For the documentary about homeless people, see Trollywood Trollywood is the informal name for a film production facility in Trollhättan Municipality, Sweden. Movies shot there include Fucking Åmål, Dancer in the Dark and Dogville; the movie studio Film i Väst centered. Swedish Film Institute Hollywood-inspired names Hollywood Bollywood Kollywood Nollywood Dhallywood
Dancer in the Dark
Dancer in the Dark is a 2000 musical melodrama film directed by Lars von Trier. It stars Icelandic musician Björk as a daydreaming immigrant factory worker who suffers from a degenerative eye condition and is saving up to pay for an operation to prevent her young son from suffering the same fate. Catherine Deneuve, David Morse, Cara Seymour, Peter Stormare, Siobhan Fallon Hogan and Joel Grey star; the soundtrack for the film, released as the album Selmasongs, was written by Björk, but a number of songs featured contributions from Mark Bell and the lyrics were by von Trier and Sjón. Three songs from Rodgers and Hammerstein's The Sound of Music were used in the film; this is the third film in von Trier's "Golden Heart Trilogy". The film was an international co-production among companies based in thirteen countries and regions: Denmark, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Taiwan, the United Kingdom and the United States, it was shot with a handheld camera, was somewhat inspired by a Dogme 95 look.
Dancer in the Dark premiered at the 2000 Cannes Film Festival to standing ovations and controversy, but was nonetheless awarded the Palme d'Or, along with the Best Actress award for Björk. The song "I've Seen It All", with Thom Yorke, was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Song but lost to "Things Have Changed" by Bob Dylan from Wonder Boys; the film continues to polarize critics, being seen by some as melodramatic and by others as one of the most important films of the 21st century. In Washington state in 1964, Selma Ježková, a Czech immigrant has moved to the United States with her son, Gene Ježek, they live a life of poverty as Selma works at a factory with her good friend Kathy, whom she nicknames Cvalda. She rents a trailer home on the property of his wife Linda, she is pursued by the shy but persistent Jeff, who works at the factory. Selma is losing her vision, she has been saving up to pay for an operation which will prevent her young son from losing his vision. She takes part in rehearsals for a production of The Sound of Music and accompanies Kathy to the local cinema where together they watch fabulous Hollywood musicals, as Cvalda describes them to her.
In her day-to-day life, Selma slips into daydreams. Soon Jeff and Cvalda begin to realize that Selma can see at all. Additionally, Bill reveals to Selma that his materialistic wife Linda spends more than his salary, the bank is going to take his house. To comfort Bill, Selma reveals her eye condition, hoping that together they can keep each other's secret. Bill hides in the corner of Selma's home, knowing she can't see him, watches as she puts some money in her kitchen tin; the next day, after having broken her machine the night before through careless error, Selma is fired from her job. When she comes home to put her final wages away she finds. Knowing that Bill was broke and that the money he is counting must be hers, she confronts him and attempts to take the money back, he draws a gun on her, in a struggle he is wounded. Linda runs off to tell the police at Bill's command. Bill begs Selma to take his life, telling her that this will be the only way she will reclaim the money that he stole from her.
Selma shoots at him several times. In the end, she performs a coup de grâce with the safe deposit box. Selma slips into a trance and imagines that Bill's corpse stands up and slow dances with her, urging her to run to freedom, she does, takes the money to the Institute for the Blind to pay for her son's operation before the police can take it from her. Selma is caught and put on trial, it is here that she is pegged as murderess. Although she tells as much truth about the situation as she can, she refuses to reveal Bill's secret, saying that she had promised not to. Additionally, when her claim that the reason she didn't have any money was because she had been sending it to her father in Czechoslovakia is proven false, she is convicted and given the death penalty. Cvalda and Jeff put the pieces of the puzzle together and get back Selma's money, using it instead to pay for a trial lawyer who can free her. Selma becomes furious and refuses the lawyer, opting to face the death penalty rather than let her son go blind, but she is distraught as she awaits her death.
