Aspendos or Aspendus was an ancient Greco-Roman city in Antalya province of Turkey. The site is located 7 kilometres northeast of central Serik. Aspendos was an ancient city in Pamphylia, Asia Minor, located about 40 km east of the modern city of Antalya, Turkey, it was situated on the Eurymedon River about 16 km inland from the Mediterranean Sea. Some scholars associate the city's name with "Azatiwadaya"; the known city of that name was founded by Azatiwada of Quwê at Karatepe. According to tradition, Aspendos was founded rather earlier by Greeks who may have come from Argos; the wide range of its coinage throughout the ancient world indicates that, in the 5th century BC, Aspendos had become the most important city in Pamphylia. At that time, according to Thucydides, the Eurymedon River was navigable as far as Aspendos, the city derived great wealth from a trade in salt and wool. Aspendos did not play an important role in antiquity as a political force, its political history during the colonisation period corresponded to the currents of the Pamphylian region.
Within this trend, after the colonial period, it remained for a time under Lycian hegemony. In 546 BC it came under Persian domination; the fact that the city continued to mint coins in its own name, indicates that it had a great deal of freedom under the Persians. Circa 465 BC Cimon led an Athenian navy against a Persian navy in the Battle of the Eurymedon, destroyed it. Aspendos became a member of the Delian League; the Persians used it as a base. In 389 BC Thrasybulus of Athens, in an effort to regain some of the prestige that city had lost in the Peloponnesian Wars, anchored off the coast of Aspendos in an effort to secure its surrender. Hoping to avoid a new war, the people of Aspendos collected money among themselves and gave it to the commander, entreating him to retreat without causing any damage. Though he took the money, he had his men trample all the crops in the fields. Enraged, the Aspendians killed Thrasybulus in his tent; when Alexander the Great marched into Aspendos in 333 BC after capturing Perge, the citizens sent envoys asking him not to garrison soldiers there.
He agreed, provided he would be given the taxes and horses that they had paid as tribute to the Persian king. After reaching this agreement Alexander went to Side, leaving a garrison there on the city's surrender. Going back through Sillyon, he learned that the Aspendians had failed to ratify the agreement their envoys had proposed and were preparing to defend themselves. Alexander marched to the city immediately; when they saw Alexander returning with his troops, the Aspendians, who had retreated to their acropolis, again sent envoys to sue for peace. This time, they had to agree to harsh terms. In 190 BC the city surrendered to the Romans, the corrupt magistrate Verres pillaged its artistic treasures, it was ranked by Philostratus the third city of Pamphylia, in Byzantine times seems to have been known as Primopolis. Toward the end of the Roman period the city began a decline that continued throughout Byzantine times, although in medieval times it was evidently still a strong place. Aspendos is known for having the best-preserved theatre of antiquity.
With a diameter of 96 metres, it provided seating for 12,000. It was built in 155 by a native of the city, it was periodically repaired by the Seljuqs, who used it as a caravanserai, in the 13th century the stage building was converted into a palace by the Seljuqs of Rum. In order to keep with Hellenistic traditions, a small part of the theatre was built so that it leaned against the hill where the Citadel stood, while the remainder was built on vaulted arches; the high stage, whose supporting columns are still in place, served to isolate the audience from the rest of the world. The'scaenae frons' or backdrop, has remained intact; the 8.1 metre sloping reflective wooden ceiling over the stage has been lost over time. Post holes for 58 masts are found in the upper level of the theatre; these masts supported a awning that could be pulled over the audience to provide shade. The Aspendos International Opera and Ballet Festival offers an annual season of productions in the theatre in the spring and early summer.
