The Military Frontier was a borderland of the Habsburg Monarchy and the Austrian and Austro-Hungarian Empire. It acted as the cordon sanitaire against incursions from the Ottoman Empire; when created in the 16th century by Ferdinand I, the region was divided into two districts under special military administration: the Croatian Military Frontier and the Slavonian Military Frontier. The Military Frontier came under the jurisdiction of the Croatian Sabor and ban but, in 1627, it was placed under the direct control of the Habsburg military. For more than two centuries, they would retain complete civilian and military authority over the area, up to the abolition of the Military Frontier in 1881. During the 17th century, the territory was expanded towards the East and new sections were created. By it stretched from Croatia proper in the west to eastern Transylvania in the east and included parts of present-day Croatia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Hungary. During, this period, the defence system was changed, from a conventional garrison model to one of'soldier-settler' communities.
The inhabitants of the area were known as the Grenzer, or'Frontiersmen'. They were colonists ethnic Serbs and Germans, who undertook to defend the Monarchy in return for their land-grants. Germans had been recruited by Hungary in the late 18th century to resettle and develop the Danube River Valley, became known as Donauschwaben; the military regiments formed by the settlers had a vested reason to stand and fight and were familiar with local terrain and conditions. They soon gained a formidable military reputation, it was known as the "Military Frontier" or Military Border The Ottoman wars in Europe caused the border of the Kingdom of Hungary – and subsequently that of the Habsburg Monarchy – to shift towards the northwest. Much of the old Croatian territory bordered the new Ottoman domain. In 1435, in an attempt to strengthen the defences against the Ottomans and Venice, King Sigismund founded the so-called tabor, a military encampment, each in Croatia and Usora. In 1463 King Matthias Corvinus founded the banovina of Jajce and Srebrenik, in 1469 the military captaincy of Senj, modeled after the Ottoman captaincies in the Province of Bosnia.
All these actions aimed to improve defence, but proved unsuccessful. But, they did lead to development of the Serbian Hussar cavalry. After 1526 the Croatian Parliament elected the Austrian Habsburgs as kings of Croatia, Emperor Ferdinand promised the Croatian Parliament that he would give them 200 cavalrymen and 200 infantrymen, that he would pay for another 800 cavalrymen who would be commanded by the Croatians. Soon the Habsburg Empire founded another captaincy in Bihać. In the short term, all this was ineffective, as in 1529 the Ottomans swept through the area, captured Buda and besieged Vienna, wreaking havoc throughout the Croatian border areas; the new military expenditures became a considerable concern, the Congress of Inner Austrian lands in Bruck an der Mur in 1578 defined the obligations of each land in covering the military expenses and defined the priorities in improving the defensive strategy. The nobility of Styria financed the Upper Slavonian Frontier while the others financed the Croatian Frontier.
By the end of the 16th century, the Croatian Military Frontier became known as the Karlovac generalate, from the 1630s the Upper Slavonian Military Frontier was known as the Varaždin generalat. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the military administration of the Frontier was moved away from the Croatian ban and the Sabor and instead instated in the high command of Archduke Charles and the War Council in Graz. Despite the financial support of the Inner Austrian nobility, the financing of the Military Frontier was not efficient enough; the military leadership in Graz decided to try solutions other than mercenary units. In the 1630s the Imperial Court decided to give land and certain privileges to immigrants into the Frontier at the area of Žumberak. In return they would serve in the Imperial army; the remaining local population was encouraged to remain by receiving the status of free peasants and other privileges. These new units were organized into ten or more voivodeships per each captaincy.
In 1627, the Military Frontier was removed from the control of the Croatian Sabor and put under direct rule of the Habsburg military. It would have complete civilian and military authority over it until abolition of the Military Frontiers. In November 1630, the Emperor Ferdinand II proclaimed the so-called Statuta Valachorum, which regulated the status of so-called Vlach settlers from the Ottoman Empire with regard to military command, their obligations, rights to internal self-administration. Over time, the population of the Frontier became mixed between the autochthonous Croats and Croatian serfs who had fled the Ottoman territories, the numerous minority of the Serb and Vlach refugees who strove to expand their rights as a major contributor in the defense of the land. By creating the new military class in the Frontier, the territory of the Frontier became detached from the Croatian Parliament and the ban; the Territory of the Frontier had a large Serb population, who fled from their south-eastern lands, tried to fight the O
Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was a nominally autonomous kingdom and constitutionally defined separate political nation within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, created in 1868 by merging the kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia following the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement of 1868. It was associated with the Hungarian Kingdom within the dual Austro-Hungarian state, being within the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen known as Transleithania. While Croatia has been granted a wide internal autonomy with "national features", in reality, Croatian control over key issues such as tax and military issues was minimal and hampered by Hungary, it was internally referred to as the Triune Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia simply know as the Triune Kingdom and had irredentist claims on Dalmatia, part of the Austrian Cisleithania. The city of Rijeka, following a fraud in the 1868 Settlement, known as the Rijeka Addendum became a Corpus separatum and was owned by Hungary, but administrated by both Croatia and Hungary.
The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was ruled by the Habsburg Emperor of Austria under his title as King of Croatia and Dalmatia and was confirmed by the State Sabor upon enthronement. The King's appointed steward was the Ban of Slavonia. On 21 October 1918, Emperor Karl I, known as King Karlo IV in Croatia, issued a Trialist manifest, ratified by the Hungarian side on the next day and which unified all Croatian Crown Lands. One week on 29 October 1918, the Croatian Croatian State Sabor proclaimed an Independent Kingdom which entered the State of Slovenes and Serbs; the kingdom used the formal title of the Triune Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia, thereby pressing its claim on the Kingdom of Dalmatia, but Dalmatia was a Kronland within the imperial Austrian part of Austria-Hungary. The claim was, for most of the time, supported by the Hungarian government, which backed the Croatia-Slavonia in an effort to increase its share of the dual state; the union between the two Croatian lands of Austria-Hungary never took place, however.
According to the Article 53 of the Croatian–Hungarian Agreement, governing Croatia's political status in the Hungarian-ruled part of Austria-Hungary, the ban's official title was "Ban of Kingdom of Dalmatia and Slavonia". Not only would different parts of the Monarchy at the same time use different styles of the titles, but the same institutions would at the same time use different naming standards for the same institution. For instance, when the Imperial and Royal Court in Vienna would list the Croatian Ban as one of the Great Officers of State in the Kingdom of Hungary, the style used would be Regnorum Croatiae, Dalmatiae et Slavoniae Banus, but when the Court would list the highest officials of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia, the title would be styled as "Ban of Croatia and Dalmatia"; the laws passed in Croatia-Slavonia used the phrase "Kingdom of Dalmatia and Slavonia". In Hungarian, Croatia is referred to as Slavonia as Szlavónia; the combined polity was known by the official name of Horvát-Szlavón Királyság.
The short form of the name was Horvát-Szlavónország and, less Horvát-Tótország. The order of mentioning Dalmatia was a contentious issue, as it was ordered differently in the Croatian and Hungarian language versions of the 1868 Settlement; the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was created in 1868, when the former kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia were joined into one single kingdom. The Croatian parliament, elected in a questionable manner, confirmed the subordination of Croatia-Slavonia to Hungary in 1868 with signing of Hungarian-Croatian union constitution called the Nagodba; this kingdom included parts of present-day Serbia. After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 the only remaining open question of the new state was the status of Croatia, which would be solved with the Hungarian-Croatian Compromise of 1868 when agreement was reached between the Parliament of Hungary on one hand and the Parliament of Croatia-Slavonia on the other hand, with regard to the composition by a joint enactment of the constitutional questions at issue between them.
Settlement reached between Hungary and Croatia was in Croatian version of the Settlement named "The Settlement between Kingdom of Hungary, united with Erdély on the one side and the Kingdoms of Dalmatia and Slavonia". In the Hungarian version neither Hungary, nor Croatia and Slavonia are styled kingdoms, Erdély is not mentioned, while Settlement is named as the Settlement between Parliament of Hungary and Parliament of Croatia and Dalmatia. Both versions received Royal sanction and both as such became fundamental laws of the state with constitutional importance, pursuant to article 69. and 70. of the Settlement. With this compromise the parliament of personal union controlled the military, the financial system, Sea Law, Commercial Law, the law of Bills of Exchange and Mining Law, matters of commerce, telegraphs, Post Office, harbours and those roads and riv
Ivo Goldstein is a Croatian historian and ambassador. He received his PhD in history at the University of Zagreb. Since 2001 he is a full professor at the Faculty of Social Sciences in Zagreb, his area of expertise is Byzantium and Croatian history in the Middle Ages the early Middle Ages, as well as history of the Jews in Croatia and the Croatian history of 20th century. He is former president of Bet Israel, a Jewish community in Zagreb, which he founded with his father, historian Slavko Goldstein, they are both involved with the reconstruction of the Zagreb Synagogue. In 2012 Goldstein was named as ambassador of Croatia to France and UNESCO. In 2017, his term as ambassador to France ended when he was succeeded by professional diplomat Filip Vučak, but he still remains ambassador to UNESCO. Bizant na Jadranu Hrvatski rani srednji vijek Croatia: A History Holokaust u Zagrebu Židovi u Zagrebu 1918.-1941. Europa i Sredozemlje u srednjem vijeku Hrvatska 1918.-2008. Tito Ivo Goldstein's profile at the Ruđer Bošković Institute Library
Cisleithania was a common yet unofficial denotation of the northern and western part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in the Compromise of 1867—as distinguished from Transleithania, i.e. the Hungarian Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen east of the Leitha River. The Cisleithanian capital was the residence of the Austrian emperor; the territory had a population of 28,571,900 in 1910. It reached from Vorarlberg in the west to the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria and the Duchy of Bukovina in the east, as well as from the Kingdom of Bohemia in the north to the Kingdom of Dalmatia in the south, it comprised the current States of Austria, as well as most of the territories of the Czech Republic and Slovenia, southern Ukraine and parts of Italy and Montenegro. The Latin name Cisleithania derives from that of the Leitha River, a tributary of the Danube forming the historical boundary between the Archduchy of Austria and the Hungarian Kingdom in the area southeast of Vienna. Much of its territory lay west of the Leitha.
After the constitutional changes of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Cisleithanian crown lands continued to constitute the Austrian Empire, but the latter term was used to avoid confusion with the era before 1867, when the Kingdom of Hungary had been a constituent part of that empire. The somewhat cumbersome official name was Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder; the phrase was used by politicians and bureaucrats, but it had no official status until 1915. In general, the lands were just called Austria, but the term "Austrian lands" did not apply to the Lands of the Bohemian Crown or to the territories annexed in the 18th-century Partitions of Poland or the former Venetian Dalmatia. From 1867, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Kingdom of Croatia, the Kingdom of Slavonia and the Principality of Transylvania were no longer "Austrian" crown lands. Rather, they constituted an autonomous state called the "Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St Stephen" and known as Transleithania or just Hungary.
The Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina, occupied in 1878, formed a separate part. Both the "Austrian" and "Hungarian" lands of the Dual Monarchy had large Slavic-settled territories in the north as well as in the south. Cisleithania consisted of 17 crown lands which had representatives in the Imperial Council, the Cisleithanian parliament in Vienna; the crown lands centered on the Archduchy of Austria were not states, but provinces in the modern sense. However, they were areas with unique historic political and legal characteristics and were therefore more than mere administrative districts, they have been conceived of as "historical-political entities". Each crown land had a regional assembly, the Landtag, which enacted laws on matters of regional and minor importance; until 1848, the Landtage had been traditional diets. They were disbanded after the Revolutions of 1848 and reformed after 1860; some members held their position as ex officio members. There was a mixture of privilege and limited franchise.
The executive committee of a Landtag was called Landesausschuss and headed by a Landeshauptmann, being president of the Landtag as well. From 1868 onwards Emperor Franz Joseph himself and his Imperial–Royal government headed by the Minister-President of Austria were represented at the capital cities of the crown lands—except for Vorarlberg, administered with Tyrol, Istria and Gorizia-Gradisca which were adminstred together with Trieste under the common name of Austro-Illyrian Littoral— by a stadtholder, in few crown lands called Landespräsident, who acted as chief executive. Kingdom of Bohemia Kingdom of Dalmatia Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Archduchy of Austria above the Enns Archduchy of Austria below the Enns Grand Duchy of Cracow Duchy of Bukovina Duchy of Carinthia Duchy of Carniola Duchy of Salzburg Duchy of Silesia Duchy of Styria Margraviate of Istria Margraviate of Moravia Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca Princely County of Tyrol Princely County of Vorarlberg Free City of Trieste Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina According to the "December Constitution", a redraft of the emperor's 1861 February Patent, the Austrian government was respons
Diet of Dalmatia
The Diet of Dalmatia was the regional assembly of the Kingdom of Dalmatia within the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It was founded in Zadar in 1861 and last convened in 1912, before being formally dissolved in 1918, with the demise of the Empire. Since the founding of the Dalmatian diet, the pro-Italian Autonomist Party held the parliamentary majority until 1870, when the People's Party won the parliamentary election. Croatian became the official language of the diet in 1883. Under the constitutional reforms promoted by Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, under an imperial decree dated 20 October 1860, the Empire underwent a form of "federalization", following the majority opinion of the Board Empire. According to these determinations, many legislative and judicial powers were conferred onto every province in the kingdom through the reconstitution of the powers—or the creation of new powers—as part of the formation of a proper Diet. In Croatia, the imperial law, accompanied by the first convocation of the local diet, was warmly welcomed.
An imperial autograph in Vienna on 5 December 1860 created: a'courtly department' for Croatia-Slavonia. An agreement was made, whereby a political representation of Dalmatia was sent to Zagreb to discuss the issue at a conference chaired by the Ban of Croatia, the highest political authority in the territory of Croatia-Slavonia; the imperial autograph produced various representations in Dalmatian cities. It was the city of Split congregation—led by Antonio Bajamonti—that was distinguished by the bitterness of protests; the protestors appealed to Francis Joseph to convene the provincial assembly of Dalmatia before taking a decision on the constitutional arrangements of the province within the Empire. On the basis of Split, most of the Dalmatian municipalities refused to send their representatives to Zagreb. Meanwhile, the imperial court began to fear that the granting of overly broad powers to the diets would facilitate the unleashing of domestic forces, thereby reducing the authority of the emperor.
In February 1861, several meetings of the Council of Ministers of Austria were held, in which the attendees discussed, at length, the problem of Dalmatia and a possible meeting with Croatia. Ivan Mažuranić, chairman of the department courtly for Croatia-Slavonia, pleaded in support of the cause, supported by Foreign Minister Bernhard von Rechberg. Rechberg further claimed that such action would strengthen the Slavic element in Dalmatia, loyal to Austria; the positions of the Dalmatian separatists were supported by Liberal Party politicians, who managed to persuade the emperor to postpone the decision. On the recommendation of the German-speaking Liberals, Francis Joseph issued a license by 26 February 1861 that created an Imperial Parliament with extensive legislative powers—this drastically reduced the powers that were planned for the provincial assembly. Within this patent, 15 were approved statutes of the reconstituted provincial assembly, with its Sabor regulations, this provided for an electoral system that only granted voting rights to those who could pay a minimal fee.
