Tritium or hydrogen-3 is a rare and radioactive isotope of hydrogen. The nucleus of tritium contains one proton and two neutrons, whereas the nucleus of the common isotope hydrogen-1 contains just one proton, that of hydrogen-2 contains one proton and one neutron. Occurring tritium is rare on Earth; the atmosphere has only trace amounts, formed by the interaction of its gases with cosmic rays. It can be produced by irradiating lithium metal or lithium-bearing ceramic pebbles in a nuclear reactor. Tritium is used as a radioactive tracer, in radioluminescent light sources for watches and instruments, along with deuterium, as a fuel for nuclear fusion reactions with applications in energy generation and weapons; the name of this isotope is derived from Greek τρίτος, meaning "third". Tritium was first detected in 1934 by Ernest Rutherford, Mark Oliphant, Paul Harteck after bombarding deuterium with deuterons. Deuterium is another isotope of hydrogen. However, their experiment could not isolate tritium, accomplished by Luis Alvarez and Robert Cornog, who realized tritium's radioactivity.
Willard F. Libby recognized that tritium could be used for radiometric dating of wine. While tritium has several different experimentally determined values of its half-life, the National Institute of Standards and Technology lists 4,500 ± 8 days, it decays into helium-3 by beta decay as in this nuclear equation: and it releases 18.6 keV of energy in the process. The electron's kinetic energy varies, with an average of 5.7 keV, while the remaining energy is carried off by the nearly undetectable electron antineutrino. Beta particles from tritium can penetrate only about 6.0 mm of air, they are incapable of passing through the dead outermost layer of human skin. The unusually low energy released in the tritium beta decay makes the decay appropriate for absolute neutrino mass measurements in the laboratory; the low energy of tritium's radiation makes it difficult to detect tritium-labeled compounds except by using liquid scintillation counting. Tritium is produced in nuclear reactors by neutron activation of lithium-6.
This is possible with neutrons of any energy, is an exothermic reaction yielding 4.8 MeV. In comparison, the fusion of deuterium with tritium releases about 17.6 MeV of energy. For applications in proposed fusion energy reactors, such as ITER, pebbles consisting of lithium bearing ceramics including Li2TiO3 and Li4SiO4, are being developed for tritium breeding within a helium cooled pebble bed known as a breeder blanket. High-energy neutrons can produce tritium from lithium-7 in an endothermic reaction, consuming 2.466 MeV. This was discovered. High-energy neutrons irradiating boron-10 will occasionally produce tritium: A more common result of boron-10 neutron capture is 7Li and a single alpha particle. Tritium is produced in heavy water-moderated reactors whenever a deuterium nucleus captures a neutron; this reaction has a quite small absorption cross section, making heavy water a good neutron moderator, little tritium is produced. So, cleaning tritium from the moderator may be desirable after several years to reduce the risk of its escaping to the environment.
Ontario Power Generation's "Tritium Removal Facility" processes up to 2,500 tonnes of heavy water a year, it separates out about 2.5 kg of tritium, making it available for other uses. Deuterium's absorption cross section for thermal neutrons is about 0.52 millibarns, whereas that of oxygen-16 is about 0.19 millibarns and that of oxygen-17 is about 240 millibarns. Tritium is an uncommon product of the nuclear fission of uranium-235, plutonium-239, uranium-233, with a production of about one atom per 10,000 fissions; the release or recovery of tritium needs to be considered in the operation of nuclear reactors in the reprocessing of nuclear fuels and in the storage of spent nuclear fuel. The production of tritium is not a goal, but rather a side-effect, it is discharged to the atmosphere in small quantities by some nuclear power plants. In June 2016 the Tritiated Water Task Force released a report on the status of tritium in tritiated water at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant, as part of considering options for final disposal of the stored contaminated cooling water.