Nearby stand the remains of a basilica, nymphaeum and 15 kilometres of a Roman aqueduct. The Roman Eurymedon Bridge, reconstructed in the 13th century, is in the vicinity. Aspendos was one of the earliest cities to mint coins, it began issuing coinage around 500 BC, first staters and drachmas. The legend appears on early coins as the abbreviation ΕΣ or ΕΣΤϜΕ; the city's numismatic history extends from archaic Greek to late Roman times. The Christian bishopric of Aspendus was a suffragan of the metropolitan see of Side, the capital of the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima, to which Aspendus belonged. Of its bishops, the names of four are recorded in extant documents: Domnus was at the First Council of Nicaea in 425, Tribonianus at the Council of Ephesus in 431, Timotheus at the 448 synod held by Flavian of Constantinople, which condemned Eutyches, at the Robber Council of Ephesus held the same year, Leo at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787. No longer a residential bishopric, Aspendu
Motif (visual arts)
In art and iconography, a motif is an element of an image. A motif may be repeated in a pattern or design many times, or may just occur once in a work. A motif may be an element in the iconography of a particular subject or type of subject, seen in other works, or may form the main subject, as the Master of Animals motif in ancient art does; the related motif of confronted animals is seen alone, but may be repeated, for example in Byzantine silk and other ancient textiles. Where the main subject of an artistic work such as a painting is a specific person, group, or moment in a narrative, that should be referred to as the "subject" of the work, not a motif, though the same thing may be a "motif" when part of another subject, or part of a work of decorative art such as a painting on a vase. Ornamental or decorative art can be analysed into a number of different elements, which can be called motifs; these may as in textile art, be repeated many times in a pattern. Important examples in Western art include acanthus and dart, various types of scrollwork.
Many designs in Islamic culture are motifs, including those of the sun, animals such as horses and lions and landscapes. Motifs can be used for propaganda. In kilim flatwoven carpets, motifs such as the hands-on-hips elibelinde are woven in to the design to express the hopes and concerns of the weavers: the elibelinde symbolises the female principle and fertility, including the desire for children. Pennsylvania Dutch hex signs are a familiar type of motif in the eastern portions of the United States, their circular and symmetric design, their use of brightly colored patterns from nature, such as stars, compass roses, hearts, tulips and feathers have made them quite popular. In some parts of Pennsylvania Dutch country, it is common to see these designs decorating barns and covered bridges; the idea of a motif has become used more broadly in discussing literature and other narrative arts for an element in the story that represents a theme. Geometric repeated: Meander, rosette, gul in Oriental rugs, acanthus and dart, Bead and reel, Sauwastika, Adinkra symbols.
Figurative: Master of Animals, confronted animals, velificatio and the Maiden, Three hares, Sheela na gig. Iconography Three hares Richard. Decorative Flower and Leaf Designs. Dover Publications, ISBN 0-486-26869-1 Jones, Owen.'The Grammar of Ornament. Dover Publications, Revised edition, ISBN 0-486-25463-1 Welch, Patricia Bjaaland. Chinese art: a guide to motifs and visual imagery. Turtle Publishing, ISBN 0-8048-3864-X Visual motifs Theater of Drawing
The Aegean Sea is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas i.e. between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. In the north, the Aegean is connected to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea by the Dardanelles and Bosphorus; the Aegean Islands are within the sea and some bound it on its southern periphery, including Crete and Rhodes. The sea was traditionally known as the Archipelago, but in English the meaning of Archipelago has changed to refer to the Aegean Islands and to any island group. In ancient times, there were various explanations for the name Aegean, it was said to have been named after the Greek town of Aegae. A possible etymology is a derivation from the Greek word αἶγες – aiges = "waves", hence "wavy sea", cf. αἰγιαλός, hence meaning "sea-shore". The Venetians, who ruled many Greek islands in the High and Late Middle Ages, popularized the name Archipelago, a name that held on in many European countries until the early modern period.
In some South Slavic languages the Aegean is called White Sea. The Aegean Sea covers about 214,000 square kilometres in area, measures about 610 kilometres longitudinally and 300 kilometres latitudinally; the sea's maximum depth is 3,543 metres, east of Crete. The Aegean Islands are found within its waters, with the following islands delimiting the sea on the south: Kythera, Crete, Kasos and Rhodes; the Aegean Islands, which all belong to Greece, can be divided into seven groups: Northeastern Aegean Islands East Aegean Islands Northern Sporades Cyclades Saronic Islands Dodecanese CreteThe word archipelago was applied to the Aegean Sea and its islands. Many of the Aegean Islands, or chains of islands, are extensions of the mountains on the mainland. One chain extends across the sea to Chios, another extends across Euboea to Samos, a third extends across the Peloponnese and Crete to Rhodes, dividing the Aegean from the Mediterranean; the bays and gulfs of the Aegean beginning at the South and moving clockwise include on Crete, the Mirabello, Almyros and Chania bays or gulfs, on the mainland the Myrtoan Sea to the west with the Argolic Gulf, the Saronic Gulf northwestward, the Petalies Gulf which connects with the South Euboic Sea, the Pagasetic Gulf which connects with the North Euboic Sea, the Thermian Gulf northwestward, the Chalkidiki Peninsula including the Cassandra and the Singitic Gulfs, northward the Strymonian Gulf and the Gulf of Kavala and the rest are in Turkey.
