The Tropic of Cancer, referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude on Earth at which the Sun can be directly overhead. This occurs on the June solstice, when the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun to its maximum extent, it is 23°26′12.0″ north of the Equator. Its Southern Hemisphere counterpart, marking the most southerly position at which the Sun can be directly overhead, is the Tropic of Capricorn; these tropics are two of the five major circles of latitude. The positions of these two circles of latitude are dictated by the tilt of Earth's axis of rotation relative to the plane of its orbit, since the tilt changes, the location of these two circles changes; when this line of latitude was named in the last centuries BC, the Sun was in the constellation Cancer at the June solstice, the time each year that the Sun reaches its zenith at this latitude. Due to the precession of the equinoxes, this is no longer the case; the word "tropic" itself comes from the Greek "trope", meaning turn, referring to the fact that the Sun appears to "turn back" at the solstices.
The Tropic of Cancer's position is not fixed, but changes because of a slight wobble in the Earth's longitudinal alignment relative to its orbit around the Sun. Earth's axial tilt varies over a 41,000-year period from 22.1 to 24.5 degrees and resides at about 23.4 degrees. This wobble means that the Tropic of Cancer is drifting southward at a rate of half an arcsecond of latitude, or 15 metres, per year. See axial tilt and circles of latitude for further information. North of the tropic are the North Temperate Zone; the equivalent line of latitude south of the Equator is called the Tropic of Capricorn, the region between the two, centered on the Equator, is the tropics. There are 13 hours, 35 minutes of daylight during the summer solstice. During the winter solstice, there are 41 minutes of daylight. Starting at the prime meridian and heading eastward, the Tropic of Cancer passes through the following countries and territories: Excluding cooler highland regions in China, the climate at the Tropic of Cancer is hot and dry except for easterly coastal areas where orographic rainfall can be heavy, in some places reaching 4 metres annually.
Most regions on the Tropic of Cancer experience two distinct seasons: an hot summer with temperatures reaching 45 °C and a warm winter with maxima around 22 °C. Much land on or near the Tropic of Cancer is part of the Sahara Desert, while to the east the climate is torrid monsoonal with a short wet season from June to September and little rainfall for the rest of the year; the highest mountain on or adjacent to the Tropic of Cancer is Yushan in Taiwan. According to the rules of the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, for a flight to compete for a round-the-world speed record, it must cover a distance no less than the length of the Tropic of Cancer, cross all meridians, end on the same airfield where it started. Length of the Tropic on 11 December 2015, at 23°26′14″N is 36,788 kilometres. For an ordinary circumnavigation the rules are somewhat relaxed and the distance is set to a rounded value of at least 36,770 kilometres. Circle of latitude Arctic Circle 24th parallel north 23rd parallel north Equator Tropic of Capricorn Antarctic Circle Axial tilt Milankovitch cycles Ducking and shaving Article on the Tropic of Cancer in Oman Temporal Epoch Calculations Useful constants See: Obliquity of the ecliptic
Patrick C. Chukwurah is a Nigerian former American football defensive end, he was drafted by the Minnesota Vikings in the fifth round of the 2001 NFL Draft. He played college football at Wyoming. Chukwurah has been a member of the Houston Texans, Denver Broncos, Tampa Bay Buccaneers, Florida Tuskers, the Seattle Seahawks. Chukwurah went to the University of Wyoming, he was a three-year starter there and played in 45 career games while racking up 245 tackles and 27 sacks. As a senior, he earned first team All-Mountain West Conference honors, recording 100 tackles and seven sacks, he was UW's defensive captain his senior year. As a junior, he earned defensive MVP honors, he ranks 11th on UW's tackles list. He was drafted with the 26th pick of the 5th round in the 2001 NFL draft by the Minnesota Vikings. On June 18, he signed a 3-year contract with the Minnesota Vikings. During the 2001 season, he played in all 16 games, starting 3 of them, while recording 9 tackles and 2½ sacks, he made his NFL debut on September 9, 2001 against the Carolina Panthers, recording 4 tackles and becoming the first Viking rookie linebacker to start a game since Dwayne Rudd did it in 1997 and the first to start the opener since Roy Winston did it back in 1962.
On November 19, he started his second career game against the New York Giants recording his first career sack, sacking quarterback Kerry Collins for a 14-yard loss. That game, he started at defensive end. On December 16, Chukwurah recorded a career high 1½ sacks against the Detroit Lions. In 2002, Patrick Chukwurah played in 11 games, he recorded. At the Chicago Bears on September 8, 2002, he recorded 4 tackles, on October 13, he recorded a career high 7 tackles against the Detroit Lions. On February 27, 2003, he was cut by the Vikings. On March 1, 2003, Chukwurah was acquired from waivers. During the training camp prior to the 2003 season, Patrick Chukwurah tried out for the Houston Texans, however got cut at the final cutdown on September 1. On December 24, 2003, he signed with the Denver Broncos, but was only on the 53-man roster for 2 days, was released on December 26, he re-signed with the Broncos on January 2004 after the season ended. During the 2004 season, he played in 14 games recording only 4 tackles appearing as a defensive end on passing downs.
