Deprato Mounds known as the Ferriday Mounds, is a multi-mound archaeological site located in Concordia Parish, Louisiana. The site shows occupation from the Troyville period to the Middle Coles Creek period; the largest mound at the site has been dated by radiocarbon analysis and decorated pottery to about 600 CE. The site was added to the National Register of Historic Places on October 22, 1998; the site is a complex of five platform mounds and a central plaza area taking up about four acres of land to the east of the confluence of Black Bayou and Bayou Cocodrie. The mounds now appear smaller than they did in the past because extensive flooding in the centuries since their construction has deposited 3 feet of sediment over the base of the mounds and the plaza; the largest remaining mound, Mound C, has a base measuring 82 feet by 66 feet and is about 6 feet in height. Mound D was demolished to provide fill for a highway construction project. Mound E was built on as the site of a private house.
During excavations, human remains were found in three of the mounds. The site has been purchased by The Archaeological Conservancy, a nonprofit organization that plans to protect the site from future degradation. Frogmore Mound Site Troyville Mounds Culture and chronological table for the Mississippi Valley National Register of Historic Places listings in Concordia Parish, Louisiana Louisiana Life Magazine:Mounds of Mystery Deprato Mounds at waymarking.com
Delhi called Deerfield, is a town in Richland Parish, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town population was 3,289. During the American Civil War and Monroe, the seat of Ouachita Parish, were overcrowded with unwelcome refugees from rural areas to the east when the forces of General U. S. Grant moved into northeastern Louisiana. Grant spent the winter of 1862-1863 at Winter Quarters south of Newellton in Tensas Parish in preparation for the siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi, he did not take the river port city until July 4, 1863. Historian John D. Winters reported "strong Union sympathy" in both Monroe. In the 1940s, Delhi was the center of a large natural gas boom. Numerous workers came to work in the industry. Several functioning gas fields still surround the town. From 1968-1969, Delhi Fire Department was home to the now defunct Louisiana State Police - Troop O; the site was abandoned in 1969 after thirteen months' operation, with state services reverting to be provided by Troop F in Monroe.
On February 21, 1971, Louisiana's only recorded. It resulted in forty-seven deaths and was the deadliest F5 tornado to hit the United States since the Jackson, Candlestick Park tornado in 1966, it was the earliest confirmed F5 tornado during a year. Delhi has a drug store, the E. W. Thomsom Drug Company, which has operated continuously since 1873 in the same downtown location; the company has been owned for four generations by the McEacharn family, who purchased it from the Thomsons in the early 1920s. Pharmacist Wilfred Bruce McEacharn is the current owner; the lunch counter sells hand-crafted milk shakes and old-fashioned fountain Coca-Colas. Popular menu items include plates of tuna and chicken salad. Shari McEacharn, his wife, operates a gift shop within the drug store; the Thomson Company remains a mainstay of Delhi for all generations of patrons. Delhi is located at 32°27′21″N 91°29′36″W; the town lies at the confluence of U. S. Route 80 and Louisiana Highway 17, near to Interstate 20. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.6 square miles, of which 2.5 square miles is land and 0.1 square mile is water.
The elevation of 89 ft spared Delhi from the brunt of the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 that destroyed most of the surrounding Mississippi River Delta area. The Poverty Point Reservoir, which hosts the acclaimed Black Bear Golf Club and the Poverty Point Reservoir State Park, is located just north of Delhi on Louisiana State Highway 17 near Warden; the reservoir project was pushed to fruition by State Senator Francis C. Thompson of Delhi; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,066 people, 1,129 households, 788 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,215.2 people per square mile. There were 1,253 housing units at an average density of 496.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 42.24% White, 56.78% African American, 0.07% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 0.36% from other races, 0.46% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.98% of the population. There were 1,129 households out of which 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.5% were married couples living together, 24.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.2% were non-families.
27.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.10. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.7% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 18.4% from 45 to 64, 18.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 80.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 76.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $21,763, the median income for a family was $25,651. Males had a median income of $25,054 versus $12,837 for females; the per capita income for the town was $11,161. About 26.2% of families and 31.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 45.7% of those under age 18 and 21.8% of those age 65 or over. Public schools in Richland Parish are operated by the Richland Parish School Board. Three campuses serve the town of Delhi - Delhi Elementary School, Delhi Middle School, Delhi High School..