This identified that the March 2016 holding of tritium on-site was 760 TBq in a total of 860,000 m3 of stored water. This report identified the reducing concentration of tritium in the water extracted from the buildings etc. for storage, seeing a factor of ten decrease over the five years considered, 3.3 MBq/L to 0.3 MBq/L. According to a report by an expert panel considering the best approach to dealing with this issue, "Tritium could be separated theoretically, but there is no practical separation technology on an industrial scale. Accordingly, a controlled environmental release is said to be the best way to treat low-tritium-concentration water." Tritium's decay product helium-3 has a large cross section for reacting with thermal neutrons, expelling a proton, hence it is converted back to tritium in nuclear reactors. Tritium occurs due to cosmic rays interacting with atmospheric gases. In the most important reaction for natural production, a fast neutron interacts with atmospheric nitrogen: Worldwide
The Weiss WM-10 Ölyv was a 1930s Hungarian biplane trainer designed and built by the Manfred Weiss company. First flown in September 1931 the WM-10 was a single-bay two-seat primary training biplane powered by the companies own 75 kW MW Sport I engine; the prototype was modified to take the more powerful 89 kW MW Sport II engine and an improved landing gear and eight were built as the WM-10a and delivered in 1933. The last aircraft was re-engined with a 97 kW MW Sport III engine and larger fuel tanks and re-designated the WM-13. Five more aircraft were built with Siemens-Halske Sh 12 engines as aerobatic trainers for use by combat units as the EM-10. In 1938 all surviving aircraft we re-engined with the Siemens engine and all were known as the WM-10. Three aircraft survived with the military to 1941. WM-10 Prototype with a 75 kW MW Sport I engine, one built. WM-10a Production aircraft with a 89 kW MW Sport II engine, eight built one converted to WM-13 and survivors re-engined with a Siemens-Halske Sh 12 engines.
WM-13 One WM-10a re-engined with a 97 kW MW Sport III engine. EM-10 powered by five built. HungaryHungarian Air Force General characteristics Crew: 2 Wingspan: 9.50 m Powerplant: 1 × MW Sport II, 89 kW Performance Armament Related lists List of Interwar military aircraft
The list of Saw cast members is a list of actors who voiced or portrayed characters appearing in the Saw franchise created by James Wan and Leigh Whannell. Tobin Bell is the only actor to make appearances in all eight films, throughout which he is complemented on screen by actors ranging from well-known ones such as Danny Glover, Cary Elwes, Donnie Wahlberg to lesser-known actors such as Dina Meyer and Lyriq Bent, among others. While many actors reprise their roles for cameos and minor appearances, the only actors besides Bell and Smith to appear with major roles in more than three films were Costas Mandylor and Betsy Russell, both of whom appear in the latter five installments of the series. In other Saw media, a significant number of actors have either been replaced or omitted from appearing. In the video game, Tobin Bell was the only actor to reprise his role from the films. Other characters such as Amanda Young, Obi Tate, Jeff Thomas all returned but were voiced by other actors. Other characters, including Pamela Jenkins and Steven Sing were mentioned but did not make any appearance.
For the Saw roller coaster, Billy the Puppet was the only character to appear, with no voice provided for him. The lack of characters present is attributed to the physical restraints of actors in a roller coaster. A prequel comic book, Saw: Rebirth, featured many recurring characters but little actor corresponding or likeness' due to the comic not being supported by Twisted Pictures. Other actors likenesses were used in place of the films' actors. While the films have not replaced any actors, their scripts have been altered to omit certain characters due to a number of conflicts. Cary Elwes' character, Lawrence Gordon, did not appear in subsequent films after Saw due to a lawsuit from payment issues for Elwes, although his character has been referenced many times since. Elwes reprised his character in the seventh film, Saw 3D. Key indicates the actress lent only his or her voice for his or her film character. Indicates the actor or actress did not appear in any new footage for the film. Indicates that the actor or actress was represented by a photograph as opposed to physically appearing in the film.
A gray box indicates that the character did not appear in the media or has yet to be confirmed or denied in upcoming media
Sanyo Electric Redthor is a women's volleyball team based in Daito city, Japan. It plays in V. Challenge League; the club was founded in 1962. The owner of the team is Sanyo Electric. "Thor" stems from Norse mythology. It was founded in 1962, it promoted to V. Challenge League in 2002. V. Challenge League Champions - 2004,2007 Runner-Up - 2009 As of November 2011 2 Aya Watanabe 3 Yuki Sasaki 4 Yukari Amano 6 Moe Sasaki 9 Mika Terasawa 10 Natsuki Kitakami 13 Mami Suda 15 Chiaki Yokoe 16 Yuka Matsuno 17 Tomomi Shinjo 18 Natsumi Shimamura Miki Shimada Hiromi Hatanaka Eri Kosaka Aya Sakata Yu Tsuchitani Nozomi Yamasaki Yuki Kimura Hiroka Yamada Eri Tokugawa Sayaka Nakano Ayako Hoshi Asaka Kurokawa Yoko Hayashi Official Website
François Houtart was a Belgian marxist sociologist and Catholic priest. Houtart studied philosophy and theology at the seminary of Mechelen and became a priest in 1949, he earned a master's degree in social sciences at the Catholic University of Leuven. He earned a degree at the International Superior Institute of Urbanism, he earned a PhD in sociology from the Catholic University of Louvain and served as professor there from 1958 till 1990 His doctoral thesis was based on the sociology of Buddhism in Sri Lanka. He was an co-author of numerous publications on socio-religious matters, he served as the chief editor of the International Journal of Sociology of Religion, "Social Compass" for nearly forty years. He advised the international Catholic journal Concilium, founded at the Nijmegen University, on the issues of sociology of religion, he participated as a peritus expert in the sessions of Vatican II playing a key role in the formation of the introduction of the Gaudium et spes. Over the years, Houtart developed a dialectical approach to the study of world religions.
