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Trombone

The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. As on all brass instruments, sound is produced when the player's vibrating lips cause the air column inside the instrument to vibrate. Unlike most other brass instruments, which have valves that - when pressed - alter the pitch of the instrument, trombones instead have a telescoping slide mechanism that varies the length of the instrument to change the pitch. Many modern trombone models use a valve attachment to lower the pitch of the instrument. Variants such as the valve trombone and superbone have three valves similar to those on the trumpet; the word "trombone" derives from Italian tromba and -one, so the name means "large trumpet". The trombone has a predominantly cylindrical bore like its valved counterpart, the baritone, in contrast to its conical valved counterparts: the cornet, the euphonium, the French horn; the most encountered trombones are the tenor trombone and bass trombone. The most common variant, the tenor, is a non-transposing instrument pitched in B♭, an octave below the B♭ trumpet and an octave above the pedal B♭ tuba.

The once common E♭ alto trombone became less used as improvements in technique extended the upper range of the tenor, but it is now resurging due to its lighter sonority, appreciated in many classical and early romantic works. Trombone music is written in concert pitch in either bass or tenor clef, although exceptions do occur, notably in British brass-band music where the tenor trombone is presented as a B♭ transposing instrument, written in treble clef. A person who plays the trombone is called a trombone player; the trombone is a predominantly cylindrical tube bent into an elongated "S" shape. Rather than being cylindrical from end to end, the tube is a complex series of tapers with the smallest at the mouthpiece receiver and the largest just before the bell flare; the design of these tapers affects the intonation of the instrument. As with other brass instruments, sound is produced by blowing air through pursed lips producing a vibration that creates a standing wave in the instrument; the detachable cup-shaped mouthpiece is similar to that of the baritone horn and related to that of the trumpet.

It has the venturi: a small constriction of the air column that adds resistance affecting the tone of the instrument and is inserted into the mouthpiece receiver in the slide section. The slide section consists of a leadpipe, the inner and outer slide tubes, the bracing, or "stays". Modern stays are soldered, while sackbuts were made with unsoldered stays. The'slide', the most distinctive feature of the trombone, allows the player to extend the length of the air column, lowering the pitch. To prevent friction from slowing the action of the slide, additional sleeves known as stockings were developed during the Renaissance; these "stockings" were soldered onto the ends of the inner slide tubes. Nowadays, the stockings are incorporated into the manufacturing process of the inner slide tubes and represent a fractional widening of the tube to accommodate the necessary method of alleviating friction; this part of the slide must be lubricated frequently. Additional tubing connects the slide to the bell of the instrument through a neckpipe, bell or back bow.

The joint connecting the slide and bell sections is furnished with a threaded collar to secure the connection of the two parts of the instrument, though older models from the early 20th century and before were equipped with friction joints and no ancillary mechanism to tighten the joint. The adjustment of intonation is most accomplished with a short tuning slide between the neckpipe and the bell incorporating the bell bow. However, unlike other instrumentalists, are not subject to the intonation issues resulting from valved or keyed instruments, since they can adjust intonation "on the fly" by subtly altering slide positions when necessary. For example, second position "A" is not in the same place on the slide as second position "E". Many types of trombone include one or more rotary valves used to increase the length of the instrument by directing the air flow through additional tubing; this allows the instrument to reach notes that are otherwise not possible without the valve as well as play other notes in alternate positions.

Like the trumpet, the trombone is considered a cylindrical bore instrument since it has extensive sections of tubing, principally in the slide section, that are of unchanging diameter. Tenor trombones have a bore of 0.450 inches to 0.547 inches after the leadpipe and through the slide. The bore expands through the gooseneck to the bell, between 7 and 8 1⁄2 inches. A number of common variations on trombone construction are noted below. "Trombone" comes from the Italian word tromba plus the suffix -one, meaning "big trumpet". During the Renaissance, the equivalent English term was "sackbut"; the word first appears in court records in 1495 as "shakbusshe" at about the time King Henry VII married a Portuguese princess who brought musicians with her. "Shakbusshe" is similar to "sacabuche", attested in Spain as early as 1478. The French equivalent "saqueboute" appears in 1466; the German "Posaune" long predates the invention of the slide and could refer to