Although a sympathetic female prison guard named Brenda tries to comfort her, the other state officials are eager to see her executed. Brenda encourages Selma to walk. On the gallows, she becomes terrified, her hysteria when the hood is placed over her face delays the execution. Selma begins crying hysterically and Brenda cries with her, but Cvalda rushes to inform her that the operation was successful and that Gene will see. Relieved, Selma sings the final song on the gallows with no musical accompaniment, although she is hanged before she finishes. Much of the film has a similar look to von Trier's earlier Dogme 95-influenced films: it is filmed on low-end, hand-held digital cameras to create a documentary-style appearance, it is not a true Dogme 95 film, because the Dogme rules stipulate that violence, non-diegetic music, period pieces are not permitted. Trier differentiates the musical sequences from the rest of the film by using static cameras and by brightening the colours; the film's title suggests the Fred Astaire/Cyd Chariss
Trollhättan Falls is a waterfall in the Göta river in Sweden. The falls starts at Malgö Bridge in central Trollhättan, has a total height of 32 metres, making up a large part of the 44 metre total fall of the river from Vänern to Kattegat. Before the hydroelectric powerplants was built the discharge of the falls was 900 m³/s, the falls stretched down to Olidehålan, where the lower part of the fall was called Helvetesfallet. Today the river is allowed through its original course only at special occasions, to regulate the waterlevels of Vänern or as a tourist attraction, such as during the Fallens dagar, arranged on the third Friday of July every year; the discharge is 300 m³/s. Most of the time the falls are used in the hydroelectric powerplants Håjum and Olidan on the eastern banks of the river. Vastsverige.com Media related to Trollhättan Falls at Wikimedia Commons
2017 Bandy World Championship
2017 Bandy World Championship was the 37th Bandy World Championship and was held in Sweden. The games in Division A were played in Göransson Arena in 29 January to 5 February; the games of Division B were played in Slättbergshallen in Trollhättan, 24–28 January. Eight nations competed in Division A. Eleven were scheduled to play in Division B, which would have been an all-time high of nineteen. However, Latvia did not compete thus the record set at the 2016 tournament was matched. All times are local. Belarus will be playing in Division B in the 2018 Bandy World Championship. Matches in Group B are 60 minutes in duration rather than the standard 90 minutes. Canada will be playing in Division A in the 2018 Bandy World Championship. Russia: Match TV Sweden: Kanal 5, Eurosport 2 Official site Division A Official site Division B
A troll is a class of being in Norse mythology and Scandinavian folklore. In Old Norse sources, beings described as trolls dwell in isolated rocks, mountains, or caves, live together in small family units, are helpful to human beings. In Scandinavian folklore, trolls became beings in their own right, where they live far from human habitation, are not Christianized, are considered dangerous to human beings. Depending on the source, their appearance varies greatly. Trolls are sometimes associated with particular landmarks, which at times may be explained as formed from a troll exposed to sunlight. Trolls are depicted in a variety of media in modern popular culture; the Old Norse nouns troll and tröll and Middle High German troll, trolle "fiend" developed from Proto-Germanic neuter noun *trullan. The origin of the Proto-Germanic word is unknown. Additionally, the Old Norse verb trylla'to enchant, to turn into a troll' and the Middle High German verb trüllen "to flutter" both developed from the Proto-Germanic verb *trulljanan, a derivative of *trullan.
In Norse mythology, like thurs, is a term applied to jötnar and is mentioned throughout the Old Norse corpus. In Old Norse sources, trolls are said to dwell in isolated mountains and caves, sometimes live together, are described as helpful or friendly; the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál describes an encounter between an unnamed troll woman and the 9th-century skald Bragi Boddason. According to the section, Bragi was driving through "a certain forest" late one evening when a troll woman aggressively asked him who he was, in the process describing herself: Bragi responds in turn, describing himself and his abilities as a skillful skald, before the scenario ends. There is much confusion and overlap in the use of Old Norse terms jötunn, troll, þurs, risi, which describe various beings. Lotte Motz theorized that these were four distinct classes of beings: lords of nature, mythical magicians, hostile monsters, heroic and courtly beings, the last class being the youngest addition. On the other hand, Ármann Jakobson is critical of Motz's interpretation and calls this theory "unsupported by any convincing evidence".