In the context of the global financial crisis in 2008, Houtart was invited by the UN to address the issues of globalisation of capital in October 2008 by the president of the UN in New York. In 2009, Houtart was awarded the UNESCO-Madanjeet Singh Prize for the Promotion of Tolerance and Non-Violence "for his lifelong commitment to world peace, intercultural dialogue, human rights and the promotion of tolerance, in recognition of his outstanding efforts to advance the cause of social justice in the world." He shared the award with Pakistani philanthropist Abdul Sattar Edhi. In 2009, Houtart signed the Appeal for the removal of Hamas from the EU terror list and he was instrumental in the Russell Tribunals against the state of Israel; until the scandal about the sexual abuse on a young boy, he served as an advisor to CETRI, a Belgian non-governmental organisation which he founded in 1976. The objective of CETRI is to promote dialogue and corporation between third world social movements and social forces plus encourage resistance and action.
Houtart was one of the most active members of the World Social Forum, was active in the Globalisation and Ethics discourse. On December 28, 2010, Le Soir reported that Houtart had admitted sexual abuse committed forty years before on the person of a young cousin while he was a guest at the parents' house; the fact was reported to the Adriaenssens Commission by a sister of the victim. At the end of October, when the fact became known, the management of Cetri had requested the resignation of Houtart as director of the NGO Cetri, founded by him; the Director, Bernard Duterme, mentioned the facts committed by Houtart in contradiction with all values of Cetri. In November, after a confrontation with his accusing niece, he requested the support committee set up to present him for the Nobel Peace Prize, requested that the action be terminated and resigned from various positions. Center Tricontinental International Association of Sociology of Religion World Forum for Alternatives The Church and Revolution: from the French Revolution of 1789 to the Paris riots of 1968, from Cuba to Southern Africa, from Vietnam to Latin America, by François Houtart and André Rousseau.
Translated by Violet Nevile Religions and ideology in Sri Lanka, Hansa, El campesino como actor, Managua, Ed. Nicarao, Religion et modes de production précapitalistes, editions de l'ULB, Sociología de la Religión, Plaza y Valdés, Mondialisation des Résistances, Paris, L'Harmattan, Haïti et la culture dans une commune vietnamienne, Les Indes Savantes
Fesshaye Yohannes was an Eritrean journalist who founded the weekly journal Setit and was a recipient of the Committee to Protect Journalists' 2002 International Press Freedom Award. Fesshaye was imprisoned without charges in September 2001, died in government custody. Fesshaye became a journalist in the early 1990s, after Eritrea gained its independence from Ethiopia, he had been a member of the guerrilla movement fighting for Eritrean independence in the Eritrean War of Independence. In 1994, he founded the weekly journal Setit, one of the country's first independent newspapers, named for the only Eritrean river to have water all year. Setit soon gained the largest circulation in Eritrea; the journal covered difficult and controversial topics, including poverty and the lack of resources for handicapped veterans of the Eritrean independence movement. In addition to his journalism, Fesshaye worked as a playwright. Setit's coverage angered Eritrean authorities, in May 2001, Fesshaye asked the Committee to Protect Journalists for help creating a journalists' union to increase the freedom of the press and provide protection for Eritrean journalists.
In September 2001, one week after the September 11 attacks, the Eritrean government closed every independent media outlet in the country under the pretext of fighting terrorism, arrested many journalists. The National Assembly stated that "the private newspapers by their wanton irresponsibility had provoked the anger of the people who demanded that they be closed and sighed with relief when they were temporarily suspended." Fesshaye decided that he could not abandon his fellow journalists. Fesshaye was imprisoned. In May 2002, he and nine other imprisoned journalists began a hunger strike to protest their imprisonment, were transferred to a secret jail at an unknown location where they had no contact with the outside world; the date of Fesshaye's death is disputed. While some sources state that he died on January 11, 2007 following a prolonged illness, exiled opposition party leader Adhanom Gebremariam reported that Fesshaye was found dead in his cell on December 13, 2002. Dawit Isaak, another imprisoned Setit journalist