Delhi Charter School is an area charter school. John Henry Baker, farmer and Republican politician Lenny Fant, basketball coach at the University of Louisiana at Monroe from 1957–1979, coached at Delhi High School from 1950-1953 Earl Holliman, Golden Globe award-winning film and television actor known for movies such as The Sons of Katie Elder, Gunfight at the O. K. Corral and Giant and TV series Police Woman Arlene Howell, Miss Louisiana USA 1958, Miss USA 1958 and television actress Bnois King and blues musician, was born in Delhi Bob Love, basketball player, went to high school in Delhi Charles A. Marvin, judge of the Louisiana Court of Appeal for the Second Circuit from 1975 to 1999.
Troyville Earthworks is a Woodland period Native American archaeological site with components dating from 100 BCE to 700 CE during the Baytown to the Troyville-Coles Creek periods. It once had the tallest mound in Louisiana at 82 feet in height, it is located in Louisiana in the town of Jonesville. The site is the type site for the Troyville culture of Tensas River valleys. Before it was destroyed for bridge approach fill in 1931, the main mound at Troyville was one of the tallest in North America; the site is at the confluence of the Tensas and Little Rivers. It had nine platform mounds and a perimeter embankment that were built before 700 CE. A historian, John W. Monette, in 1844 described the complex as occupying close to 400 acres and noted the existence of twelve small mounds and one large one; the embankment was started during the Middle Baytown period, with periodic repair work taking place during the Late Baytown period. The largest mound, Mound 5, was 82 feet in height, it was the second tallest in North America.
Its base covered an acre of ground and had three levels, the bottom two rectangular and the third on the top a truncated conical mound. Monette described the lower level of Mound 5 as being 300 feet by 150 feet at its base and rising to the height of 30 feet, he described the conical mound at the top as 30 feet. Measurements for the smaller mounds at the site were about 12 feet to 20 feet in height with bases measuring 150 feet by 60 feet. Four of the mounds were surrounded on the southern and western side of the plaza by the embankment, which measured 10 feet in height, 10 feet in width and 100 feet across. By the time of the American Civil War, the mound had been reduced in size to 50 feet in height. During the Civil War, the mound was reduced further when some of its fill was removed to construct Confederate rifle pits. In 1871 the town of Jonesville was founded on the site and more of Mound A's fill was used to fill ditches and level the land as the town grew; the townspeople camped out on the mounds during flooding.
In 1883 the site was visited by the prominent ethnologist Cyrus Thomas, who described the group as consisting of six mounds within an embankment, with some of the smaller mounds having been destroyed. One had been turned into a modern cemetery, which can still be seen today on the grounds of the local Methodist Church; the Great Mound had been reduced, by this time it was only 45 feet in height, 270 feet in length and 180 feet in width. In 1931 the mound was drastically reduced in size, the majority of its remaining mass being used as fill for a nearby bridge approach. Today the mound is only 3 feet in height; the site takes its name from the Troy Plantation, part of a Spanish land grant of 1,000 acres made to John Hebrard in 1786. William Dunbar was the first European to make note of the mound site in his report to Thomas Jefferson for the Red River expedition of 1804, it is the first written description of an archaeological site in Louisiana. In 1931 and 1932 the Smithsonian archaeologist Winslow Walker excavated parts of the site.
He found woven cane matting, palmetto fronds, wooden planks within the mound, materials used by the Native Americans as part of the complex engineering to build the large structure. These materials had been used to construct a "cane dome", layered like an onion by alternating layers of split cane and mound fill to strengthen the structure; the builders used different colors of dirt, including blue clays and red clays. Walker discovered a log palisade and steps made of tree trunks up one corner of the mound, he published a 103-page booklet on his work. In the late 2000s parts of the site were being investigated for purchase by The Archaeological Conservancy, a nonprofit organization that plans to protect the site from future degradation; the Conservancy purchased the site of Mound 4 and the old house located on the property was demolished. The Conservancy plans to use it as a research preserve. Monks Mound Culture and chronological table for the Mississippi Valley Troyville Earthworks I: Ancient Mounds Trail - Louisiana Historical Markers on Waymarking.com Troyville Earthworks II: Ancient Mounds Trail - Louisiana Historical Markers on Waymarking.com Jonesville site The builders of the Great Mound at Jonesville Great Mound was once the tallest in North America
The Winterville Site is a major archaeological site in unincorporated Washington County, north of Greenville. It consists of major earthwork monuments, including more than twelve large platform mounds and cleared and filled plazas, it is the type site for the Winterville Phase of the Lower Yazoo Basin region of the Plaquemine Mississippian culture. Protected as a state park, it has been designated as a National Historic Landmark. In June 2015 the state authorized $300,000 to restore the mounds to their pre-Columbian condition and add walking trails to the park; the site includes a museum. Winterville Mounds, named for the nearby town of Winterville, Mississippi, is the site of a prehistoric ceremonial center built by Native Americans of the Plaquemine culture, the regional variation of the Mississippian culture; this civilization thrived from about 1000 to 1450CE. The mounds, an expression of the Winterville society's religious and political system, were the site of sacred structures and ceremonies.