Ármann highlights that the term is used to denote various beings, such as a jötunn or mountain-dweller, a witch, an abnormally strong or large or ugly person, an evil spirit, a ghost, a blámaðr, a magical boar, a heathen demi-god, a demon, a brunnmigi, or a berserker. In Scandinavian folklore, trolls become defined as a particular type of being. Numerous tales are recorded about trolls in which they are described as being old strong, but slow and dim-witted, are at times described as man-eaters and as turning to stone upon contact with sunlight. However, trolls are attested as looking much the same as human beings, without any hideous appearance about them, but living far away from human habitation and having "some form of social organization"—unlike the rå and näck, who are attested as "solitary beings". According to John Lindow, what sets them apart is that they are not Christian, those who encounter them do not know them. Therefore, trolls were in the end dangerous, regardless of how well they might get along with Christian society, trolls display a habit of bergtagning and overrunning a farm or estate.
Lindow states that the etymology of the word "troll" remains uncertain, though he defines trolls in Swedish folklore as "nature beings" and as "all-purpose otherworldly being, for example, to fairies in Anglo-Celtic traditions". They "therefore appear in various migratory legends where collective nature-beings are called for". Lindow notes that trolls are sometimes swapped out for cats and "little people" in the folklore record. A Scandinavian folk belief that lightning frightens away trolls and jötnar appears in numerous Scandinavian folktales, may be a late reflection of the god Thor's role in fighting such beings. In connection, the lack of trolls and jötnar in modern Scandinavia is sometimes explained as a result of the "accuracy and efficiency of the lightning strokes". Additionally, the absence of trolls in regions of Scandinavia is described in folklore as being a "consequence of the constant din of the church-bells"; this ring caused the trolls to leave for other lands. Large local stones are sometimes described as the product of a troll's toss.
Additionally, into the 20th century, the origins of particular Scandinavian landmarks, such as particular stones, are ascribed to trolls who may, for example, have turned to stone upon exposure to sunlight. Lindow compares the trolls of the Swedish folk tradition to Grendel, the supernatural mead hall invader in the Old English poem Beowulf, notes that "just as the poem Beowulf emphasizes not the harrying of Grendel but the cleansing of the hall of Beowulf, so the modern tales stress the moment when the trolls are driven off."Smaller trolls are attested as living in burial mounds and in mountains in Scandinavian folk tradition. In Denmark, these creatures are recorded as troldfolk, bjergtrolde, or bjergfolk and in Norway as troldfolk and tusser. Trolls may be described as small, human-like beings or as tall
GKN plc is a British multinational automotive and aerospace components company headquartered in Redditch, Worcestershire. The company was known as Guest and Nettlefolds and can trace its origins to 1759 and the birth of the Industrial Revolution; the origins of GKN lie in the founding of the Dowlais Ironworks in the village of Dowlais, Merthyr Tydfil, Wales, by Thomas Lewis and Isaac Wilkinson. John Guest was appointed manager of the works in 1767. In 1786 Guest was succeeded by his son, Thomas Guest, who formed the Dowlais Iron Company with his son-in-law William Taitt. Guest introduced the works prospered. Under Guest's leadership, alongside his manager John Evans, after his death in 1852 that of his wife Lady Charlotte Guest, the Dowlais Ironworks gained the reputation of being "one of the World's great industrial concerns". Though the Bessemer process was licensed in 1856, nine years of detailed planning and project management were needed before the first steel was produced; the company thrived with its new cost-effective production methods, forming alliances with the Consett Iron Company and Krupp.
