Trondheim Kaupangen and Trondhjem, is a city and municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway. It has a population of 199,039, is the third most populous municipality in Norway, although the fourth largest urban area. Trondheim lies on the south shore of Trondheim Fjord at the mouth of the River Nidelva; the city is dominated by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, the Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research, St. Olavs University Hospital and other technology-oriented institutions; the settlement was founded in 997 as a trading post, it served as the capital of Norway during the Viking Age until 1217. From 1152 to 1537, the city was the seat of the Catholic Archdiocese of Nidaros, it was incorporated in 1838. The current municipality dates from 1964, when Trondheim merged with Byneset, Leinstrand and Tiller; the city functions as the seat of the County Mayor of Trøndelag county, but not as the administrative centre, Steinkjer. This is to make the county more efficient and not too centralized, as Trøndelag is the second largest county in Norway.
The city was given the name by Olav Tryggvason. It was for a long time called Niðaróss in the Old Norse spelling, but it was just called kaupangr or, more kaupangr í Þróndheimi. In the late Middle Ages people started to call the city just Þróndheimr. In the Dano-Norwegian period, during the years as a provincial town in the united kingdoms of Denmark–Norway, the city name was spelled Trondhjem. Following the example set by the renaming of the capital Kristiania to Oslo, Nidaros was reintroduced as the official name of the city for a brief period from 1 January 1930 until 6 March 1931; the name was restored in order to reaffirm the city's link with its glorious past, despite the fact that a 1928 referendum on the name of the city had resulted in 17,163 votes in favour of Trondhjem and only 1,508 votes in favour of Nidaros. Public outrage in the same year taking the form of riots, forced the Storting to settle for the medieval city name Trondheim; the name of the diocese was, changed from Trondhjem stift to Nidaros bispedømme in 1918.
Trondheim was named Drontheim during the Second World War, as a German exonym. Trondheimen indicates the area around Trondheim Fjord; the spelling Trondhjem was rejected, but many still prefer that spelling of the city's name. For the ecclesiastical history, see Archiepiscopate of NidarosTrondheim was named Kaupangen by Viking King Olav Tryggvason in 997 CE. Shortly thereafter it came to be called Nidaros. In the beginning it was used as a military retainer of King Olav I, it was used as the seat of the king, was the capital of Norway until 1217. People have been living in the region for thousands of years as evidenced by the rock carvings in central Norway, the Nøstvet and Lihult cultures and the Corded Ware culture. In ancient times, the Kings of Norway were hailed at Øretinget in Trondheim, the place for the assembly of all free men by the mouth of the River Nidelva. Harald Fairhair was hailed as the king here, as was his son, Haakon I, called'the Good'; the battle of Kalvskinnet took place in Trondheim in 1179: King Sverre Sigurdsson and his Birkebeiner warriors were victorious against Erling Skakke.
Some scholars believe that the famous Lewis chessmen, 12th century chess pieces carved from walrus ivory found in the Hebrides and now at the British Museum, may have been made in Trondheim. Trondheim was the seat of the Archbishop of Nidaros for Norway from 1152, who operated from the Archbishop's Palace. Due to the introduction of Lutheran Protestantism in 1537, the last Archbishop, Olav Engelbrektsson, had to flee from the city to the Netherlands, where he died in present-day Lier, Belgium; the city has experienced several major fires. Since much of the city was made of wooden buildings, many of the fires caused severe damage. Great fires ravaged the city in 1598, 1651, 1681, 1708, twice in 1717, 1742, 1788, 1841 and 1842; the 1651 fire destroyed 90% of all buildings within the city limits. The fire in 1681 led to an total reconstruction of the city, overseen by General Johan Caspar von Cicignon from Luxembourg. Broad avenues like Munkegata were created, with no regard for property rights, in order to stop the next fire.
