Trois-Rivières is a city in the Mauricie administrative region of Quebec, Canada, at the confluence of the Saint-Maurice and Saint Lawrence rivers, on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River across from the city of Bécancour. It is part of the densely populated Quebec City–Windsor Corridor and is halfway between Montreal and Quebec City. Trois-Rivières is the cultural hub of the Mauricie region; the settlement was founded by French colonists on July 4, 1634, as the second permanent settlement in New France, after Quebec City in 1608. In 2016, the city's population was 134,413; the city's name, French for'three rivers', is named for the fact the Saint-Maurice River has three mouths at the Saint Lawrence River. In English this city was known as Three Rivers. Since the late 20th century, when there has been more recognition of Quebec and French speakers, the city has been referred to as Trois-Rivières in both English and French; the anglicized name still appears in many areas of the town, bearing witness to the influence of English settlers in the town.
The city's inhabitants are known as Trifluviens. Trois-Rivières is the name of a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality of Quebec, coextensive with the city of Trois-Rivières, its geographical code is 371. Together with the regional county municipality of Les Chenaux, it forms the census division of Francheville; the municipalities within Les Chenaux and the former municipalities that were amalgamated into Trois-Rivières constituted the regional county municipality of Francheville. Trois-Rivières is the seat of the judicial district of the same name; the Trois-Rivières metropolitan area includes the city of Bécancour, situated on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River across the Laviolette Bridge; the name of Trois-Rivières, which dates from the end of the 16th century, was used by French explorers in reference to the three channels in the Saint-Maurice River formed at its mouth with the Saint Lawrence, as it is divided by two islands and Saint-Quentin island. The city occupies a location known to the French since 1535, when Jacques Cartier, in a trip along the St. Lawrence, stopped to plant a cross on Saint-Quentin island.
But the Three Rivers name is used for the first time in 1599 by Sieur François Gravé Du Pont, a geographer under Champlain, whose records confirmed the name in 1603. As Sieur Gravé Du Pont sailed upriver toward Montreal, he saw what appeared to be three separate tributaries, he did not know two large islands divide the course of the Saint-Maurice River in three parts where the latter flows into the St. Lawrence River. For thousands of years, the area that would become known as Trois-Rivières was frequented by Indigenous peoples; the historic Algonquin and Abenaki peoples used it as a summer stopping place. They would fish and hunt here, as well as gather nuts; the area was rich in resources. The French explorer Jacques Cartier described the site while on his second journey to the New World in 1535; the name "Trois-Rivières", was not given until 1599, by Captain Dupont-Gravé, first appeared on maps of the area dated 1601. In 1603, while surveying the Saint-Lawrence River, Samuel de Champlain recommended establishing a permanent settlement in the area.
Such a village was started on July 1634, by its first governor, Sieur de Laviolette. Early inhabitants of Trois-Rivières included Sieur de St. Quentin. Jacques Le Neuf de La Poterie, who would become governor of Trois-Rivières, acting governor of New France, royal judge Michel Le Neuf du Hérisson, who would be acting governor of Trois-Rivières, arrived with their widowed mother, Jeanne Le Marchand, in 1636; the Le Neufs were accompanied by Jacques' wife and her brothers, Pierre Legardeur de Repentigny and future governor Charles Legardeur de Tilly. The city was the second to be founded in New France. Given its strategic location, it played an important role in the colony and in the fur trade with First Nations peoples; the settlement became the seat of a regional government in 1665. Ursuline nuns first arrived at the settlement in 1697, where they founded the first school and helped local missionaries to Christianize the local Aboriginals and developing class of Métis. French sovereignty in Trois-Rivières continued until 1760, when the city was captured as part of the British conquest of Canada during the Seven Years' War.