Maciste

Maciste is one of the oldest recurring characters in cinema, created by Gabriele d'Annunzio and Giovanni Pastrone. He cuts a heroic figure throughout the history of the cinema of Italy from the 1910s to the mid-1960s, he is depicted as a Hercules-like figure, utilizing his massive strength to achieve heroic feats that ordinary men cannot. Many of the 1960s Italian films featuring Maciste were retitled in other countries, substituting more popular names in the titles. There are a number of references to the name in literature; the name of Maciste appears in a sentence in Strabo's Geography, in which he writes: ἐν δὲ τῷ μεταξὺ τό τε τοῦ Μακιστίου Ἡρακλέους ἱερόν ἐστι καὶ ὁ Ἀκίδων ποταμός — "And in the middle is the temple of the Macistian Heracles, the river Acidon." The epithet Μακίστιος is understood to be an adjective referring to a town called Μάκιστος in the province of Triphylia in Elis. In the first volume of the Dizionario universale archeologico-artistico-technologico Macistius is given as one among several epithets of Hercules.

In the second volume of the same dictionary this name appears Italianized as Maciste, defined as uno dei soprannomi d'Ercole. According to William Smith's A Dictionary of Greek and Roman mythology, Macistus was "a surname of Heracles, who had a temple in the neighbourhood of the town of Macistus in Triphylia". Makistos was the third child of Athamas and Nephele, according to the Greek mythology. In the original draft outline of the 1914 film Cabiria by director Giovanni Pastrone, the muscular hero's name had been Ercole. In the revised script, writer Gabriele d'Annunzio gave the character the name Maciste, which he understood to be an erudite synonym for Hercules. By writers using the character the original etymology was forgotten, a folk etymology was constructed based on the name's superficial similarity to the Italian word macigno "large stone". Maciste made his debut in the 1914 Italian silent movie classic Cabiria. Cabiria was a story about a slave named Maciste, involved in the rescue of a Roman princess named Cabiria from an evil Carthaginian priest who plotted to sacrifice her to the cruel god Moloch.

The film was based loosely on Salammbo, a historical novel by Gustave Flaubert, had a plot and screenplay by Gabriele D'Annunzio. Maciste's debut set the tone for his adventures. Including Cabiria itself, there have been at least 52 movies featuring Maciste, 27 of them being pre-1927 silent films starring Bartolomeo Pagano and the other 25 being a series of sound and color films produced in the early 1960s. Typical plots involve tyrannical rulers who practice worship evil gods; the young woman, the love interest runs afoul of the evil ruler. Maciste, who possesses superhuman strength, must rescue her. There is a rightful king who wants to overthrow the evil usurper, as well as a belly dance scene. There is an evil queen who has carnal designs on the hero; these films were set in locales including Mongolia, Peru and the Roman Empire. As a character, Maciste had two distinct moments in the spotlight; the first was in the Italian silent movie period, in which the original Maciste from Cabiria, the muscular actor Bartolomeo Pagano, starred in a series of at least 26 sequels over the period from 1915 through 1926.

Decades Maciste was revived by Italian filmmakers for a series of 25 sound films. The Bartolomeo Pagano silent Maciste films established the character as someone who could appear at any place and at any time; some of the earlier ones, made during World War I, had the distinct flavour of propaganda, cast the hero in the role of a soldier. Films in the series return to fantasy, but the fantasy was not always mythological. Maciste appears in contemporary settings, or in the afterlife, his character and his plots remained consistent in whatever setting. The character was revived in the 1960s. In 1957, Steve Reeves' Hercules, an Italian production, created a minor boom in Italian dramas featuring American bodybuilders in vaguely mythological or classical historical subjects. Maciste was the hero in 25 of these films. Other films starred such heroes as Ursus, Samson and Goliath. Maciste was never given an origin, the source of his mighty powers was never revealed, nor was he confined to one specific time period or setting in his adventures.

However, in the first of the 1960s Maciste films, he mentions to another character that the name "Maciste" means "born of the rock". One of the 1920s silent Maciste films was entitled "The Giant from the Dolomite". Hence it is hinted; this sword and sandal fad continued for about six years, until the new fad for spaghetti Westerns and spy films took over the attention of th

Enz Valley Railway

The Enz Valley Railway is a 23.6 km long railway line in the northern part of the Black Forest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. The line runs from Pforzheim for its course runs close to the River Enz; the line was opened by the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railway on 11 June 1868 and is one of the oldest railways in Germany. It is now integrated into the Karlsruhe Stadtbahn as line S 6; the Enz Valley line is located in the northern Black Forest and the entire line runs along the Enz river. From Pforzheim Central Station to Brötzingen Wohnlichstraße it runs within the limits of the city of Pforzheim, from Birkenfeld to Neuenbürg Eyachbrücke it runs through Enzkreis and the rest of the line runs through the Calw district, it runs through the five municipalities of Pforzheim, Neuenbürg, Höfen an der Enz and Bad Wildbad. The line begins in Pforzheim station, where there are connections to the line from Karlsruhe to Mühlacker. Since 2002, the Enz Valley Railway has run together with the Nagold Valley Railway from to Horb on a two-track line through Pforzheim to Brötzingen Mitte station.

The two lines had run parallel as independent single-track lines. From Brötzingen the line follows the valley of the Enz through Birkenfeld, Neuenbürg, Höfen an der Enz to Calmbach and the valley of the Großen Enz to Bad Wildbad. In Neuenbürg the line twice crosses the Enz and passes under Schlossberg through a 135-metre-long tunnel. At its penultimate stop in Bad Wildbad, the S6 connects with the Sommerbergbahn funicular railway; the line to Bad Wildbad is equipped with the 15 kV AC overhead electrification system used by Deutsche Bahn. The extension of the line from Bad Wildbad station through the town of Bad Wildbad is electrified as a tramway with 750 V DC; the terminus of the line is located at the entrance to the spa. The Kingdom of Württemberg had been planning to build a railway to Wildbad from the 1850s. During the construction of the Württemberg Western Railway from Stuttgart to Bruchsal and the construction of the connecting line from Pforzheim via Mühlacker to Karlsruhe by the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railway, the possibility of building a railway into the Enz valley was considered.

The reason for this comparatively early planning was the former importance of Bad Wildbad as a spa, favoured by the kings of Württemberg. The construction of the railway line would make the journey of aristocrats as pleasant as possible and promote the importance of Bad Wildbad as a fashionable resort. There was a problem, however, in that the limitations of railway technology at the time meant that the line through the Enz valley could only run through Pforzheim, in the Grand Duchy of Baden, so a treaty between Württemberg and Baden was necessary to regulate the construction of the railway. Württemberg secured the right to build the Enz Valley Railway and Nagold Valley Railway through Pforzheim station in 1863. In return the Baden government was able to build the line from Karlsruhe to Mühlacker, where it would connect with the Western Railway to Stuttgart, thus the government of Württemberg introduced two bills on 26 April 1858 that would ensure the construction of the railway from Pforzheim to Wildbad.

These were enacted on 17 November 1858. The construction work began in 1865 under the leadership of Carl Julius Abel; the Royal Württemberg State Railways built a separate wing of Pforzheim station southwest of the facilities of the Baden State Railways. At the same time construction work began on the planned Nagold Valley Railway from Pforzheim to Calw, with the track formation prepared for two tracks, with the northern path reserved for the Enz Valley Railway and the southern path reserved for the Nagold Valley Railway. On 11 June 1868, the Enz Railway was opened, following several trial runs during the previous two months, it was isolated from the rest of the network of the Württemberg State Railways: passengers from Stuttgart to Bad Wildbad had to use services of the Baden State Railways between Mühlacker and Pforzheim. Only the opening of the Nagold Valley Railway in 1874 allowed an alternative connection from Stuttgart via Weil der Stadt, Calw and Brötzingen to Bad Wildbad; this was a more difficult route than the line via Mühlacker and its only advantage from Württemberg’s perspective was that it ran only through Wurttemberg, although in Brötzingen it ran for a few kilometres close to Baden territory.

To facilitate these trips a connecting curve was built between the Enz and Nagold Valley Railways bypassing Brötzingen station. In the first decades of its existence, the market developed positively on the Enz Valley Railway, several prominent guests of the resort—for example, in 1903 Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands—travelled by train for a cure at Wildbad. In addition to the carriage of passengers to Bad Wildbad, trains including at times expresses, were used to carry freight on the final section of the route; the transport of wood and wood products was important. The most important customers for freight for decades were the Krauth & Co. sawmill at the former Rotenbach station and the timber yard in the Eyach valley. As Neuenbürg lies on a sweeping bend of the Enz and the line cuts through the neck of the bend in a tunnel, Neuenbürg station was built to the northeast of the town. To improve the accessibility of the line to Neuenbürg, Neuenbürg Stadt halt was opened southeast of the town on 6 August 1909.

In the following years there were plans to duplicate the railway between Calmbach and Wildbad, but their realisation was prevented by the outbreak of World War I. After the First World War, the route was