The electoral system was based on four curiae that represented various social bodies: The high census The cities The chambers of commerce The rural municipalities The electoral system favoured the bourgeois and aristocratic classes, as well as the urban population over people in rural areas. Between 24 March 1861 and 30 March 1861, the first elections for the provincial assembly of Dalmatia were held—the Dalmatian parliamentary election of 1861; the separatists won 29 seats out of 41. From Zadar: Vittorio Bioni Cosimo de Begna Possedaria Vincenzo Duplancich Antonio Smirich Antonio Bajamonti Spiro Petrović Natale Filippi Giacomo Ghiglianovich Francesco BorreliFrom Split: Leonardo Dudan Giorgio Giovannizio Luigi Lapenna Vincenzo degli AlbertiFrom Šibenik: Antonio GalvaniFrom Makarska Giacomo VucovichFrom Dubrovnik: Giovanni Radmilli Luigi SerragliFrom Korčula: Giovanni SmerchinichFrom Hvar: Girolamo Macchiedo Giovanni Macchiedo Girolamo VusioFrom Skradin: Simeone Bujas Giovanni MarasovićFrom Drniš: Melchiorre DifnicoFrom Trogir: Antonio Radman Antonio FanfognaFrom Sinj: Josip Dešković Anton BuljanFrom Imotski: Niccolò Mirossevich From Dubrovnik: Miho Klaić Marino GiorniFrom Kotor: Josip Gjurović Bernardo Verona From Benkovac: Petar RadulovićFrom Drnis: Pane Sablić Krsto KulišićFrom Vrgorac: Miho PavlinovićFrom Cavtat: Djure PulićFrom Ston: Krsto JerkovićFrom Budva: Luka Tripcović Stjepan Mitrov LjubišaPresident of the Diet: Spiro Petrović On 18 April 1861, the Diet passed a motion submitted by Baiamonti and Galvani to reject the request for a unification of Dalmat
Croatian–Hungarian Settlement was a pact signed in 1868, that governed Croatia's political status in the Hungarian-ruled part of Austria-Hungary. It lasted until the end of World War I, when the Croatian Parliament, as the representative of the historical sovereignty of Croatia, decided on October 29, 1918 to end all state and legal ties with the old Austria-Hungary. Before the Revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas and the notable actions of Croatian Ban Josip Jelačić, the northern Croatian lands were divided into the Kingdom of Croatia and the Kingdom of Slavonia as separate Habsburg crown lands, recognized as Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen and under the jurisdiction of the Kingdom of Hungary but functioned a single kingdom, subordinate to the central government in Vienna. After 1849, Slavonia and Croatia continued to function in the same capacity. Imperial officials referred to this kingdom as the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia; the southern Croatian land, the Kingdom of Dalmatia, was formed from the southern parts of the Illyrian Provinces that the Habsburg Monarchy conquered from the French Empire in 1815 and it remained a separate administrative division of the Austrian part of the monarchy.
When the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 created the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy, the Habsburg crownlands of Croatia and Slavonia were merged and placed under Hungarian jurisdiction. Levin Rauch became the acting ban of Croatia, replacing Josip Šokčević. Ban Rauch prepared a new electoral law, imposed by the king on October 20, 1867. In the election held from November 19 to December 23, 1867, the People's Party won only 14 seats, Rauch's Unionist Party obtained a majority in the Sabor. Although many Croats who sought full autonomy for the South Slavs of the empire objected to that arrangement, that questionable session of Sabor confirmed the subordination of Croatia to Hungary by accepting the Nagodba on 24 September 1868. An agreement was reached between the Parliament of Hungary on the one hand and the Parliament of Croatia on the other hand, with regard to composing by a joint enactment the constitutional questions at issue between them. After the settlement was confirmed and sanctioned by His Imperial and Apostolic Royal Majesty, it was thereby incorporated as a joint fundamental law of Hungary and of Croatia and Dalmatia.
With this compromise the Croatian Parliament elected twenty-nine deputies to the House of Representatives and two members to the House of Magnates of the Diet of Hungary, which controlled the military, the financial system and administration, Sea Law, Commercial Law, the law of Bills of Exchange and Mining Law, matters of commerce, telegraphs, Post Office, harbors and those roads and rivers which jointly concern Hungary and Croatia-Slavonia. Following the Settlement, the Croatian kingdom was referred to using the name Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. Article 66 of the settlement specified lands of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, including Dalmatia in the list though Dalmatia remained part of Cisleithania until dissolution of Austria-Hungary. Practical territorial consequences of the settlement were creation of the city and port of Rijeka as Corpus separatum attached to the Kingdom of Hungary and incorporation of the Croatian Military Frontier and the Slavonian Military Frontier in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia in 1881.
The manner by which Article 66 was handled left the issue of the port of Rijeka unresolved. Croatia saw it as part of its territory. Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia Timeline of Croatian history HRVATSKO-UGARSKA NAGODBA Tekst Hrvatsko-ugarske nagodbe iz 1868. Österreichische Nationalbibliothek Text in Croatian 1868. Évi XXX. törvénycikk, 1000ev.hu Text in Hungarian