They were built between 1200 and 1250. Archaeological evidence indicates that the Winterville people lived away from the mound center on family farms in scattered settlement districts throughout the Yazoo-Mississippi River Delta basin. Only a few of the higher-ranking tribal officials lived at this mound complex; the Winterville ceremonial center contained at least twenty-three platform mounds surrounding several large and smoothed plazas. Some of the mounds located outside current park boundaries were leveled by farming and highway construction before the site became protected as Winterville State Park. Twelve of the site's largest mounds, including the 55 feet high Temple Mound, are the focus in the early 21st century of a long-range preservation plan being developed by the Mississippi Department of Archives and History and the University of Mississippi's Center for Archaeological Research. In June 2015 the state legislature authorized $300,000 for a project to restore the mounds to their pre-Columbian condition.
Trees and brush will be removed. In addition, two walking trails will be added to the park. Archaeological evidence indicates that there are continuities in culture between the residents of the Winterville Mounds and the Natchez Indians, a Mississippi tribe documented by French explorers and settlers in the early 18th century; the Natchez Indians' society was divided into upper and lower ranks, with a person's social rank determined by heredity through the female line. The chief and other tribal officials inherited their positions as members of the royal family; such an elaborate leadership network was able to direct the mound building at Winterville by an organized civilian labor force. However, there is no evidence of a large residential population at other similar sites; this lack of artifacts and remains indicates that this site was used for ceremonial purposes. A great fire during the late 14th century consumed the original building on the Temple Mound at Winterville. According to archaeological evidence, the cause of the fire remains a mystery.
The site continued to be used afterward. Although the site continued to be occupied after the fire, the general population declined at Winterville while increasing at settlements and mound sites 50 miles to the south, in the lower Yazoo River basin. By AD 1450 the Winterville Mound site appears to have been abandoned completely; the period of the site's greatest florescence was used by archaeologists as the basis for describing the Winterville Phase of the Lower Yazoo Basin region. The first modern archaeological excavations at the Winterville Site were conducted in the 1940s by the National Park Service and Harvard University's Lower Mississippi Survey. Jeffrey P. Brain directed excavations at Winterville in 1967 and his report, Winterville: Late Prehistoric Culture Contact in the Lower Mississippi Valley, was published in 1989 by the Mississippi Department of Archives and History. Burials and structural remains were found at the site, along with items such as ceramic and stone artifacts, which can be seen at the Winterville Museum in the park.
Winterville Mounds was dedicated as a Mississippi state park in March 1969. The site was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1993. Brain, Jeffrey P.. Winterville-Late Prehistoric Culture Contact In the Lower Mississippi Valley. Mississippi Department of Archives and History. P. 93. ISBN 0-938896-58-X; the Winterville people made pottery by building up strips of clay, smoothing them out, much like other pottery in the Eastern American area where the potters wheel was unknown. Pottery was tempered with ground mussel shell, grit and angular bits of clay. Surface treatment ranged from carelessly polished to finely polished. Forms for the pottery range from shallow plate like bowls to beakers and jars, with some pieces having animal effigies for handles. Surface decorations range from plain to incised S. E. C. C. Designs. Most pottery found at the Winterville Site are of the kinds known as Addis Plain var. Addis, Addis Plain var. Greenville and Addis Plain var. Holly Bluff; some of the Mississippian culture pottery found at the Winterville site is believed to have been imported from other Mississippian societies.
Examples of these are pieces of pottery from the Nodena Red and White var. Dumond and Walls Engraved var. Walls; these examples have distinctive red and white slips, thinner walls, more finely finished surfaces than locally produced wares and may have been valued for their exotic qualities and fine workmanship. Southeastern Ceremonial Complex List of Mississippian sites List of National Historic Landmarks in Mississippi Animation: Towns a
In the sequence of cultural stages first proposed for the archaeology of the Americas by Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips in 1958, the Lithic stage was the earliest period of human occupation in the Americas, as post-glacial hunters and collectors spread through the Americas. The stage derived its name from the first appearance of Lithic flaked stone tools; the term Paleo-Indian is an alternative indicating much the same period. This stage was conceived of as embracing two major categories of stone technology: unspecialized and unformulated core and flake industries, with percussion the dominant and only technique employed, industries exhibiting more advanced "blade" techniques of stoneworking, with specialized fluted or unfluted lanceolate points the most characteristic artifact types. Throughout South America, there are stone tool traditions of the lithic stage, such as the "fluted fishtail" that reflect localized adaptations to the diverse habitats of the continent; the indications and timing of the end of the Lithic stage vary between regions.