In 2005, he once again played in 14 games recording 9 tackles, two on defense and seven on special teams. He played in both postseason games that year, recording a special teams tackle against the New England Patriots on January 14, played against the Pittsburgh Steelers in the AFC Championship game on January 22. On April 3, 2006, he re-signed with the Denver Broncos. During the 2006 season, Chukwurah converted to defensive end, he made his first career start at defensive end in week 1 against the St. Louis Rams. On March 2, 2007, the first day of free agency, the Bucs signed Chukwurah to a five-year, $5.5 million contract. They released him after only one season with the Bucs on June 19, 2008, he re-signed with them on August 27, 2008, but was released again on August 30. He was re-signed to the Bucs roster on December 17, 2008. Chukwurah was signed by the Florida Tuskers of the United Football League on August 25, 2009. In the league's first season, Chukwurah led the league in sacks. Chukwurah was signed by the Seattle Seahawks on January 8, 2013.
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Chris D. is a punk poet, rock critic, writer and filmmaker. He is best known as the lead singer and founder of the early Los Angeles punk/deathrock band the Flesh Eaters. Desjardins was a feature writer at Slash magazine in 1977, when he formed the Flesh Eaters with several friends from the Los Angeles punk scene, including Tito Larriva, their second album, A Minute to Pray, a Second to Die and released in 1981, featured John Doe, DJ Bonebrake, Dave Alvin, Steve Berlin. The band recorded two further albums. Desjardins was married to Julie Christensen; the pair divorced in 1988. Following the divorce, Desjardins sought help for alcohol problems in a 12-step program; the Flesh Eaters were a staple of the LA Punk Scene in the 1980s. The band played alongside seminal bands like The Meat Puppets. A number of original Flesh Eaters releases, like "River of Fever", were recorded through Shakeytown Music/BMI. Others were produced by Upsetter, Invasion/Bomp, Zippo/Demon or SST; when not working with The Flesh Eaters during that time, Desjardins was the co-leader, with then-spouse Julie Christensen, of the Divine Horsemen between 1984 and 1988.
In early 2006 Desjardins performed several times in California, once in London, with John Doe, DJ Bonebrake, Dave Alvin, Bill Bateman, Steve Berlin as The Flesh Eaters. This line-up of the band had not performed together since 1981. Desjardins issued a solo semi-acoustic LP on America's Enigma Records and the French New Rose label, called "Time Stands Still" by Chris D./Divine Horseman in 1984. The album was released in Australia by Dog Meat Records of Melbourne, it features guest musicians Jeffrey Lee Pierce, Linda "Tex" Jones and Dave Alvin. Desjardins issued a second solo album entitled "I Pass for Human" as Stone By Stone following the end of his marriage to Julie Christensen, he released a further solo album "Love Cannot Die" through the Sympathy for the Record Industry label in 1995. From 1989 to 1993 and from 1997 to 2000, Desjardins performed live with varying line-ups of The Flesh Eaters. Two albums, "Ashes of Time" and "Miss Muerte", were released during the latter period. Chris D. worked as an A&R and in-house producer for Slash and Ruby Records from 1980 until early 1984.
He produced all the Flesh Eaters' albums and co-produced The Gun Club's debut album, Fire of Love, with Tito Larriva in 1982. Desjardins produced the debut albums of Green On Red and The Lazy Cowgirls, he remixed The Misfits' LP Walk Among Us with Glenn Danzig and the Germs' What We Do Is Secret with Pat Smear. Upsetter Records was a Los Angeles, California-based record label founded in 1978 by Chris D. and his then-girlfriend, the animation and graphic artist Judith Bell. Named in tribute to Lee "Scratch" Perry and the dub reggae, popular with the early punks, Upsetter was created to release the early discography of the Flesh Eaters, The only exception in the label's catalog is the seminal Tooth and Nail compilation released in 1979, an album full of outstanding early Californian punk rock from the Controllers, Middle Class, the Germs, U. X. A. Negative Trend, the Flesh Eaters themselves. In parallel with their record label and Bell, in collaboration with Exene Cervenka, published the short-lived punk zine The Upsetter.
Illiterati Press published Double Snake Bourbon, a 139-page collection of Desjardins' poetry and prose. Desjardins wrote for Forced Exposure, Asian Trash Cinema and Cult Movies, he has spent twenty years researching and compiling an encyclopedia of Japanese yakuza films. Titled Gun and Sword: An Encyclopedia of Japanese Gangster Films 1955-1980, research for the book was funded by the Japan Foundation Artist Fellowship, he wrote liner notes and audio commentary tracks for DVDs of a variety of classic Japanese genre films, Italian cult and arthouse films. In 2005, Desjardins' tribute to fringe directors of Japanese cult and exploitation cinema of the period 1950 to 1980, was published by I. B. Tauris, entitled Outlaw Masters of Japanese Film. A Minute to Pray, A Second to Die, a 500-page anthology of Chris D.'s written work, was published at the end of 2009. Four additional works, No Evil Star, Dragon Wheel Splendor & Other Love Stories of Violence and Dread, Shallow Water, Mother's Worry were all published in 2012.
In April 2013, Desjardins' long-researched Gun and Sword: An Encyclopedia of Japanese Gangster Films 1955-1980 was published by Poison Fang Press. Desjardins has acted in a number of both independent and big budget. In 1987, he had a small role in the Orion film No Way Out alongside Kevin Costner and Gene Hackman as an assassin; the same year, Desjardins played a role in Border Radio, an independent film, released as part of the Criterion Collection. In Border Radio, Desjardins plays a musician. In 2002, Desjardins wrote and directed his first feature film, I Pass For Human, produced and edited by Lynne Margulies, it was released in theaters in March 2004 and on DVD in October 2006. Desjardins had been attempting to produce the film since the 1980s under the original title "Hell's Belle", he worked in the programming department of the American Cinematheque in Los Angeles from 1999, was a programmer there from January 2006 until August 1, 2009. He teaches film studies in California and does DVD commentary for several films.
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