click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

State funerals in the United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, state funerals are reserved for monarchs, the Earl Marshal is in charge. The last such funeral was held in 1952 for King George VI. In addition exceptionally, a state funeral may be held to honour a distinguished figure, with the approval of the monarch and with Parliament's approval. There was a state funeral in 1965 for Sir Winston Churchill. Other funerals may share many of the characteristics of a state funeral without being gazetted as such; the funerals of Diana, Princess of Wales, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother and Margaret Thatcher have fallen into this category Along with the funeral service itself, a gun carriage is used to transport the coffin between locations, accompanied by a procession of military bands and detachments along with mourners and other officials. There may be a lying in state and other associated ceremonies. In the past century, the state funeral of a monarch has followed this pattern: Conveyance of the body to Westminster Hall. Having arrived in London, the coffin is transported to Westminster on a horse-drawn gun carriage, escorted by military contingents and mourners.

The coffin is draped with the Royal Standard, on it is placed the Imperial State Crown. Lying in state in Westminster Hall; the coffin is placed on a catafalque in the middle of the hall. Following a brief service, members of the public are admitted and file past the coffin to pay their respects. During the lying in state each corner of the catafalque is guarded by units of the Sovereign's Bodyguard and the Household Division. Conveyance of the body from Westminster Hall to Windsor. A large procession accompanies the monarch's body on its final journey: several military contingents, along with State office-holders, the Royal Household in all its diversity and the dead monarch's personal staff/servants; the late monarch's equerries serve as pallbearers, walking alongside the coffin, escorted by the sovereign's bodyguards: the Gentlemen at Arms and the Yeomen of the Guard. The Royal Family follow the coffin, along with foreign and Commonwealth representatives; the gun carriage is hauled by sailors of the Royal Navy for the two-hour journey from Westminster to Paddington.

The coffin and officials travel by train to Windsor, where the procession re-forms for the journey to Windsor Castle. Funeral service and burial in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle; the form of service used is the same for a monarch as for a commoner. Prior to the burial, Garter King of Arms pronounces the style of the deceased monarch, using a form of words that has varied little over centuries of use; as the body is placed in the vault, the Lord Chamberlain breaks his white stave of office and tosses it into the grave to symbolize the end of his period of service to the late monarch. State funerals of distinguished citizens have followed a similar pattern, except for the location of the funeral and burial. Churchill's body was taken by gun carriage from Westminster Hall to St Paul's Cathedral for the funeral. Afterward it was taken by river to Waterloo for the railway journey to Bladon for burial. State and ceremonial funerals in the United Kingdom are assisted by the funeral directors to the Royal Household, which are owned and commercially operated businesses selected and appointed by the Lord Chamberlain's Office.

Many of the features of a state funeral are shared by other types of funerals, distinguishing between them is not easy. A ceremonial funeral, like a state funeral has a lying in state, a procession with a gun carriage and military contingents, a funeral service attended by state representatives, both domestic and foreign; the visual distinction referred to is that in a state funeral, the gun carriage bearing the coffin is drawn by sailors from the Royal Navy rather than horses. This distinguishing feature is not invariable, however, as shown by the use of naval ratings rather than horses at the ceremonial funeral for Lord Mountbatten in 1979. Another distinction made between a state funeral and a ceremonial funeral is that a state funeral for a distinguished subject requires a message from the Sovereign to each of the Houses of Parliament, under the Royal Sign Manual, informing them of the funeral and inviting their attendance. In the case of the state funeral for a deceased Sovereign, a message from the Earl Marshal, acting at the new Sovereign's command, informs the Houses of Parliament of the arrangements for the funeral and requires their attendance at the lying-in-state.

Ceremonial funerals do not require such formal invitation of the Houses of Parliament by the Sovereign. Ceremonial funerals on the death of a member of the Royal Family are preceded by the approval of a motion in each House of Parliament directing that an address of condolence be presented on behalf of the House to the Sovereign, but such addresses are usual for the deaths of all members of the Royal Family, are therefore moved for deceased members of the Royal Family who will have private funerals. In the case of a state funeral for a distinguished

Frank Phillips (golfer)

Frank Stafford Phillips is an Australian professional golfer. He was rated one of the best ball strikers of his era winning the 1961 Australian Opens, he has been a Life Member of the PGA of Australia since 2002. In Jack Pollard's book, Australian Golf: The Game and the Players, Phillips is described as "a tall Sydney professional who built an outstanding record in Australian golf in the 1950s and 1960s". 1955 New Zealand PGA Championship 1956 New South Wales Close 1957 New South Wales PGA, Australian Open 1959 Lakes Open 1960 New South Wales Open, North Coast Open, Lakes Open 1961 Australian Open 1962 New South Wales Open, Tasmanian Open, North Coast Open, West End Tournament 1963 Adelaide Advertiser Tournament 1964 Victorian Open, Adelaide Advertiser Tournament, West End Tournament 1966 New South Wales Open, Victorian Open, Lakes Open 1970 New South Wales Open, West End Tournament 1971 Tasmanian Open 1960 Philippine Open 1961 Singapore Open 1962 Malayan Open 1965 Singapore Open, Yomiuri International 1966 Hong Kong Open 1973 Hong Kong Open 1976 Ben Guzzardi Classic Note: Phillips never played in the PGA Championship.

CUT = missed the half-way cut "T" = tied Canada Cup: 1958 Slazenger Trophy: 1956 List of golfers with most PGA Tour of Australasia wins

List of Buffalo Bills first-round draft picks

The Buffalo Bills are an American football franchise based in Orchard Park, New York. They are members of the American Football Conference East division in the National Football League; every year during April, each NFL franchise seeks to add new players to its roster through a collegiate draft known as "the NFL Annual Player Selection Meeting", more known as the NFL Draft. The NFL Draft, as a whole, gives an advantage to the teams that performed poorly the previous season; the 30 teams that did not make the Super Bowl are ranked in order so the team with the worst record picks first and the team with the best record picks last. The two exceptions to this inverse order are made for teams that appeared in the previous Super Bowl. If the franchise so chooses, they may trade their draft picks for any combination of draft picks and money. General"Buffalo Bills NFL Draft History". Retrieved 2012-04-28. "Buffalo Bills 1st Round Draft History". Retrieved 2012-04-28. Specific

Ancient library (Plovdiv)

The library of Philippopolis is one of the administrative buildings built in the Northern part of the Roman forum in Plovdiv. The rectangular-shaped building has an approximate width of length of 15m; the library's main purpose was storing manuscripts and scrolls but it was used as a place for education, public discussions and speeches. Philippopolis was among the few ancient towns; the library has been found near General Gurko str. in the Northeastern corner of the Roman forum in Plovdiv, adjacent to the Roman odeon. The building of Plovdiv's central post office and the main pedestrian street of the city are located around the ancient monument. One of the most interesting features of the ancient library is the construction of interior walls; when constructing the Roman bricks masonry multiple niches were formed in the interior of the walls. Archeologists suggest; the floor was paved with marble slabs. The library had an air circulation system in order to prevent humidity and moisture from damaging papyrus scrolls.

Vertical clay pipes were embedded in the thick brick walls of the building to take the moisture out. They ended in a channel, connected to the drainage system of the Roman forum; the library of Philippopolis was discovered in the 1980s during the archeological research in the central Plovdiv. The western part of the building is still hidden beneath modern buildings. Roman Plovdiv

International Space Station maintenance

Since construction started, the International Space Station programme has had to deal with several maintenance issues, unexpected problems and failures. These incidents have affected the assembly timeline, led to periods of reduced capabilities of the station and in some cases could have forced the crew to abandon the space station for safety reasons, had these problems not been resolved; the Columbia disaster did not involve the ISS, but did impact the ISS construction schedule and maintenance. The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster on 1 February 2003 resulted in a two-and-a-half-year suspension of the US Space Shuttle program. Another one-year suspension following STS-114 led to some uncertainty about the future of the International Space Station. All crew exchanges between February 2003 and July 2006 were carried out using the Russian Soyuz spacecraft. Starting with Expedition 7, caretaker crews of just two astronauts were launched, in contrast to the launched crews of three; because the ISS had not been visited by a space shuttle for over three years, more waste had accumulated than anticipated, which temporarily hindered station operations in 2004.

Automated Progress transports and the STS-114 mission were able to eliminate this waste build-up. On 2 January 2004, a minor air leak was detected on board the ISS. At one point, five pounds of air per day were leaking into space and the internal pressure of the ISS dropped from nominal 14.7 psi down to 14.0 psi, although this did not pose an immediate threat to Michael Foale and Aleksandr Kaleri, the two astronauts on board. Using an ultrasonic probe, Foale traced the leak on Sunday 10 January to a vacuum jumper hose connected to a multipaned window in the US segment of the station; the search for the leak had been hampered by noise emitted from scientific equipment on board. Successful identification and repair of the leak narrowly averted a planned lock down of the station in an attempt to isolate the leak, which would have affected station operations. Experts believe. In this same year, 2004, the Elektron unit shut down due to unknown causes. Two weeks of troubleshooting resulted in the unit starting up again immediately shutting down.

The cause was traced to gas bubbles in the unit, which remained non-functional until a Progress resupply mission in October 2004. In 2005 ISS personnel tapped into the oxygen supply of the arrived Progress resupply ship, when the Elektron unit failed. Early on January 1, 2005, the Elektron generator, repaired in 2004, failed again, the crew had to rely again on onboard oxygen. On 18 September 2006, the Expedition 13 crew activated a smoke alarm in the Russian segment of the International Space Station when fumes from one of the three Elektron oxygen generators triggered momentary fear about a possible fire; the crew reported a smell in the cabin. The alarm was found to be caused by a leak of potassium hydroxide from an oxygen vent; the associated equipment was turned off, officials said there was no fire and the crew was not in any danger. The station's ventilation system was shut down to prevent the possibility of spreading smoke or contaminants through the rest of the complex. A charcoal air filter was put in place to scrub the atmosphere of any lingering potassium hydroxide fumes.

The space station's programme manager said the crew never donned gas masks, but as a precaution put on surgical gloves and masks to prevent contact with any contaminants. On 2 November 2006, the payload brought by the Russian Progress M-58 allowed the crew to repair the Elektron using spare parts. On 14 June 2007, during Expedition 15 and flight day 7 of STS-117's visit to ISS, a computer malfunction on the Russian segments at 06:30 UTC left the station without thrusters, oxygen generation, carbon dioxide scrubber, other environmental control systems, causing the temperature on the station to rise. A successful restart of the computers resulted in a false fire alarm that woke the crew at 11:43 UTC. By 15 June, the primary Russian computers were back online, communicating with the US side of the station by bypassing a circuit, but secondary systems remained offline. NASA reported that without the computer that controls the oxygen levels, the station had 56 days of oxygen available. By the afternoon of 16 June, ISS Program Manager Michael Suffredini confirmed that all six computers governing command and navigation systems for Russian segments of the station, including two thought to have failed, were back online and would be tested over several days.

The cooling system was the first system brought back online. Troubleshooting of the failure by the ISS crew found that the root cause was condensation inside the electrical connectors, which led to a short-circuit that triggered the power off command to all three of the redundant processing units; this was a concern because the European Space Agency uses the same computer systems, supplied by EADS Astrium Space Transportation, for the Columbus laboratory module and the Automated Transfer Vehicle. Once the cause of the malfunction was understood, plans were implemented to avoid the problem in the future. On 30 October 2007, during Expedition 16 and flight day 7 of STS-120's visit to ISS, following the repositioning of the P6 truss segment, ISS and Space Shuttle Discovery crew members began the deployment of the two solar arrays on the truss; the first array deployed without incident, the second array deployed about 80% before astronauts noticed a 76-centimetre tear. The arrays had been deployed in earlier phases of the space station's construction, the retr