The use of textiles, fired pottery and start of the gradual replacement of hunter gatherer lifestyles with the use of agriculture and domesticated animals would all be factors. End dates are around 5,000 to 3,000 BC in many areas; the Archaic stage is the most used term for the succeeding stage, but in the periodization of pre-Columbian Peru the Cotton Pre-Ceramic may be used, as in the Norte Chico civilization cultivated cotton seems to have been important in economic and power relations, from around 3,200 BC. One of the leading figures is Alex Krieger who has documented hundreds of sites that have yielded crude, percussion-flaked tools; the most convincing evidence for a lithic stage is based upon data recovered from sites in South America where such crude tools have been found and dated to more than 20,000 years ago. In North America, the time encompasses the Paleo-Indian period that subsequently is divided into more specific time terms such as Early Lithic stage or Early Paleo-Indians and Middle Paleo-Indians or Middle Lithic stage.
Examples include the Clovis culture and Folsom tradition groups. The Lithic stage was followed by the Archaic stage. 12,340 BCE–10,800 BCE: a stone-lined hearth and coprolites left in Paisley Caves, Oregon 10,200 BCE: Cooper Bison skull is painted with a red zigzag in present-day Oklahoma, becoming the oldest known painted object in North America. 9500 BC: Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets retreat enough to open a habitable ice-free corridor through Canada along the eastern flank of the Rocky Mountains. 9500 BC: People craft early Clovis spear points and skin scrapers from rock in New Mexico. 9250–8950 BC: Clovis points - thin, fluted projectile points created using bifacial percussion flaking - are created by Clovis culture peoples in the Plains and Southwestern North America 9001 BC: Archaeological materials found on the Channel Islands of California and in coastal Peru. 9000 BC: Archaeological materials found on Channel Islands off the California coast 9000 BC: Human settlers arrive in the Great Basin with its cool, wet prevailing climate 9000–8900 BC: The Folsom culture in New Mexico leaves Bison bones and stone spear points.
8700 BC: Human settlement reaches the Northwestern Plateau region. 8000 BC: The last glacial ends, causing sea levels to rise and flood the Beringia land bridge, closing the primary migration route from Siberia. 8000 BC: Sufficient rain falls on the American Southwest to support many large mammal species--mammoth, a bison species-—that soon go extinct. 8000 BC: Native Americans leave documented traces of their presence in every habitable corner of the Americas, including the American Northeast, the Pacific Northwest, a cave on Prince of Wales Island in the Alexander archipelago of southeast Alaska following these game animals. 8000 BC: Hunters in the American Southwest both use the atlatl. 8000 BC: Sufficient rain falls on the American Southwest to support many large mammal species, such as mammoth, a bison species-—that soon go extinct. 8000 BC: Hunters in the American Southwest use the atlatl. Times from the 8000 BC to about 3000 BC may be classified as part of the lithic stage or of an archaic stage, depending on authority and on region.
7500 BC: Early basketry. 7560—7370 BC: Kennewick Man dies along the shore of the Columbia River in Washington State, leaving one of the most complete early Native American skeletons. 7000 BC: Northeastern peoples depend on deer and wild grains as the climate warms. 7000 BC: Native Americans in Lahontan Basin, Nevada mummify their dead to give them honor and respect, evidencing deep concern about their treatment and condition. 6500 BC–200 AD: The San Dieguito-Pinto tradition and Chihuahua Tradition flourish in southern California, the Southwest, northwestern Mexico. 6000 BC: Ancestors of Penutian-speaking peoples settle in the Northwestern Plateau. 6000 BC: Nomadic hunting bands roam Subarctic Alaska following herds of caribou and other game animals. 6000 BC: Aleuts begin to arrive in the Aleutian Islands. 5700 BC: Cataclysmic eruption of Mount Mazama in Oregon. 5500 BC–500 AD Oshara Tradition, a Southwestern Archaic Tradition, arises in north-central New Mexico, the San Juan Basin, the Rio Grande Valley, southern Colorado, southeastern Utah.