The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Aegean Sea as follows: On the South. A line running from Cape Aspro in Asia Minor, to Cum Burnù the Northeast extreme of the Island of Rhodes, through the island to Cape Prasonisi, the Southwest point thereof, on to Vrontos Point in Skarpanto, through this island to Castello Point, the South extreme thereof, across to Cape Plaka, through Crete to Agria Grabusa, the Northwest extreme thereof, thence to Cape Apolitares in Antikithera Island, through the island to Psira Rock and across to Cape Trakhili in Kithera Island, through Kithera to the Northwest point and thence to Cape Santa Maria in the Morea. In the Dardanelles. A line joining Kum Kale and Cape Helles. Aegean surface water circulates in a counterclockwise gyre, with hypersaline Mediterranean water moving northward along the west coast of Turkey, before being displaced by less dense Black Sea outflow; the dense Mediterranean water sinks below the Black Sea inflow to a depth of 23–30 metres flows through the Dardanelles Strait and into the Sea of Marmara at velocities of 5–15 cm/s.
The Black Sea outflow moves westward along the northern Aegean Sea flows southwards along the east coast of Greece. The physical oceanography of the Aegean Sea is controlled by the regional climate, the fresh water discharge from major rivers draining southeastern Europe, the seasonal variations in the Black Sea surface water outflow through the Dardanelles Strait. Analysis of the Aegean during 1991 and 1992 revealed three distinct water masses: Aegean Sea Surface Water – 40–50 metres thick veneer, with summer temperatures of 21–26 °C and winter temperatures ranging from 10 °C in the north to 16 °C in the south. Aegean Sea Intermediate Water – Aegean Sea Intermediate Water extends from 40–50 m to 200–300 metres with temperatures ranging from 11–18 °C. Aegean Sea Bottom Water – occurring at depths below 500–1000 m with a uniform temperature and salinity; the current coastline dates back to about 4000 BC. Before that time, at the peak of the last ice age sea levels everywhere were 130 metres lower, there were large well-watered
Marsala is an Italian town located in the Province of Trapani in the westernmost part of Sicily. Marsala is the fifth in Sicily; the town is famous for its Marsala wine. A feature of the area is the Stagnone Lagoon Natural Reserve — a marine area with salt ponds. Marsala is built on the ruins of the ancient Carthaginian city of Lilybaeum, includes in its territory the archaeological site of the island of Motya, an ancient Phoenician town; the modern name derived from the Arabic مَرْسَى عَلِيّ, or مَرْسَى اللّٰه. Situated at the extreme western point of Sicily, the town was founded on Lilibeo Cape from where the Aegadian Islands and the Stagnone Lagoon can be seen; the territory of Marsala, 241 square kilometres, has a rich landscape heritage. The city of Marsala had a population of about 86,000 until the end of 1970, when Petrosino, a village part of Marsala, decided to become a self-governing town after a local referendum; the area of Marsala is classified as a seismic zone 2. In the last 200 years three earthquakes of medium-high intensity were recorded: 18 May 1828 – magnitude 5.17 15 January 1968 – Belice earthquake which in Marsala reached VII Mercalli scale.
7 June 1981 – magnitude 4.60 with epicentre in Borgo Elefante in Mazara del Vallo, about 20 kilometres from the town-centre of Marsala. Marsala has a hot-summer mediterranean climate, similar to most coastal towns in Sicily, with hot and dry summers coupled with moderately wet and mild winters. Weather in Marsala is similar to that of nearby Trapani. Summers are warm with a record maximum temperature of 37 °C in August 2017. In the summer, due to how dry it is, it is not unusual to experience the effect of Sirocco wind, which brings dust and sand from the Sahara. Winters are rainy and cooler with temperatures ranging between minimum of 1 °C and 21 °C. Snowfall occurs rarely, since the temperature has never dropped below freezing, although snow has fallen before, for example in December 2014. In 397 BC the Phoenician colony of Motya on the southwestern coast of Sicily was invaded and destroyed by the Syracusan tyrant Dionysius I; the survivors founded a town on the mainland nearby, the site of modern-day Marsala, which they called by a Punic name meaning "Town that Looks on Libya".
This was recorded in Latin as Lilybaeum. The First Punic War began here when the Punic army landed at Lilybaion in 265–264 BCE marched across Sicily to Messina, where the opening clash of the war took place; the Punic fortress Lilybaion was never conquered although it was besieged several times, e.g. by Pyrrhus of Epirus and by the Romans. In 241 BC it was given to the Romans as part of the peace treaty ending the First Punic War and became one of the most important towns in Sicily; the commercial centre was enriched with mansions and public buildings and dubbed splendidissima urbs by Cicero, who served as quaestor in the region between 76 and 75 BC. Ravaged by Vandals during the 5th century AD, the town was annexed in the 6th century to Justinian's Byzantine Empire. In this period the town was struck by dysentery, raided by pirates, neglected by Constantinople; the arrival of Arabic Berbers at the nearby Granitola mount in the 8th century entailed the resumption of commerce and the start of the rebirth of the town.
The town was renamed Marsa ʿAlī "ʿAlī's harbour" or maybe, Marsa ʿāliyy, "Big harbour", for the width of the ancient harbour, placed near Punta d'Alga. Another possible derivation is Marsa Allāh, "God's harbour". Another theory is that Marsala comes from mare salis, "salt pans by the sea" from the presence of salt pans along the whole northern coast, although mention of this theory cannot be found in contemporary references and the installation of the bigger salt ponds on the group of islands composing the contemporary single island "Isola Lunga" was made just during the 19th century. Since the end of the 11th century, the area has been conquered by Norman and Aragonese troops. During this time, Marsala became wealthy through trade; however the blocking up of the harbour of Punta Alga, decreed by Emperor Charles V so as to stop Saracen forays, brought an end to this period of prosperity. The development of Marsala wine at the end of the 18th century, headed by English merchants settled in Sicily improved local trade.
This triggered an economic expansion in Marsala, including the funding of infrastructure projects such as the current harbour of Margitello. On 11 May 1860 Giuseppe Garibaldi landed at Marsala. On 11 May 1943, in the lead-up to the World War II Allied invasion of Sicily, an Allied bombardment of the town permanently damaged its Baroque centre and claimed many victims: "Marsala Wiped Off the Map" titled the New York Times on 13 May 1943; the archaeological area of Marsala has been investigated both through excavations and topographic studies. Lilybaeum, the ancient town, took up a rectangular area on Capo Boeo, a low and rocky promontory sloping down towards the sea; the urban layout of the town can be dated back to the 2nd century BC, taking the shape of a Roman camp, with modern-day Viale Vittorio Veneto the Decumanus Maximus and Viale Cesare Battisti the Cardo Maximus. In 350 BC the newly formed town of Ma
Pamphylia was a former region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus. It was bounded on the north by Pisidia and was therefore a country of small extent, having a coast-line of only about 120 km with a breadth of about 50 km. Under the Roman administration the term Pamphylia was extended so as to include Pisidia and the whole tract up to the frontiers of Phrygia and Lycaonia, in this wider sense it is employed by Ptolemy; the name Pamphylia comes from the Greek Παμφυλία, itself from Ancient Greek: πάμφυλος "of mingled tribes or races", a compound of πᾶν, neuter of πᾶς "all" + φυλή, "race, tribe". Herodotus derived its etymology from a Dorian tribe, the Pamphyloi, who were said to have colonized the region; the tribe, in turn, was said to be named after son of Aigimios. The Pamphylians were a mixture of aboriginal inhabitants, immigrant Cilicians and Greeks who migrated there from Arcadia and the Peloponnese in the 12th century BC.
