from earlier than the nineteenth century. Nineteenth century dictionaries simply describe them as small andouilles, during the twenty-first century the incorporation of veal, historically the more costly meat ingredient, has been banned in response to concerns over BSE.
Some French regions such as Cambrésis and Lyonnais were still including veal right up to the ban, andouillettes can be served either hot or cold, with the former much more common. As with all lower intestine sausages, andouillettes are to some extent an acquired taste and their smell may offend people unaccustomed to the dish. The texture is somewhat rougher than most sausages, as the content is coarsely cut, primarily pan-fried, it can be boiled, barbecued or grilled. The sausage is served with vegetables in a mustard or red wine sauce. Their popularity has remained constant over the last few centuries and this a main dish of Arras. From the 1970s, Lyon has been the centre of a fan club which rates restaurants based on the quality of their andouillettes, the Association Amicale des Amateurs dAndouillette Authentique The Friendly Club of Lovers of Authentic Andouillette is a club formed by several food writers in 1970. It gives certificates to producers of high-quality andouillettes, lyonnaise cuisine List of sausages Association amicale des amateurs dandouillette authentique, at French Wikipedia
Human iron metabolism
Human iron metabolism is the set of chemical reactions maintaining human homeostasis of iron at both the systemic and cellular level. The control of this necessary but potentially toxic metal is an important part of many aspects of human health, hematologists have been especially interested in systemic iron metabolism because iron is essential for red blood cells, where most of the human bodys iron is contained. Understanding iron metabolism is important for understanding diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis, iron is an essential bioelement for most forms of life, from bacteria to mammals. Its importance lies in its ability to mediate electron transfer, in the ferrous state, iron acts as an electron donor, while in the ferric state it acts as an acceptor. Thus, iron plays a role in the catalysis of enzymatic reactions that involve electron transfer. Proteins can contain iron as part of different cofactors, such as clusters and heme groups. Human cells require iron in order to obtain energy as ATP from a process known as cellular respiration.
Iron is present in the clusters and heme groups of the electron transport chain proteins that generate a proton gradient that allows ATP synthase to synthesize ATP. Heme groups are part of hemoglobin, a found in red blood cells that serves to transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. Heme groups are present in myoglobin to store and diffuse oxygen in muscle cells. The human body needs iron for oxygen transport, oxygen is required for the functioning and survival of nearly all cell types. Oxygen is transported from the lungs to the rest of the bound to the heme group of hemoglobin in erythrocytes. In muscles cells, iron binds myoglobin, which regulates its release and its ability to donate and accept electrons means that it can catalyze the conversion of hydrogen peroxide into free radicals. Free radicals can cause damage to a variety of cellular structures. Iron bound to proteins or cofactors such as heme is safe, there are virtually no truly free iron ions in the cell, since they readily form complexes with organic molecules.
However, some of the iron is bound to low-affinity complexes. Iron in such complexes can cause damage as described above, to prevent that kind of damage, all life forms that use iron bind the iron atoms to proteins. This binding allows cells to benefit from iron while limiting its ability to do harm, in mammalian cells, intracellular labile iron concentrations are typically smaller than 1 micromolar, less than 5 percent of total cellular iron
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Honduras, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, the territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples including the Muisca, the Quimbaya and the Tairona. The Spanish arrived in 1499 and initiated a period of conquest and colonization ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 the Gran Colombia Federation was dissolved. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada, the new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, and the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886.
Since the 1960s the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict, Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, and thereby possesses a rich cultural heritage. Cultural diversity has influenced by Colombias varied geography. The urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains. Colombian territory encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines, ecologically, it is one of the worlds 17 megadiverse countries, and the most densely biodiverse of these per square kilometer. Colombia is a power and a regional actor with the fourth-largest economy in Latin America, is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and is an accessing member to the OECD. Colombia has an economy with macroeconomic stability and favorable growth prospects in the long run. The name Colombia is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus and it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially to those portions under Spanish and Portuguese rule.
The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819. When Venezuela and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, New Granada officially changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was changed, this time to United States of Colombia. To refer to country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia. Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica, the oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 km southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period, at Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been found
Sicilian cuisine shows traces of all the cultures which established themselves on the island of Sicily over the last two millennia. Although its cuisine has a lot in common with Italian cuisine, Sicilian food has Greek, French and Hohenstaufen influences are found, such as in the fondness for meat dishes. Later, the Spanish introduced numerous items from the New World, including cocoa, peppers, turkey, in Catania, on the east coast, initially settled by Greek colonists, olives, broad beans and fresh vegetables are preferred instead. Much of the islands cuisine encourages the use of vegetables such as eggplant and tomatoes, and fish such as tuna, sea bream, sea bass, cuttlefish. In Trapani in the western corner of the island, North African influences are clear in the use of couscous. The starters are an important aspect of Sicilian cuisine, common Sicilian starters include caponata and gatò di patate. Maccu is a Sicilian soup and foodstuff prepared with fava beans as a primary ingredient and it is a peasant food and staple food that dates back to ancient history.
Maccu di San Giuseppe is a traditional Sicilian dish that consists of various ingredients, the dish may be prepared on Saint Josephs Day in Sicily, to clear out pantries and allow room for the springs new crops of vegetables. Spaghetti ai ricci Pasta con le sarde and Pasta alla Norma are the most popular pasta dishes typically Sicilian, after the pasta in the typical Sicilian menu is served a second dishes or main dish that could be indifferently meat or fish based. Main dishes based on products are couscous al pesce and Pesce spada alla ghiotta. Candy in Sicily was heavily influenced by the Arab candymakers in the 9th century, marzipan fruits may have been invented at the Convent of Eloise at Martorana in the 14th century. In the 17th and 18th centuries, many Sicilian monasteries produced candies and pastries, the only surviving convent to follow this tradition is the Monastery of the Virgins of Palermo, which makes breast-shaped cakes in honor of St Agatha of Sicily. Traditional sugar statues, called pupa di cena, are still made, granita is particularly famous and well known.
Related to sorbet and italian ice, in most of Sicily it has a coarser, many were first introduced by the Arabs from the 9th to 11th centuries, but some have been brought more recently to the region as well such as the Washington navel from Brazil. Today, all provinces of the produced wine and wine by the introduction of modern methods of Sicily established itself on the European wine market. Sicilian red wines have a content of 12.5 to 13. 5% and are usually drunk in the evening with roast or grilled meat. Well-known red wines include the Cerasuolo di Vittoria, the Nero dAvola mainly those produced around Noto, the dry and white wines and rosés usually have an alcoholic content from 11.5 to 12. 5% and are mainly taken with fish and pasta dishes. In addition, various dessert wines are produced, such as the famous Marsala, more typical Sicilian drinks are the limoncello, a lemon liqueur, and the Amaro Siciliano, a herbal drink, which is often consumed after meals as a digestive
Hog maw is the stomach of a pig. More specifically, it is the muscular wall of the stomach organ which contains no fat if cleaned properly. It can be found in food, Pennsylvania Dutch, Portuguese. In addition, it can be prepared in various ways including stewed, baked, Hog maw is a Pennsylvania Dutch dish. In the Pennsylvania German language, it is known as Seimaage and it is made from a cleaned pigs stomach traditionally stuffed with cubed potatoes and loose pork sausage. Other ingredients include cabbage and spices and it was traditionally boiled in a large pot covered in water, not unlike Scottish haggis, but it can be baked or broiled until browned or split, it is drizzled with butter before serving. It is usually served hot on a platter, cut into slices and it can be served cold as a sandwich. Often served in the winter, it was made on hog butchering days on the farms of Lancaster and Berks Counties, the stomach is purchased at one of the many traditional butchers at local farmers markets.
The original recipe was most likely brought to Pennsylvania from the Palatinate area of Germany, Saumagen is reported to have been a favorite of former German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, a native of the Palatinate Region. As a soul food dish, hog maw has often been coupled with chitterlings, in the book Plantation Row Slave Cabin Cooking, The Roots of Soul Food hog maw is used in the Hog Maw Salad recipe. Hog maw is prepared for New Years Day for prosperity along with other traditional Southern New Years Day dishes like collard greens. In Chinese cuisine, hog maw is often served fried with vegetables. It can be braised and sliced as part of a cold cut tray, Hog maws are a specialty in taco stands all over Mexico, mostly deep fried with the rest of the pork. In Puerto Rico, hog maws are called Cuajos, cuajitos is a popular street vendor food found around the island and is most often served with boiled green banana escabeche and morcilla. Gil Scott-Herons famous piece, The Revolution Will Not Be Televised, mentions such as General Abrams.
The Joe Cuba Sextets song Bang Bang contains the refrain corn bread, hog maw, in The Offices December 6,2012 episode Dwight Christmas, Dwight Schrute serves hog maw as the main dish for the Dunder Mifflin Pennsylvania Dutch–themed Christmas party. In the 1995 movie Friday directed by F. Gary Gray and writers Ice Cube and DJ Pooh, Mr. Jones played by John Witherspoon, every time I come in the kitchen, you in the kitchen. Plantation Row Slave Cabin Cooking, The Roots of Soul Food - American Food History
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein. Fats, known as triglycerides, are esters of three fatty acid chains and the alcohol glycerol, the terms oil and lipid are often confused. Oil normally refers to a fat with short or unsaturated fatty acid chains that is liquid at room temperature, lipid is the general term, as a lipid is not necessarily a triglyceride. Fats, like lipids, are generally hydrophobic, and are soluble in organic solvents. Fat is an important foodstuff for many forms of life, and they are a necessary part of the diet of most heterotrophs. Some fatty acids that are set free by the digestion of fats are called essential because they cannot be synthesized in the body from simpler constituents, there are two essential fatty acids in human nutrition, alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid. Other lipids needed by the body can be synthesized from these and other lipids are broken down in the body by enzymes called lipases produced in the pancreas.
Fats and oils are categorized according to the number and bonding of the atoms in the aliphatic chain. Fats that are saturated fats have no double bonds between the carbons in the chain, unsaturated fats have one or more double bonded carbons in the chain. The nomenclature is based on the end of the chain. This end is called the end or the n-end. Thus alpha-linolenic acid is called an omega-3 fatty acid because the 3rd carbon from that end is the first double bonded carbon in the counting from that end. Some oils and fats have double bonds and are therefore called polyunsaturated fats. Unsaturated fats can be divided into cis fats, which are the most common in nature, and trans fats. Unsaturated fats can be altered by reaction with hydrogen effected by a catalyst and this action, called hydrogenation, tends to break all the double bonds and makes a fully saturated fat. However, trans fats are generated during hydrogenation as contaminants created by a side reaction on the catalyst during partial hydrogenation.
Saturated fats can stack themselves in a closely packed arrangement, so they can easily and are typically solid at room temperature. For example, animal fats tallow and lard are high in saturated fatty acid content and are solids and linseed oils on the other hand are unsaturated and liquid
Food energy is chemical energy that animals derive from food and molecular oxygen through the process of cellular respiration. Humans and other animals need a minimum intake of energy to sustain their metabolism. Foods are composed chiefly of carbohydrates, proteins, water, carbohydrates, proteins and water represent virtually all the weight of food, with vitamins and minerals making up only a small percentage of the weight. Organisms derive food energy from carbohydrates and proteins as well as organic acids, polyols. Some diet components that provide little or no energy, such as water, vitamins, cholesterol. Water, minerals and cholesterol are not broken down, fiber, a type of carbohydrate, cannot be completely digested by the human body. Ruminants can extract energy from the respiration of cellulose because of bacteria in their rumens. Using the International System of Units, researchers measure energy in joules or in its multiples, the kilojoule is most often used for food-related quantities.
An older metric system unit of energy, still used in food-related contexts, is the calorie, more precisely. Within the European Union, both the kilocalorie and kilojoule appear on nutrition labels, in many countries, only one of the units is displayed, in the US and Canada labels spell out the unit as calorie or as Calorie. Fats and ethanol have the greatest amount of energy per gram,37 and 29 kJ/g. Proteins and most carbohydrates have about 17 kJ/g, carbohydrates that are not easily absorbed, such as fiber, or lactose in lactose-intolerant individuals, contribute less food energy. Polyols and organic acids contribute 10 kJ/g and 13 kJ/g respectively, the amount of water and fiber in foods determines those foods energy density. Theoretically, one could measure food energy in different ways, using the Gibbs free energy of combustion, the convention is to use the heat of the oxidation reaction, with the water substance produced being in the liquid phase. The American chemist Wilbur Atwater worked these corrections out in the late 19th century, based on the work of Atwater, it became common practice to calculate energy content of foods using 4 kcal/g for carbohydrates and proteins and 9 kcal/g for lipids.
The system was improved by Annabel Merrill and Bernice Watt of the USDA. Many governments require food manufacturers to label the energy content of their products, in the European Union, manufacturers of packaged food must label the nutritional energy of their products in both kilocalories and kilojoules, when required. In Australia and New Zealand, the energy must be stated in kilojoules
Spanish cuisine is heavily influenced by regional cuisines and the particular historical processes that shaped culture and society in those territories. Geography and climate, had influence on cooking methods and available ingredients. Spanish cuisine derives from a history, where invasions of the country and conquests of new territories modified traditions. Authors such as Strabo, write about aboriginal people using nuts, the Romans introduced the custom of collecting and eating mushrooms, which is still preserved in many parts of Spain, especially in the north. The Romans along with the Greeks introduced viticulture, it appears that the extension of the vine along the Mediterranean seems to be due to colonization of the Greeks. The change came in 711 AD, when Muslim troops composed of Arabs and Berbers crossed the Strait of Gibraltar, invading the Iberian Peninsula. The discovery of America, in 1492, initiated the advent of new elements, such as tomatoes, potatoes, bell peppers, spicy peppers, vanilla.
The latter caused a furor in the Spanish society in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, other ingredients traveled to the Americas, such as rice, grapes and many types of cereals. A continental-style breakfast may be taken just after waking up, or before entering the workplace, due to the large time span between breakfast and lunch, it is not uncommon to halt the working schedule to take a mid-morning snack. Lunch, the midday meal in Spain, contains several courses. It usually starts between 2,00 pm or 2,30 pm finishing around 3,00 pm to 3,30 pm, and is followed by Sobremesa. Menus are organized according to these courses and include five or six choices in each course. At home, Spanish meals wouldnt be too fancy, and would contain soup or a dish, salad, a meat or a fish dish. Green salad with the meat or fish courses, in some regions of Spain, the word almuerzo refers to the mid-morning snack, instead of lunch. La cena, meaning both dinner or supper, is taken between 8, 30pm and 10pm and it is lighter than lunch, consisting of one course and dessert.
Due to the time span between lunch and dinner, an afternoon snack, la merienda, equivalent to afternoon tea. Appetizers before lunch or dinner are common in the form of tapas, in the last years, the Spanish government is starting to take action to shorten the lunch break, in order to end the working day earlier. Most businesses shut down for two or three hours for lunch, resume the working day until dinner time in the evening, the following is a list of traditional Spanish meals, Andalusian cuisine is twofold and coastal
Proteins are essential nutrients for the human body. They are one of the blocks of body tissue. As a fuel, proteins provide as much energy density as carbohydrates,4 kcal per gram, in contrast, the most important aspect and defining characteristic of protein from a nutritional standpoint is its amino acid composition. Proteins are polymer chains made of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds, during human digestion, proteins are broken down in the stomach to smaller polypeptide chains via hydrochloric acid and protease actions. This is crucial for the synthesis of the amino acids that cannot be biosynthesized by the body. There are nine amino acids which humans must obtain from their diet in order to prevent protein-energy malnutrition. They are phenylalanine, threonine, methionine, isoleucine, there are five dispensable amino acids which humans are able to synthesize in the body. These five are alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and these six are arginine, glycine, glutamine and tyrosine.
Humans need the essential amino acids in certain ratios, some protein sources contain amino acids in a more or less complete sense. This has given rise to various ranking systems for protein sources, Dietary sources of protein include both animals and plants, dairy products and eggs as well as grains and nuts. Vegetarians and vegans can get enough essential amino acids by eating a variety of plant proteins and it is commonly believed that athletes should consume a higher-than-normal protein intake to maintain optimal physical performance. Protein is a nutrient needed by the body for growth. Aside from water, proteins are the most abundant kind of molecules in the body, Protein can be found in all cells of the body and is the major structural component of all cells in the body, especially muscle. This includes body organs and skin, proteins are used in membranes, such as glycoproteins. When broken down into amino acids, they are used as precursors to acid, co-enzymes, immune response, cellular repair.
Additionally, protein is needed to form blood cells, proteins are believed to increase performance in terms of athletics. Amino acids, the blocks of proteins, are used for building muscle tissue. Protein is only used as fuel when carbohydrates are low
The kilogram or kilogramme is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram. The avoirdupois pound, used in both the imperial and US customary systems, is defined as exactly 0.45359237 kg, making one kilogram approximately equal to 2.2046 avoirdupois pounds. Other traditional units of weight and mass around the world are defined in terms of the kilogram, the gram, 1/1000 of a kilogram, was provisionally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic centimeter of water at the melting point of ice. The final kilogram, manufactured as a prototype in 1799 and from which the IPK was derived in 1875, had an equal to the mass of 1 dm3 of water at its maximum density. The kilogram is the only SI base unit with an SI prefix as part of its name and it is the only SI unit that is still directly defined by an artifact rather than a fundamental physical property that can be reproduced in different laboratories.
Three other base units and 17 derived units in the SI system are defined relative to the kilogram, only 8 other units do not require the kilogram in their definition, temperature and frequency, and angle. At its 2011 meeting, the CGPM agreed in principle that the kilogram should be redefined in terms of the Planck constant, the decision was originally deferred until 2014, in 2014 it was deferred again until the next meeting. There are currently several different proposals for the redefinition, these are described in the Proposed Future Definitions section below, the International Prototype Kilogram is rarely used or handled. In the decree of 1795, the term gramme thus replaced gravet, the French spelling was adopted in the United Kingdom when the word was used for the first time in English in 1797, with the spelling kilogram being adopted in the United States. In the United Kingdom both spellings are used, with kilogram having become by far the more common, UK law regulating the units to be used when trading by weight or measure does not prevent the use of either spelling.
In the 19th century the French word kilo, a shortening of kilogramme, was imported into the English language where it has used to mean both kilogram and kilometer. In 1935 this was adopted by the IEC as the Giorgi system, now known as MKS system. In 1948 the CGPM commissioned the CIPM to make recommendations for a practical system of units of measurement. This led to the launch of SI in 1960 and the subsequent publication of the SI Brochure, the kilogram is a unit of mass, a property which corresponds to the common perception of how heavy an object is. Mass is a property, that is, it is related to the tendency of an object at rest to remain at rest, or if in motion to remain in motion at a constant velocity. Accordingly, for astronauts in microgravity, no effort is required to hold objects off the cabin floor, they are weightless. However, since objects in microgravity still retain their mass and inertia, the ratio of the force of gravity on the two objects, measured by the scale, is equal to the ratio of their masses.
On April 7,1795, the gram was decreed in France to be the weight of a volume of pure water equal to the cube of the hundredth part of the metre
Eastern European cuisine
The cuisine of the region is strongly influenced by its climate and still varies, depending on a country. For example, Czech, Polish and Ukrainian cuisine show many similarities and these are substantial cuisines, rooty, smoky – part comfort food, part extravagance. The nutritional index of traditional dishes is generally high cholesterol, high sodium, english edition, Elena Molokhovets, Classic Russian Cooking, A Gift to Young Housewives. ISBN 978-0253212108 Institute of Nutrition of the Academy of Medical Scientists of the USSR, Москва, Пищевая промышленность, 1939-1999, in Russian. English edition, The Book of Tasty and Healthy Food, Iconic Cookbook of the Soviet Union, skyPeak Publishing LLC,2012, ISBN 978-0615691350 Кулинария. Москва, Пищевая промышленность,1980, ISBN 978-5952427839, in Russian, Russian Delight, A Cookbook of the Soviet People, Pan Books,1978 В. Похлёбкин, Кулинарный словарь от А до Я, Москва, Центрполиграф,2000, ISBN 5-227-00460-9 J. Gronow, S. Zhuravlev, The Establishment of Soviet Haute Cuisine.
In Educated Tastes, Food and Connoisseur Culture, university of California Press,2013, ISBN 978-0520275911 Anya Von Bremzen, John Welchman. Please to the Table, The Russian Cookbook, ISBN9780894807534 Metzger, Culinaria Germany. Irina Petrosian, David Underwood, Armenian Food, Fiction & Folklore, from the Caucasus to the Roof of the World, a culinary adventure. In Sami Zubaida & Richard Tapper, a Taste of Thyme, Culinary Cultures of the Middle East. London & New York, Tauris Parke Paperbacks, cS1 maint, Uses editors parameter Robert Strybel, Maria Strybel, Polish Heritage Cookery. ISBN9780781811248 Massimo Montanari, Il mondo in cucina, Tasting Food, Tasting Freedom, Excursions into Eating and the Past. Beacon Press,1997, ISBN0807046299 Mintalová - Zubercová, vydavateľstvo Matice slovenskej,2009, ISBN 978-80-89208-94-4 Л. Київ, Вища школа,1992, ISBN 5-11-002319-0 Українські страви, Київ, Державне видавництво технiчної лiтератури УРСР,1960 Л. The cuisine of the region is influenced by its climate and still varies.
For example, Czech, Polish and Ukrainian cuisine show many similarities and these are substantial cuisines, rooty, smoky – part comfort food, part extravagance. The nutritional index of traditional dishes is generally high cholesterol, high sodium, english edition, Elena Molokhovets, Classic Russian Cooking, A Gift to Young Housewives