Natives of the Northwestern Plateau begin to rely on salmon runs. 5000 BC: Early cultivation of food crops began in Mesoamerica. 5000 BC: Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest from Alaska to California develop a fishing economy, with salmon as a staple. 5000 BC: The Old Copper Culture of the Great Lakes area hammers the metal into various tools and ornaments, such as knives, awls, bracelets and pendants. Archaeology of the Amer
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continent, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period. While the phrase "pre-Columbian era" refers only to the time preceding Christopher Columbus's voyages of 1492, in practice the phrase is used to denote the entire history of indigenous Americas cultures until those cultures were exterminated, diminished, or extensively altered by Europeans if this happened decades or centuries after Columbus's first landing. For this reason the alternative terms of Precontact Americas, Pre-Colonial Americas or Prehistoric Americas are in use. In areas of Latin America the term used is Pre-Hispanic. Many pre-Columbian civilizations established hallmarks which included permanent settlements, agriculture and monumental architecture, major earthworks, complex societal hierarchies.
Some of these civilizations had long faded by the time of the first permanent European colonies and the arrival of enslaved Africans, are known only through archaeological investigations and oral history. Other civilizations were contemporary with the colonial period and were described in European historical accounts of the time. A few, such as the Maya civilization, had their own written records; because many Christian Europeans of the time viewed such texts as heretical, men like Diego de Landa destroyed many texts in pyres while seeking to preserve native histories. Only a few hidden documents have survived in their original languages, while others were transcribed or dictated into Spanish, giving modern historians glimpses of ancient culture and knowledge. Indigenous American cultures continue to evolve after the pre-Columbian era. Many of these peoples and their descendants continue traditional practices while evolving and adapting new cultural practices and technologies into their lives.
Before the development of archaeology in the 19th century, historians of the pre-Columbian period interpreted the records of the European conquerors and the accounts of early European travelers and antiquaries. It was not until the nineteenth century that the work of men such as John Lloyd Stephens, Eduard Seler and Alfred P. Maudslay, of institutions such as the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology of Harvard University, led to the reconsideration and criticism of the European sources. Now, the scholarly study of pre-Columbian cultures is most based on scientific and multidisciplinary methodologies. Asian nomads are thought to have entered the Americas via the Bering Land Bridge, now the Bering Strait and along the coast. Genetic evidence found in Amerindians' maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA supports the theory of multiple genetic populations migrating from Asia. Over the course of millennia, Paleo-Indians spread throughout South America; when the first group of people migrated into the Americas is the subject of much debate.
One of the earliest identifiable cultures was the Clovis culture, with sites dating from some 13,000 years ago. However, older sites dating back to 20,000 years ago have been claimed; some genetic studies estimate the colonization of the Americas dates from between 40,000 and 13,000 years ago. The chronology of migration models is divided into two general approaches; the first is the short chronology theory with the first movement beyond Alaska into the Americas occurring no earlier than 14,000–17,000 years ago, followed by successive waves of immigrants. The second belief is the long chronology theory, which proposes that the first group of people entered the hemisphere at a much earlier date 50,000–40,000 years ago or earlier. Artifacts have been found in both North and South America which have been dated to 14,000 years ago, accordingly humans have been proposed to have reached Cape Horn at the southern tip of South America by this time. In that case, the Eskimo peoples would have arrived separately and at a much date no more than 2,000 years ago, moving across the ice from Siberia into Alaska.
The North American climate was unstable. It stabilized by about 10,000 years ago. Within this time frame pertaining to the Archaic Period, numerous archaeological cultures have been identified; the unstable climate led to widespread migration, with early Paleo-Indians soon spreading throughout the Americas, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct tribes. The Paleo-Indians were hunter-gatherers characterized by small, mobile bands consisting of 20 to 50 members of an extended family; these groups moved from place to place as preferred resources were depleted and new supplies were sought. During much of the Paleo-Indian period, bands are thought to have subsisted through hunting now-extinct giant land animals such as mastodon and ancient bison. Paleo-Indian groups carried a variety of tools; these included distinctive projectile points and knives, as well as less distinctive implements used for butchering and hide processing. The vastness of the North American continent, the variety of its climates, vegetation and landforms, led ancient peoples to coalesce into many distinct linguistic and cultural groups.
This is reflected in the oral histories of the indigenous peoples, described by a wide range of traditional creation stories which say that a given people have been living in a certain territory since the creation of the world. Over the course of thousands of years, paleo-Indian
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou