Triton (mythology)

Triton is a Greek god of the sea, the son of Poseidon and Amphitrite and goddess of the sea respectively. Triton lived in a golden palace on the bottom of the sea, he was depicted as having a conch shell which he would blow like a trumpet. Triton is represented as a merman, with the upper body of a human and the tailed lower body of a fish. At some time during the Greek and Roman era, Triton became a generic term for a merman in art and literature. In English literature, Triton is portrayed as the herald for the god Poseidon. Triton of Lake Tritonis of Ancient Libya is a namesake mythical figure that appeared and aided the Argonauts. Triton was the son of Amphitrite according to Hesiod's Theogony, he was the ruler of the depths of the sea, either "dreadful" or "mighty" according to the epithet given him by Hesiod. Triton dwelt with his parents in underwater golden palaces, it has been pointed out Poseidon's golden palace was located at Aegae on Euboea in one passage of Homer's Iliad 12.21. Unlike his father Poseidon, always anthropomorphic in ancient art, Triton's lower half is that of a fish, while the top half is presented in a human figure.

Triton in times became associated with possessing a conch shell, which he blew like a trumpet to calm or raise the waves. He was "bugler" to Oceanus and Poseidon, its sound was so cacophonous that when loudly blown, it put the giants to flight, who imagined it to be the roar of a dark wild beast. The original Greek Triton only sometimes bore a trident. In literature, Triton carries a trident in Accius's Medea fragment. Triton is "sea-hued" according to Ovid and "his shoulders barnacled with sea-shells". Ovid here calls Triton "cerulean" in color, to choose a cognate rendering to the original language. There is Triton, the god of Lake Tritonis of Ancient Libya encountered by the Argonauts; this Triton is treated as a separate deity in some references. He had a different parentage, as his father was Poseidon but his mother Europa according to the Greek writers of this episode; this Triton first appeared in the guise of Eurypylus before revealing his divine nature. This local deity has thus been euhemeristically rationalized as "then ruler over Libya" by Diodorus Siculus.

Triton-Eurypylus welcomed the Argonauts with a guest-gift of a clod of earth, a pledge that the Greeks would be granted the land of Cyrene, Libya in the future. The Argo had been driven ashore in the Syrtes, Triton guided them through the lake's marshy outlet back to the Mediterranean. One of the works which recounts this adventure is Apollonius of Rhodes' Argonautica, the first work in written literature that describes a Triton as "fish-tailed". In Virgil's Aeneid, book 6, it is told that Triton killed Misenus, son of Aeolus, by drowning him after he challenged the gods to play as well as he did. Herakles wrestling Triton is a common theme in Classical Greek art black-figure pottery, but no literature survives that tells the story. In fewer examples, the Greek pottery depicting the same motif are labeled "Nereus" or "Old Man of the Sea" instead, among these, Nereus' struggle with Herakles is attested in literature. "Old Man of the Sea" is a generic term applicable to Nereus, frequently depicted as half-fishlike.

One explanation is that some vase painters developed the convention of depicting Nereus as a human form, so that Triton had to be substituted in the depiction of the sea-monster wrestling Herakles. And Nereus appears as a spectator in some examples of this motif. In the red-figure period, the Triton-Herakles theme became outmoded, supplanted by such scenes as Theseus's adventures in Poseidon's golden mansion, embellished with the presence of Triton. Again, extant literature describing the adventure omits any mention of Triton, but placement of Triton in the scene is not implausible. Triton was the father of a daughter named Pallas and foster parent to the goddess Athena, according to Pseudo-Apollodorus's Bibliotheca. Elsewhere in the Bibliotheca, there appears a male figure overcome by Athena. Athena bears the epithet Tritogeneia "Triton-born" and while this is suggestive of Triton's daughter being Athena, the appellation is otherwise explainable in several ways, e.g. as Athena's birth taking place at the River Triton or Lake Tritonis.

Triton had a daughter named Triteia. According to Pausanias writing in the 2nd century CE, one origin story of the city of Triteia held that this was an eponymous city after Triteia, founded by her and Ares's son, named Melanippus. At some time during the Greco-Roman period, "Tritons", in the plural, came to be used a generic term for mermen. Greek pottery depicting a half-human, half-fish being bearing an inscription of "Triton" is popular by the 6th century BC, it has been hypothesized that by this time "Triton" has become a generic term for a merman. Furthermore, Tritons in groups or multitudes began to be depicted in Classical Greek art by around the 4th century BC. Among these is the work by Greek sculptor Scopas, removed to Rome. Though not a contemporaneous inscription or commentary, Pliny commented on the work that "there are Nereids riding on dolphins.. and Tritons" in this sculpture. In Greek periods into the Roman p

Treaty of Fort Industry

The Treaty of Fort Industry was a successor treaty to the Treaty of Greenville, which moved the eastern boundary of Indian lands in northern Ohio from the Tuscarawas River and Cuyahoga River westward to a line 120 miles west of the Pennsylvania boundary, which coincided with the western boundary of the Firelands of the Connecticut Western Reserve. In return, the United States agreed "every year forever hereafter, at Detroit, or some other convenient place" to pay $825 for the ceded lands south of the 41st degree of north latitude, an additional $175 for the Firelands, which lie north of 41 degrees north, which the President would secure from the Connecticut Land Company, for a total of annuity $1000.00, to be "divided between said nations, from time to time, in such proportions as said nations, with the approbation of the President, shall agree."The treaty was signed on July 4, 1805 by Charles Jouett, a federal Indian agent, for the United States, representatives of the Ottawa, Chippewa, Munsee and Shawnee.

The Connecticuit Western Reserve was established by Connecticuit's cession of its Ohio and Illinois Country land claims in 1785. The designated Firelands western portion of the Reserve extended west of the Treaty line established by the Treaty of Fort McIntosh that same year. Conflicts over the area, in Indian Country, erupted immediately after the treaty signing. While the Treaty of Greenville brought peace to the Ohio Country frontier, the Western Reserve boundary line problem wasn't resolved until the Firelands portion was acquired by the Treaty of Fort Industry; the location of Fort Industry is one of the enduring mysteries of the western frontier. The place of the signing was on the upper Maumee River, it was a temporary stockade or fortification erected just for the signing. Local tradition places the fort at the mouth of the Swan River on the Maumee in Toledo, although there is no documented record of this. U. S. government and military records do not mention that any fort or post was built there or anywhere with that name.

The name does not appear in period letters and documents after that time. The name is associated with Gen. Anthony Wayne as one of the forts he built along the western Ohio border in the Northwest Indian War more than a decade before. However, Gen. Wayne had been dead for nine years at the time of the signing. List of Indian treaties Indian Removals in Ohio


Barbarea is a genus of about 22 species of flowering plants in the family Brassicaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with the highest species diversity in southern Europe and southwest Asia. They are small herbaceous biennial or perennial plants with dark green lobed leaves and yellow flowers with four petals, they grow into dandelion-like rosettes of edible, cress-like foliage. Barbarea verna known as upland cress, early winter cress, American cress, Belle Isle cress and scurvy grass, is used in salads or to add a nippy taste to mixed greens for cooking. Winter cress contains different glucosinolates and saponins. Flora Europaea: Barbarea Flora of China: Barbarea Data related to Barbarea at Wikispecies