By 1857 G. T. Clark and William Menelaus, his manager, had constructed the "Goat Mill", the world's most powerful rolling mill. By the mid-1860s, Clark's reforms had borne fruit in renewed profitability. Clark delegated day-to-day management to Menelaus, his trusteeship terminating in 1864 when ownership passed to Sir Ivor Guest. Clark continued to direct policy, building a new plant at the docks at Cardiff and vetoing a joint-stock company, he formally retired in 1897. On 9 July 1900, the Dowlais Iron Company and Arthur Keen's Patent Nut and Bolt Company merged to form Guest, Keen & Co. Ltd. Nettlefolds Limited, a leading manufacturer of fasteners, established in Smethwick, West Midlands in 1854, was acquired in 1902 leading to the change of name to Guest and Nettlefolds -. In 1920 John Lysaght and Co. was acquired. Steel production remained under increasing profit margin pressure. In 1930 the company combined its steel production business with that of rival Baldwins to form Guest Keen Baldwins, which now held: Baldwins: Coke ovens at Margam.
Due to a resultant global shortage of pig iron, in 1937 the company fired-up the single remaining blast furnace at Dowlais. All of the sites were bombed by the Nazi Luftwaffe during the war, the required investment meant that all of these assets were nationalised as part of the 1951 Iron and Steel Act, resultantly becoming part of the Iron and Steel Corporation of Great Britain. GKN were still reliant on the supply of good quality steel, so in 1954 negotiated from the asset realisation company the repurchase of key assets from ISC, which were renamed Guest Keen Iron and Steel Co. In 1961 the company's name changed again to GKN Steel Company; these mergers heralded half a century in which GKN became a major manufacturer of screws, nuts and other fasteners. The company reflected the vertical integration fashionable at the time embracing activities from coal and ore extraction, iron and steel making to manufacturing finished goods. After the First World War it became apparent that Britain was to follow France and more the United States in developing a large scale auto-industry.
GKN acquired another fastener manufacturer, F. W. Cotterill Ltd. in 1919. Cotterill owned; the forgings produced at the Garrington Darlaston plant supplemented by a large plant at Bromsgrove, enabled GKN to become a major supplier of crankshafts, connecting rods, half-shafts and numerous smaller forged components to the UK auto-industry during and beyond the period of massive expansion between the two world wars. In 1920, GKN purchased their subsidiary, Joseph Sankey and Sons Ltd.. After training as an engineer, Sankey founded a major tea tray producer. A pioneer motorist, he became friends with Herbert Austin, becoming a supplier of sheet steel components to the industry. By 1914, the company's customers for sheet steel bodies included Austin, Humber, Rover and Argyll. Due to complaints from motor manufacturers about the propensity of the then-wooden wheels on early cars to disintegrate on the slightest encounter with any roadside kerb, using his experience from tea trays Sankey developed an alternate pressed-steel wheel.
Production started in 1908, with customers including Herbert Austin and William Morris. In addition to his original factory at Bilston a new plant was established near Wellington, devoted to wheel production. By the time the business was acquired by GKN, the plant was supplying wheels to many UK manufacturers. By 1969 the highly-automated Wellington plant was producing over 5½ million wheels a year at a maximum rate of 30,000 per day; the business undertook other automotive related works, including supplying the chassis for the Triumph Herald and its derivatives. They were at this time building the versatile GKN developed GKN FV432 armoured personnel carrier; the postwar government nationalised the steel industry under Iron and Steel Corporation of Great Britain. The act of parliament of 1949 took effect in February 1951. In 1951, a new subsidiary Blade Research & Development was formed at Aldridge, Staffordshire, to produce aero
Provinces of Sweden
The provinces of Sweden are historical and cultural regions. Sweden has 25 provinces and they have no administrative function, but remain historical legacies and the means of cultural identification. Dialects and folklore rather follows the provincial borders than the borders of the counties. Several of them were subdivisions of Sweden until 1634, when they were replaced by the counties of Sweden; some were conquered on from Denmark–Norway. Others, like the provinces of Finland, were lost. Lapland is the only province acquired through colonization. In some cases, the administrative counties correspond exactly to the provinces, as is Blekinge to Blekinge County and Gotland, a province, county and a municipality. While not corresponding with the province, Härjedalen Municipality is beside Gotland the only municipality named after a province. In other cases, they do not, which enhances the cultural importance of the provinces. In addition, the administrative units are subject to continuous changes–several new counties were for instance created in the 1990s–while the provinces have had their historical borders outlined for centuries.