The significance of the Greek contribution to the origin of the Pamphylians can be attested alike by tradition and archaeology and Pamphylia can be considered a Greek country from the early Iron Age until the early Middle Ages. There can be little doubt that the Pamphylians and Pisidians were the same people, though the former had received colonies from Greece and other lands, from this cause, combined with the greater fertility of their territory, had become more civilized than their neighbours in the interior, but the distinction between the two seems to have been established at an early period. Herodotus, who does not mention the Pisidians, enumerates the Pamphylians among the nations of Asia Minor, while Ephorus mentions them both including the one among the nations on the coast, the other among those of the interior. A number of scholars have distinguished in the Pamphylian dialect important isoglosses with both Arcadian and Cypriot which allow them to be studied together with the group of dialects sometimes referred to as Achaean since it was settled not only by Achaean tribes but colonists from other Greek-speaking regions and Aeolians.
The legend related by Herodotus and Strabo, which ascribed the origin of the Pamphylians to a colony led into their country by Amphilochus and Calchas after the Trojan War, is a characteristic myth. A treaty between the Hittite Great King Tudhaliya IV and his vassal, the king of Tarhuntassa, defined the latter's western border at the city "Parha" and the "Kastaraya River"; the river is assumed to be the classical Kestros. West of Parha were the "Lukka Lands"; the Pamphylian language was a late Luwic dialect, related to Carian, Lydian and/or Milyan. When the region returns to history its population is "Pamphylian", Greek-speaking. On Cyrus's defeat of Croesus, Pamphylia passed to the Persian Empire. Darius included it in his first tax-district alongside Lycia, Ionia, Aeolia and Caria. At some point between 468 and 465 BC, the Athenians under Cimon fought the Persians at the Eurymedon, won. Toward the end of the Peloponnesian War, the Athenians were weakened enough that the Persians were able to retake it.
Upon Alexander the Great's defeat of Darius III, Pamphylia passed back to Greek rule, now Macedonians. After the defeat of Antiochus III in 190 BC they were included among the provinces annexed by the Romans to the dominions of Eumenes of Pergamum. Pamphylia was for a short time included in the dominions of Amyntas, king of Galatia, but after his death lapsed into a district of a Roman province; as of 1911, the district was peopled with settled Ottoman Muslims from Greece and the Balkans, as a result of the long-term consequences of the Congress of Berlin and the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. Diodorus of Aspendos, Pythagorean philosopher Apollonius of Perga, mathematician Artemidorus of Perga, proxenos in Oropos Aetos from Aspendos, Ptolemaic commander, founder of Arsinoe Mnaseas from Side, sculptor Orestas from Aspendos, proxenos in Dreros, Thymilus of Aspendos, stadion running race victor in Olympics 176 BC Apollonios from Aspendos, Ptolemaic commander, proxenos in Lappa and Aptera Asclepiades from Perga, physician honoured by the people of Seleucia Plancia Magna from Perga, influential citizen, high-priestess of Artemis Menodora from Sillyon and benefactor Zenon from Aspendos, architect of the Aspendos theatre Apollonius of Aspendos, poet Aurelia Paulina from Perga, prominent noblewoman of Syrian origin, high-priestess of Artemis Probus from Side, martyr Philip of Side, historian Matrona of Perge, abbess of Constantinople, Antony I Kassymatas from Sillyon, patriarch of Constantinople Antalya Aspendos Etenna Eurymedon Bridg
In Greek mythology, a Gorgon is a mythical creature portrayed in ancient Greek literature. While descriptions of Gorgons vary across Greek literature and occur in the earliest examples of Greek literature, the term refers to any of three sisters who had hair made of living, venomous snakes, as well as a horrifying visage that turned those who beheld her to stone. Traditionally, while two of the Gorgons were immortal and Euryale, their sister Medusa was not and she was slain by the demigod and hero Perseus; the name derives from the ancient Greek word γοργός gorgós, which means "grim, dreadful", appears to come from the same root as the Sanskrit: गर्जन, defined as a guttural sound, similar to the growling of a beast, thus originating as an onomatopoeia. Gorgons were a popular image in Greek mythology, appearing in the earliest of written records of Ancient Greek religious beliefs such as those of Homer, which may date to as early as 1194–1184 BC; because of their legendary and powerful gaze that could turn one to stone, images of the Gorgons were put upon objects and buildings for protection.
