click links in text for more info


A troll is a class of being in Norse mythology and Scandinavian folklore. In Old Norse sources, beings described as trolls dwell in isolated rocks, mountains, or caves, live together in small family units, are helpful to human beings. In Scandinavian folklore, trolls became beings in their own right, where they live far from human habitation, are not Christianized, are considered dangerous to human beings. Depending on the source, their appearance varies greatly. Trolls are sometimes associated with particular landmarks, which at times may be explained as formed from a troll exposed to sunlight. Trolls are depicted in a variety of media in modern popular culture; the Old Norse nouns troll and tröll and Middle High German troll, trolle "fiend" developed from Proto-Germanic neuter noun *trullan. The origin of the Proto-Germanic word is unknown. Additionally, the Old Norse verb trylla'to enchant, to turn into a troll' and the Middle High German verb trüllen "to flutter" both developed from the Proto-Germanic verb *trulljanan, a derivative of *trullan.

In Norse mythology, like thurs, is a term applied to jötnar and is mentioned throughout the Old Norse corpus. In Old Norse sources, trolls are said to dwell in isolated mountains and caves, sometimes live together, are described as helpful or friendly; the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál describes an encounter between an unnamed troll woman and the 9th-century skald Bragi Boddason. According to the section, Bragi was driving through "a certain forest" late one evening when a troll woman aggressively asked him who he was, in the process describing herself: Bragi responds in turn, describing himself and his abilities as a skillful skald, before the scenario ends. There is much confusion and overlap in the use of Old Norse terms jötunn, troll, þurs, risi, which describe various beings. Lotte Motz theorized that these were four distinct classes of beings: lords of nature, mythical magicians, hostile monsters, heroic and courtly beings, the last class being the youngest addition. On the other hand, Ármann Jakobson is critical of Motz's interpretation and calls this theory "unsupported by any convincing evidence".

Ármann highlights that the term is used to denote various beings, such as a jötunn or mountain-dweller, a witch, an abnormally strong or large or ugly person, an evil spirit, a ghost, a blámaðr, a magical boar, a heathen demi-god, a demon, a brunnmigi, or a berserker. In Scandinavian folklore, trolls become defined as a particular type of being. Numerous tales are recorded about trolls in which they are described as being old strong, but slow and dim-witted, are at times described as man-eaters and as turning to stone upon contact with sunlight. However, trolls are attested as looking much the same as human beings, without any hideous appearance about them, but living far away from human habitation and having "some form of social organization"—unlike the rå and näck, who are attested as "solitary beings". According to John Lindow, what sets them apart is that they are not Christian, those who encounter them do not know them. Therefore, trolls were in the end dangerous, regardless of how well they might get along with Christian society, trolls display a habit of bergtagning and overrunning a farm or estate.

Lindow states that the etymology of the word "troll" remains uncertain, though he defines trolls in Swedish folklore as "nature beings" and as "all-purpose otherworldly being, for example, to fairies in Anglo-Celtic traditions". They "therefore appear in various migratory legends where collective nature-beings are called for". Lindow notes that trolls are sometimes swapped out for cats and "little people" in the folklore record. A Scandinavian folk belief that lightning frightens away trolls and jötnar appears in numerous Scandinavian folktales, may be a late reflection of the god Thor's role in fighting such beings. In connection, the lack of trolls and jötnar in modern Scandinavia is sometimes explained as a result of the "accuracy and efficiency of the lightning strokes". Additionally, the absence of trolls in regions of Scandinavia is described in folklore as being a "consequence of the constant din of the church-bells"; this ring caused the trolls to leave for other lands. Large local stones are sometimes described as the product of a troll's toss.