Since 1884 all the provinces are ceremonial duchies, but as such have no administrative or political functions. The provinces of Sweden are still used in colloquial speech and cultural references, can therefore not be regarded as an archaic concept; the main exception is Lapland where the population see themselves as a part of Västerbotten or Norrbotten, based on the counties. Two other exceptions are Stockholm and Gothenburg, where the population see themselves as living in the city, not in a province, since both cities have province borders through them. English and other languages use Latin names as alternatives to the Swedish names; the name Scania for Skåne predominates in English. Some purely English exonyms, such as the Dales for Dalarna, East Gothland for Östergötland, Swedish Lapland for Lappland and West Bothnia for Västerbotten are common in English literature. Swedes writing in English have long used Swedish-language name forms only; the origins of the provincial divisions lay in the petty kingdoms that became more and more subjected to the rule of the Kings of Sweden during the consolidation of Sweden.
Until the country law of Magnus Ericson in 1350, each of these lands still had its own laws with its own assembly, in effect governed themselves. The historical provinces were considered duchies, but newly conquered provinces added to the kingdom either received the status of a duchy or a county, depending on their individual importance. After the separation from the Kalmar Union in 1523 the Kingdom incorporated only some of its new conquests as provinces; the most permanent acquisitions stemmed from the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, in which the former Danish Scanian lands – the provinces of Skåne, Blekinge and Gotland – along with the Norwegian Bohuslän, Jämtland and Härjedalen, became Swedish and integrated. Other foreign territories were ruled as Swedish Dominions under the Swedish monarch, in some cases for two or three centuries. Norway, in personal union with Sweden from 1814 to 1905, never became an integral part of Sweden; the division of Västerbotten that took place with the cession of Finland caused Norrbotten to emerge as a county, to be recognized as a province in its own right.
It was granted a coat of arms as late as in 1995. Some scholars suggest. Sweden was seen as containing four "lands": Götaland Svealand Österland Norrland In the Viking age and earlier, Götaland and Svealand consisted of a number of petty kingdoms that were more or less independent; the leading tribe of Götaland in the Iron Age was the Geats. "Norrland" was the overall denomination for all of the unexplored northern parts, the outward boundaries of which and control by the Swedish king were weakly defined into the early modern age. Österland in southern and central Finland formed an integral part of Sweden. In 1809 Finland was annexed by Russia, reunited with some frontier counties annexed several decades earlier to form the Grand Duchy of Finland, becoming in 1917 the independent country of Finland; the borders of these regions have changed several times throughout history, adapting to changes in national borders, Norrland, Svealand and Götaland are only parts of Sweden and have never superseded the concept of the provinces.
At the funeral of King Gustav Vasa in 1560 some early versions of coats of arms for 23 of the provinces listed below were displayed together for the first time, most of them having been created for that particular occasion. Erik XIV of Sweden modeled the funeral processions for Gustav Vasa on the continental renaissance funerals of influential German dukes, who in turn may have styled their display of power on Charles V's funeral procession, where flags were used to represent each entry in the long list of titles of the dead. Having only three flags as a representation of the entities Svealand, Götaland and Wends mentioned in Vasa's title, "King of Sweden, the Goths and the Wends", would have been diminutive in comparison with the pompous displays of ducal power on the continent, so flags were promptly created to represent each of the provinces. At the funer