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Trousers or pants are an item of clothing that might have originated in Central Asia, worn from the waist to the ankles, covering both legs separately. In England, the word pants means underwear and not trousers. Shorts are similar to trousers, but with legs that come down only to around the area of the knee, higher or lower depending on the style of the garment. To distinguish them from shorts, trousers may be called "long trousers" in certain contexts such as school uniform, where tailored shorts may be called "short trousers" in the UK; the oldest known trousers were found at the Yanghai cemetery in Turpan, western China and dated to the period between the 10th and the 13th centuries BC. Made of wool, the trousers had straight legs and wide crotches and were made for horseback riding. In most of Europe, trousers have been worn since ancient times and throughout the Medieval period, becoming the most common form of lower-body clothing for adult males in the modern world. Breeches were worn instead of trousers in early modern Europe by some men in higher classes of society.

Distinctive formal trousers are traditionally worn with semi-formal day attire. Since the mid-20th century, trousers have been worn by women as well. Jeans, made of denim, are a form of trousers for casual wear worn all over the world by both sexes. Shorts are preferred in hot weather or for some sports and often by children and adolescents. Trousers are worn on the hips or waist and are held up by buttons, elastic, a belt or suspenders. In Scotland, trousers are known as trews, the historic root of the word trousers. Trousers are known as breeks in Scots, a word related to breeches; the item of clothing worn under trousers is underpants. The standard form trousers is used, but it is sometimes pronounced in a manner represented by, as Scots did not undergo the Great Vowel Shift, thus retains the vowel sound of the Gaelic truis from which the word originates. In North America, South Africa and Northern England pants is the general category term, whereas trousers refers more to tailored garments with a waistband, belt-loops, a fly-front.

In these dialects, elastic-waist knitted garments would be called pants, but not trousers. North Americans call undergarments underwear, undies, or panties to distinguish them from other pants that are worn on the outside; the term drawers refers to undergarments, but in some dialects, may be found as a synonym for "breeches", that is, trousers. In these dialects, the term underdrawers is used for undergarments. Many North Americans refer to their undergarments by their type, such as briefs. In Australia, men's underwear has various informal terms including under-dacks, dacks or jocks. In New Zealand men's underwear is known informally as dacks; the words trouser instead of trousers is sometimes used in the tailoring and fashion industries as a generic term, for instance when discussing styles, such as "a flared trouser", rather than as a specific item. The words trousers and pants are pluralia tantum, nouns that only appear in plural form—much like the words scissors and tongs, as such pair of trousers is the usual correct form.

However, the singular form is used in some compound words, such as trouser-leg, trouser-press and trouser-bottoms. Jeans are trousers made from denim or dungaree cloth. Skin-tight leggings are referred to as tights. There are several different main types of pants and trousers, such as dress pants, khakis, chinos and sweatpants, they can be classified by fit and other features. There is no universal, overarching classification. There is some evidence, from figurative art, of trousers being worn in the Upper Paleolithic, as seen on the figurines found at the Siberian sites of Mal'ta and Buret'; the oldest known trousers were found at the Yanghai cemetery, extracted from mummies in Turpan, western China, belonging to the people of the Tarim Basin. Trousers enter recorded history in the 6th century BC, on the rock carvings and artworks of Persepolis, with the appearance of horse-riding Eurasian nomads in Greek ethnography. At this time, Iranian peoples such as Scythians, Sarmatians and Bactrians among others, along with Armenians and Eastern and Central Asian peoples such as the Xiongnu and Hunnu, are known to have worn trousers.

Trousers are believed to have been worn by both sexes among these early users. The ancient Greeks used the term "ἀναξυρίδες" for the trousers worn by Eastern nations and "σαράβαρα" for the loose trousers worn by the Scythians. However, they did not wear trousers since they thought them ridiculous, using the word "θύλακοι", pl. of "θύλακος", "sack", as a slang term for the loose trousers of Persians and other Middle Easterners. Republican Rome viewed the draped clothing of Greek and Minoan culture as an emblem of civilisation and disdained trousers as the mark of barbarians; as the Roman Empire expanded beyond the Mediterranean basin, the greater warmth provided by trousers led to their adoption. Two types of trousers saw widespread use in Rome: the Feminalia, which fit snugly and fell to knee or mid-calf lengt

John Gregory Brown

John Gregory Brown is an American novelist. Brown was born on July 1960 in New Orleans, Louisiana, he received his B. A. from Tulane University in 1982, his M. A. from Johns Hopkins University in 1988. He is Director of Creative Writing and the Julia Jackson Nichols Professor of English at Sweet Briar College, where he lives with his wife, fellow novelist Carrie Brown. After spending the 2015-2016 academic year teaching at Deerfield Academy, he returned to Sweet Briar College. Brown's first novel, Decorations in a Ruined Cemetery, received broad critical acclaim. In the New York Times, Margo Jefferson praised the books "seductive rhythmic murmur" In The Los Angeles Times, Charles Solomon noted the writer's "great sensitivity.". Reviewing the book for the Chicago Tribune, Charles Larson called the book a "triumph...much of its magnificence is the result of the author's decision to create imaginative voices other than his own," concluding "John Gregory Brown is both the beneficiary of and a worthy successor to our finest Southern writers."

The novel received both the 1994 Lillian Smith Book Award and the United Kingdom's 1996 Steinbeck Award, for the year's best novel by a writer under forty years of age. The Wrecked, Blessed Body of Shelton Lafleur, Brown's second book, was published in 1996; the Los Angeles Times called the novel "John Gregory Brown's gift of grace to us," and the Dallas Morning News wrote, "John Gregory Brown is a strong new voice in American—not just Southern—fiction, his work deserves the widest possible audience. Reviewing Brown's third novel, Audubon's Watch, in the New York Times, novelist Stewart O'Nan praised Brown's "ambition and achievement," concluding, "This is a brazen performance that few authors would have the skill or the courage to risk." The novel received the 2002 Louisiana Endowment for The Humanities Award. His latest book, "A Thousand Miles from Nowhere," was released in June 2016. 2002 Louisiana Endowment for The Humanities 2002 Book of the Year for Audubon’s Watch. 1998 George A. And Eliza Gardner Howard Foundation Fellowship.

1996 Steinbeck Award for Decorations in a Ruined Cemetery, U. K. 1996 Granta magazine Best Young American Novelists Southern Region. 1994 The Lillian Smith Book Award for Decorations in a Ruined Cemetery. 1993 Lyndhurst Fellowship. Interview with John Gregory Brown Author Page Brown Quotations


Koriun was the earliest Armenian-language author. Writing in the fifth century, his Life of Mashtots contains many details about the evangelization of Armenia and the invention of the Armenian alphabet by Mesrop Mashtots; some Armenian and European scholars, such as G. Alishan, O. Torosyan, G. Fintigliyan, A. Sarukhan, G. Ter-Mkrtchyan, S. Weber and others, have speculated that Koriun could have been an ethnic Georgian or Georgian-Armenian. Having received his early education under Mashtots, Koriun went to Byzantium for higher studies, returning to Armenia with other students in 432, he was a close friend of Eznik Ghevond. He was appointed Bishop of Georgia, he has been listed among the junior translators. His style is somewhat obscure due to grammatical irregularities. To him have been attributed the translations of the three apocryphal books of the Maccabees. Koryun was the origin of the claim. After the death of Mashtots, Koryun was tasked by Hovsep Hoghotsmetsi, one of the spiritual leaders at that time, to start writing Mesrop's biography.

Now his work is known as "Varq Mashtotsi". He finished his work before new political developments in the region. In the modern period it was translated into Russian, English and German. Koryun, The Life of Mashtots


Braugold Vertriebs GmbH & Co. KG was a brewery in Erfurt, it was for a time the market leader in Thuringia. The history of Braugold Brewery goes back to two breweries formed in the 19th century. Two farm breweries were bought on the downtown street Große Arche in the years 1822 and 1827 by Volkmar Döppleb; these were middle-class houses with agricultural land ownership right to brew beer. The consolidated brewery went to a Baumann family, which bought the brewery Schedel in 1848; the second line was founded by Christian Buchner in 1823 by buying the brewery Lauenburg. Under his leadership, the brewery moved in 1888 to its new location in Löbervorstadt near Erfurt's city parks. In 1920 the brewery acquired Baumann Buchner AG. At the same time the brewery merged with Leipzig Riebeck Brauerei AG, founded by Carl Adolf Riebeck. In 1921 the reorganized brewery produced 2.5 million gallons of beer. After the end of World War II, the brewery was transferred to public ownership in 1948. With the entry of the trademark Braugold the brewery in 1956 received its current name.

In 1967, the production of today's best-selling beer brewing Pilsner special gold began. 1969 was formed by the merger of nine breweries in the district of Erfurt VEB Kombinat drinks Erfurt. The Braugold brewery was the parent seat of the line of the combine. After the turn and the associated end of the beverages combine the Braugold brewery was first adopted by the Lich private brewery in 1990. In 1996 it was taken over by the successor to the former owner, the Riebeck group, which included at that time the brewery in Eisenach and the Wernesgrüner brewery. On 1 January 2011 took over the beverage group Forest Hoff Braugold Brewery. In the fall of 2010, production in the Erfurt was halted for all seven types of beer, as the run-down brewery building did not allow for economical production; the actual brewing and bottling is now done in a brewery in Braunschweig. Homepage der Brauerei Historische Bieretiketten der Brauerei

Nomans River

Nomans River is a tributary of the Unknown River in Regional County Municipality of Eeyou Istchee James Bay in the administrative region of the Nord-du-Québec, Canadian province of Quebec, in Canada. The course of Nomans river crosses the townships of Monseignat; the Nomans River hydrographic slope is served by the R1018 secondary road from Matagami, which spans the Maicasagi River at 4.2 kilometres from its mouth. The surface of the river is frozen from early November to mid-May, safe ice circulation is from mid-November to mid-April; the main hydrographic slopes near the Nomans River are: North side: Maicasagi River. The Nomans River originates at the confluence of two mountain streams; this source is located at: 4.9 kilometres North of a curve of the Waswanipi River. From the mouth of the head lake, the Nomans River flows over 42.7 kilometres according to the following segments: 8.1 kilometres Northeast, forming a large curve to the west to round a mountain, to a creek. The "Noman River" flows to the west bank of the Inconnue River which flows northward to the south bank of the Maicasagi River.

The latter runs westward to Maicasagi Lake which flows Southwest via the Max Passage into Goéland Lake. The latter is crossed to the Northwest by the Waswanipi River, a tributary of Matagami Lake; the mouth of the Nomans River located at: 5.0 kilometres Northeast of the mouth of the Inconnue River. The toponym "Nomans River" was formalized on December 5, 1968, at the Commission de toponymie du Québec, i.e. the creation of this commission

The Darke Crusade

The Darke Crusade is the fifteenth book in the Lone Wolf book series created by Joe Dever and now illustrated by Brian Williams. Lone Wolf books rely on a combination of luck. Certain statistics such as combat skill and endurance attributes are determined randomly before play; the player is allowed to choose Grandmaster Kai disciplines and a selection of Dessi and Crystal Star magics. This number depends directly on. With each additional book completed, the player chooses one additional discipline; the Grandmaster series is different from any in the previous series of books because it gives Lone Wolf spells to use which grow more numerous as his Grandmaster Rank increases. Once more, Lone Wolf's help is sought by this time King Sarnac of Lencia. While battling the Drakkarim under control of Magnaarn, the High Warlord of Darke, the Lencians have discovered that Magnaarn seeks an ancient artifact, the Doomstone of Darke, it is feared that he is close to discovering this artifact, with it, the power to rally the Nadziranim sorcerers and other Darklord allies against Lencia.

Lone Wolf and the reader take up the cause of Lencia to thwart Magnaarn's aims. Gamebooks - Lone Wolf Gamebooks - The Darke Crusade Project Aon - The Darke Crusade