An image of a Gorgon holds the primary location at the pediment of the temple at Corfu, the oldest stone pediment in Greece, is dated to c. 600 BC. The concept of the Gorgon is at least as old in classical Greek mythology as Zeus; the name is being derived from "gorgos" and translating as terrible or dreadful. Gorgoneia first appear in Greek art at the turn of the eighth century BC. One of the earliest representations is on an electrum stater discovered during excavations at Parium. Other early eighth-century examples were found at Tiryns. Going further back into history, there is a similar image from the Knossos palace, datable to the fifteenth century BC. Marija Gimbutas argues that "the Gorgon extends back to at least 6000 BC, as a ceramic mask from the Sesklo culture...". In her book, Language of the Goddess, she identifies the prototype of the Gorgoneion in Neolithic art motifs in anthropomorphic vases and terracotta masks inlaid with gold; the large Gorgon eyes, as well as Athena's "flashing" eyes, are symbols termed "the divine eyes" by Gimbutas.
They may be represented by spirals, concentric circles, swastikas and other images. The awkward stance of the gorgon, with arms and legs at angles is associated with these symbols as well; some Gorgons are shown with broad, round heads, serpentine locks of hair, large staring eyes, wide mouths, tongues lolling, the tusks of swine, large projecting teeth, flared nostrils, sometimes short, coarse beards. In some cruder representations, stylized hair or blood flowing under the severed head of the Gorgon has been mistaken for a beard or wings; some reptilian attributes such as a belt made of snakes and snakes emanating from the head or entwined in the hair, as in the temple of Artemis in Corfu, are symbols derived from the guardians associated with early Greek religious concepts at the centers such as Delphi where the dragon Delphyne lived and the priestess Pythia delivered oracles. The skin of the dragon was said to be made of impenetrable scales. While seeking origins others have suggested examination of some similarities to the Babylonian creature, Humbaba, in the Gilgamesh epic.
A number of early classics scholars interpreted the myth of the Medusa as a quasi-historical, or "sublimated", memory of an actual invasion. Transitions in religious traditions over such long periods of time may make some strange turns. Gorgons are depicted as having wings, brazen claws, the tusks of boars, scaly skin; the oldest oracles were said to be protected by serpents and a Gorgon image was associated with those temples. Lionesses or sphinxes are associated with the Gorgon as well; the powerful image of the Gorgon was adopted for the classical images and myths of Athena and Zeus being worn in continuation of a more ancient religious imagery. In late myths, the Gorgons were said to be the daughters of sea deities, Ceto the sea monster and Phorcys. Homer, the author of the oldest known work of European literature, speaks only of one Gorgon, whose head is represented in the Iliad as fixed in the centre of the aegis of Athena: About her shoulders she flung the tasselled aegis, fraught with terror... and therein is the head of the dread monster, the Gorgon and awful...
Its earthly counterpart is a device on the shield of Agamemnon:...and therein was set as a crown the Gorgon, grim of aspect and about her were Terror and Rout. In the Odyssey, the Gorgon is a monster of the underworld into which the earliest Greek deities were cast:...and pale fear seized me, lest august Persephone might send forth upon me from out of the house of Hades the head of the Gorgon, that awful monster... Around 700 BC, Hesiod imagines the Gorgons as sea daemons and increases the number of them to three – Stheno and Medusa, makes them the daughters of the sea deities Keto and Phorcys, their home is on the farthest side of the western ocean. Ancient Libya is identified as a possible source of the deity, a creation deity in Ancient Egypt and, when the Greeks occupied Egypt, they said that Neith was called Athene in Greece; the Attic tradition, reproduced in Euripides, regarded the Gorgon as a monster, produced by Gaia to aid her children, the Titans, against the new Olympian deities.
Rainbow cup is a term for Celtic gold coins found in areas once dominated by the La Tène culture. According to folk belief, Rainbow cups could be found where a rainbow touched the earth and could be found in ploughed fields after heavy rainfall, they had many different effects ascribed to them. Rudd, Chris. "Coin of the week". Celticcoins.com. Retrieved 11 February 2013