Additionally, into the 20th century, the origins of particular Scandinavian landmarks, such as particular stones, are ascribed to trolls who may, for example, have turned to stone upon exposure to sunlight. Lindow compares the trolls of the Swedish folk tradition to Grendel, the supernatural mead hall invader in the Old English poem Beowulf, notes that "just as the poem Beowulf emphasizes not the harrying of Grendel but the cleansing of the hall of Beowulf, so the modern tales stress the moment when the trolls are driven off."Smaller trolls are attested as living in burial mounds and in mountains in Scandinavian folk tradition. In Denmark, these creatures are recorded as troldfolk, bjergtrolde, or bjergfolk and in Norway as troldfolk and tusser. Trolls may be described as small, human-like beings or as tall

El Valle de Arroyo Seco, New Mexico

El Valle de Arroyo Seco is a census-designated place in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, United States. It is part of New Mexico Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 1,440 at the 2010 census. El Valle de Arroyo Seco is located at 35°57′49″N 106°1′42″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 5.2 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,149 people, 407 households, 304 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 221.4 people per square mile. There were 438 housing units at an average density of 84.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 60.57% White, 0.61% African American, 1.48% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.17% Pacific Islander, 31.77% from other races, 5.05% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 69.97% of the population. There were 407 households out of which 40.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.8% were married couples living together, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.3% were non-families.

18.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.82 and the average family size was 3.19. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 30.1% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 27.7% from 25 to 44, 24.5% from 45 to 64, 8.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.8 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $33,056, the median income for a family was $42,344. Males had a median income of $40,139 versus $27,596 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $19,712. About 5.7% of families and 6.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.7% of those under age 18 and 4.1% of those age 65 or over. Community website

Bovine adenovirus

Bovine Adenovirus known as BAdV, is a member of the Adenoviridae family that causes disease in cattle. There are 10 serotypes recognised and the virus had a worldwide distribution—being common in Africa and Central America. Infection results in disease of the gastrointestinal or respiratory tract. Infection may cause ocular or generalised signs and may contribute to enzootic pneumonia, depending on the serotype of the virus. However, infection may not always result in disease. Once infected, the cattle shed the virus for 10 days in the respiratory secretions or feces—some cattle may become persistently infected, resulting in excretion of the virus for much longer. Clinical signs are more common in younger animals as the levels of maternal antibodies begin to wane, from as young as two weeks old. Gastrointestinal signs include a reduced appetite and abdominal distension. Respiratory signs include coughing, serous nasal discharge and tachypnea. Signs may worsen; the classical signs of a generalised disease, such as pyrexia, weight loss, weakness and lethargy may be seen.

Sudden death is reported. Definitive diagnosis can only be achieved by measuring a fourfold rise in antibody titre over the course of the disease. Presence of the virus alone cannot confirm diagnosis due to its presence in healthy cattle. Virus isolation is the only way to identify the serotype of the adenovirus. Postmortem examination may reveal lesions in the gastrointestinal or respiratory tract and enlarged lymph nodes. Cattle should be treated symptomatically. Antibiotic treatment may be indicated to prevent secondary infection; the disease can be controlled by ensuring. Management factors such as separating different age groups, providing good ventilation and clean bedding reduce disease incidence. Vaccination of young cattle can reduce the incidence of disease. Multiple doses are required and are combined with other agents; the vaccine is not available worldwide. Bovine Adenovirus and published by WikiVet at Adenovirus, accessed 18/08/2011

Brent Cash

Brent Cash is a singer–songwriter from Athens, Georgia. Cash musical career started as a drummer for several bands, all the while recording his own pop music in his home on a four-track, he released two separate four-track recordings in the 1990s, "Muse Rapture" and "The Most Beautiful Girls In The World Have Unpronounceable Last Names," distributing cassette tapes to friends and acquaintances. In 2008, Cash decided to step up the production levels on his first full-length album, 2008's How Will I Know If I'm Awake. Cash's second album How Strange It Seems was released in Europe on May 27, 2011, was released worldwide on June 7, 2011. Cash released his third album, The New High in January 2017, featuring Cash playing every instrument on the album except for the strings. How Will I Know If I'm Awake is Brent Cash's debut album, recorded with Andy Baker; the songs consists of beachy atmospheres of "I Think I’m Falling In Love" to the ballad "Love Is Burning Down Tonight", a duet with Amanda Kapouzos of Tin Cup Prophette that features a small string orchestra.

The album was released in 2008 on the Marina Records label, garnered positive reviews as a throwback to 60s-era sunshine pop. How Strange It Seems is Brent Cash's second album, recorded with Joel Hatstat. Like Cash's debut album, the songs consist of a wide variety of musical styles; the album was released in Europe on May 2011 on the Marina Records label. The album was released in the U. S. on June 7, 2011. The New High is Brent Cash's third album. Like the previous release, this album was recorded in Ga, with Joel Hatstat; the album showcases all instruments except for the strings. The album was released on January 27, 2017. Muse Rapture The Most Beautiful Girls In The World Have Unpronounceable Last Names 2008: Dear My Friend - Ending theme of Sonic Unleashed released on Planetary Pieces: Sonic World Adventure Original Soundtrack. Brent Cash page Brent Cash on Facebook

Ian Crawford (cricketer)

Ian Cunningham Crawford is a former English cricketer. Crawford was a right-handed batsman, he was born in Bristol. Crawford made his first-class debut for Gloucestershire against Glamorgan in the 1975 County Championship, he made 4 further first-class appearances, the last of which came against the touring New Zealanders in 1978. In his 5 first-class matches, he scored 104 runs at an average of 14.85, with a high score of 73. This score came against Oxford University in 1978. With the ball, he took 3 wickets at a bowling average of 58.00, with best figures of 1/18. He made his List A debut in the 1978 John Player League against Derbyshire, he made a further List A appearance against the same opposition that season in the Benson & Hedges Cup. He was dismissed for a duck in this only innings. Ian Crawford at ESPNcricinfo

Aspects of Christian meditation

Aspects of Christian meditation was the topic of a 15 October 1989 document of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. The document is titled "Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on some aspects of Christian meditation" and is formally known by its incipit, Orationis formas; the document issues warnings on differences, potential incompatibilities, between Christian meditation and the styles of meditation used in eastern religions such as Buddhism. The document warns of fundamental errors in combining Christian and non-Christian styles of meditation. Referring to the constitution Dei verbum the document emphasizes that all Christian prayer and meditation should "proceed to converge on Christ" and be guided by the gift of the Holy Spirit, it reaffirmed that the Church recommends the reading of the Scripture prior to and as a source of Christian prayer and meditation. Similar warnings were issued in 2003 in A Christian reflection on the New Age which characterized New Age activities as incompatible with Christian teachings and values.

This document of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith stresses the differences between Christian and eastern meditative approaches. It warns of the dangers of attempting to mix Christian meditation with eastern approaches since that could be both confusing and misleading, may result in the loss of the essential Christocentric nature of Christian meditation; the letter warns that "euphoric states" obtained through Eastern meditation should not be confused with prayer or assumed to be signs of the presence of God, a state that should always result in loving service to others. Without these truths, the letter said, which should be a flight from the self, can degenerate into a form of self-absorption; the letter warns against concentration on the self, rather than on Christ, states that: Christian prayer... the communion of redeemed creatures with the intimate life of the Persons of the Trinity, based on Baptism and the Eucharist and summit of the life of the Church, implies an attitude of conversion, a flight from "self" to the "You" of God.

Thus Christian prayer is at the same time always authentically communitarian. It flees from impersonal techniques or from concentrating on oneself, which can create a kind of rut; the letter warns that concentration on the physical aspects of meditation "can degenerate into a cult of the body" and that equating bodily states with mysticism "could lead to psychic disturbance and, at times, to moral deviations." The document has seven sections: Pope John Paul II referred to the document in addresses at a general audience in 1999 and to a particular group in 2003, using it as an example of how Christians need to focus their prayers. He referred to it when saying, in the letter with which he marked the closing of the Great Jubilee of the Year 2000, that, by opening our heart to the love of God, prayer opens it to the love of our brothers and sisters, makes us capable of shaping history according to God's plan. In 2003, the Vatican issued further warnings regarding New Age practices including meditation.

Monsignor Michael Fitzgerald stated at the Vatican conference on A Christian Reflection on the New Age that the "Church avoids any concept, close to those of the New Age". Cardinal Paul Poupard, head of the Pontifical Council for Culture, said that the "New Age is a misleading answer to the oldest hopes of man". According to the review of the document in The Tablet "there is never any doubt in the document that New Age is incompatible with and hostile to the core beliefs of Christianity". A Christian reflection on the New Age Christian Meditation Rosary devotions and spirituality Sacred Congregation for Divine Worship Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on some aspects of Christian Meditation – Orationis formas