Sixteen years on June 8, 1776, it was the theatre of the Battle of Trois-Rivières during the American Revolutionary War. Trois-Rivières continued to grow in importance throughout this period and beyond. In 1792 it was designated as the seat of a judicial district. In 1852, the Roman Catholic church made. In 1816, Captain A. G. Douglas, a former adjutant at the British military college at Great Marlow, recommended a military college for Catholic and Protestant boys be established at Trois-Rivières, he proposed it operate in a disused government house and he would be superintendent. Douglas' college was intended as a boarding school to educate the young sons of officers, amongst others, in Latin, English lan
Sara Raasch is an American author of young adult fiction. She wrote the fantasy New York Times Bestselling trilogy Snow Like Ashes as well as a forthcoming untitled fantasy series. Sara Raasch is an American author of young adult fiction. Raised in Ohio, Raasch graduated from Wright State University with a degree in Organizational Leadership and resides in Ohio. Snow Like Ashes series Snow Like Ashes Ice Like Fire Frost Like Night Raasch is the author of a forthcoming untitled young adult fantasy series "inspired by the Spanish Inquisition and the Golden Age of Piracy". Raasch's Snow Like Ashes became a New York Times Bestseller in 2015. Shortly after, Ice Like Fire debuted on the New York Times list at #3, her books have been Colorado Blue Spruce Award nominees, an RT Book Reviews Top Pick, a Huffington Post Best Overall YA Book of 2014, a Hypable Top Ten Books of 2014. Website Twitter Facebook Author Pinterest Goodreads YouTube
Holcorpa is a genus of extinct insects in the scorpionfly order Mecoptera. Two Eocene age species found in Western North America were placed into the genus, H. dillhoffi and H. maculosa. Holcorpa was the only known member of the extinct family Holcorpidae until 2017, when the Middle Jurassic member of the family, Conicholcorpa stigmosa, was described; when first described Holcorpa was identified from a single fossil, preserved as a compression fossil in fine shales of the Florissant Formation. At the time of description, the Florissant formation was considered to be Oligocene in age. Further refinement of the formation's age using radiometric dating of sanidine crystals has resulted in an age of 34 million years old, which places the formation in the Eocene Chadronian stage. Adjustment to the stages of the Eocene placed the formation in the Priabonian as of 2010; the second species is known from a single fossil, discovered in silty medium brown Kamloops group shale in the McAbee Fossil Beds near Cache Creek, British Columbia.
The McAbee Fossil Beds have been dated in 1981 to the early Eocene Ypresian stage. The genus and type species were first described, without illustration, by Samuel Scudder in 1878, who placed the genus in the family Panorpidae. A second fossil was recovered by a collector in 1907 and first illustrated in 1927 by Theodore Cockerell; the second fossil was described in 1931 by Frank M. Carpenter; the second species H. dillhoffi was described over 130 years. The second species was first described by paleoentomologist S. Bruce Archibald of Simon Fraser University, his type description was published in the entomology journal Annales de la Société Entomologique de France. The specific epithet dillhoffi is a patronym honoring Richard Dillhoff, who found and donated a number of fossils for research, including the type specimen, for his support of paleoentomology; the family name Holcorpidae was first used in a 1970 footnote by Russian paleoentomologist Vladimir Zherikhin, who noted the family to be monotypic with only Holcorpa.
However, since Zherikhin did not provide a detailed subscription for the family itself, the name was considered nomen nudum. The family received a full technical description 19 years by the German entomologist Rainer Willmann and the circumscription was emended by Archibald in 2010 to reflect the second species. Two genera and Miriholcorpa, from the Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in China were described in 2013. While both are similar in overall appearance to Holcorpa, both were left unplaced as to family in Mecoptera by the describing authors. Fortiholcorpa has medial wing veins notably different than those of Holcorpa and an 8th abdominal segment only longer than the 7th. Conversely, Miriholcorpa was not placed due to the hind wings not having discernible forking of the median vein into 5 branches. Since the uncertainty is due to the preservation of the only known fossil, Wang et al noted the placement may change with the discovery of more fossils; as with all mecopteran members, eorpids possess an elongated rostrum and four elongated wings of nearly equal size, uniquely a "Radial1" vein which reaches the apex of the wing.
The family has a notably elongated abdomen with enlarged genitalia on the terminal segment. Holcorpidae is distinguished from most other panorpoid families by five branches of the medial vein; the elongated abdomen of Holcorpa is not seen in the family Eorpidae, by the much more curved nature of "Radial1" vein is not seen in Dinopanorpidae. H. dillhoffi is a larger species the H. maculosa, with an estimated total length in the males of 60 mm and a fore-wing length of 24–25 mm. The fore-wings are overall darkened in coloration and an apical region that has scattered hyaline spots; the hind wings are hyaline in the basal half, while the apical half is darkened and showing a single distinct hyaline spot in the upper area of the wing apex. The 6th abdominal segment seems to be missing spurs lost during preparation, but the angle formed by them is wider than those of H. maculosa. The fore-wing of H. maculosa is between 19–21 mm long based on the two know fossils. The wing has a Radial vein which branches into R1 and Rs forks less than 1/3 of the way towards the wing apex.
In both the fore and hind wings the basal areas are hyaline and the apical areas are darkened. The overall body length of the more complete specimen is estimated to be 55 mm. While Carpenter and Archibald considered the size difference between the first and second specimens