At the time, the city had a population of under 10,000 inhabitants, with most living in the downtown area. After the Treaty of Roskilde on 26 February 1658, Trondheim and the rest of Trøndelag, became Swedish territory for a brief period, but the area was reconquered 10 months later; the conflict was settled by the Treaty of Copenhagen on 27 May 1660. During the Second World War, Trondheim was occupied by Nazi Germany from 9 April 1940, the first day of the invasion of Norway, until the end of the war in Europe, 8 May 1945; the German invasion force consisted of the German cruiser Admiral Hipper, 4 destroyers and 1700 Austrian Mountain troops. Other than a coastal battery opening fire, there was no resistance to the invasion on 9 April at 5 AM. On 14 and 17 April and French forces landed near Trondheim in a failed attempt to liberate Trondheim as part of the Namsos Campaign. During the occupation, Trondheim was the home of the n
The Welsh National Water Development Authority and the Welsh Water Authority was one of ten regional water authorities set up in the UK and came into existence on 6 August 1973 with its headquarters in Brecon. by virtue of the Water Act 1973 It took over the sewerage and sewage disposal responsibilities of the local authorities within its area, the roles and responsibilities of the six existing River Authorities in Wales and most of the water supply undertakings.: It brought together all the sewage disposal and sewerage functions from the following local authorities: Anglesey County Council Cardiff County Borough Council Carmarthen Borough Council Carmarthen Rural District Council Ceiriog Rural District Council Cwmamman Urban District Council Llandeilo Urban District Council Llandeilo Rural District Council Llandovery Borough Council Maelor Rural District Council Wrexham Rural District Council. It took over the water supply functions held by local authorities in Wales which were: Bwrdd Dŵr Eryri Cardiganshire Water Board Central Flintshire Water Board Conway Valley Water Board Gwent Water Board Herefordshire Water Board Llanelli and District Water Board Loughor Joint Water Board Merioneth Water Board Mid-Glamorgan Water Board Pembrokeshire Water Board Radnorshire and North Breconshire Water Board South-East Breconshire Water Board Taf Fechan Water Board West Denbighshire and West Flintshire Water Board West Glamorgan Water BoardPrivate water companies such as Chester Water and Wrexham Water Company were excluded and continued in operation.
It subsumed all the functions of the six River Authorities in Wales - the Wye River Authority, the Usk River Authority, the Glamorgan River Authority, the South West Wales River Authority, the Gwynedd River Authority and the Dee and Clwyd River Authority. The boundary of WNWDA was identical to that of the constituent River Authorities and included parts of England in both the River Wye and River Dee catchments. At inception, WNWDA was organised in units, thus sewerage and sewage disposal was organised into a number of Sewage Divisions, water supply was formed into a number of Water Divisions and River Divisions matching the roles and boundaries of the previous River Authorities were created. In 1984 a major re-structuring brought all the functions together in 3 multidisciplinary Divisions, with a headquarters in Brecon; these were the South Eastern Division based in Nelson, South Western Division based in Haverfordwest, the Northern Division based in Bangor. There were sub-offices located in Hereford, Swansea, Lampeter,Caernarfon and Mold.
At the time of this re-organisation the name of the authority changed to Welsh Water Authority. The authority was governed by a board which included representatives from Local Authorities, central government and the major industries in Wales including Agriculture; the chairman appointed by the government of the day was Lord Brecon but he was replaced by T. M. Haydn Rees in 1976 and by John Elfed Jones in 1982
Dena Mwana is a gospel singer and composer from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Mwana was born in Kinshasa on 27 December, she is the sixth child, from a family of eight children. Mwana began singing in public as part of a church choir, "Notre dame de Grâce", in Kinshasa at the age of 13 and she was their music director by the age of 18. In 1998, the choir rose to prominence over a patriotic hymn, copied by schools across the DRC, making her vocal style well-known across the country. In 2003, the Professor of Music at the National Institute of the Arts, Rigobert Mbila, suggested that Mwana set up her own singing group. By 2004, her first band, Acapella Thematic Musical Group, was born. In 2006, Mwana emigrated to the United States to pursue a career in gospel music, settling in Virginia. From 2008, Mwana decided to split her time between the US and the DRC, joining the Philadelphia Mission Choir in Kinshasa as cantor, her Christian faith is central to her singing and performance. Mwana has released two albums and Monene, several singles, which include: "See-Yo" "Holy Spirit" "Breath" In 2019, she left the Happy People label, was signed by Motown Gospel.
She sings in Lingala. Mwana's voice has led her to perform in more than sixteen countries around the world; some of those places include: Mohammed V National Theatre in Rabat, Morocco Hotel La Falaise in Yaoundé, Cameroon Fragrance of Worship in Bujumbura, Burundi Grand Théâtre in Dakar, Senegal Mwana has been a winner and nominee at the African Gospel Music Awards. 2013 - AGMA Nominee 2016 - Etando Award: Art & Culture 2019 - AGMA Winner - Central African Artiste of Excellence Mwana is married to her manager and they have three children: two boys and a girl. Dena Mwana on Youtube