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Tru64 UNIX

Tru64 UNIX is a discontinued 64-bit UNIX operating system for the Alpha instruction set architecture owned by Hewlett-Packard. Tru64 UNIX was a product of Compaq, before that, Digital Equipment Corporation, where it was known as Digital UNIX; as its original name suggests, Tru64 UNIX is based on the OSF/1 operating system. DEC's previous UNIX product was known as Ultrix and was based on BSD, it is unusual among commercial UNIX implementations, as it is built on top of the Mach kernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University. Tru64 UNIX required. In 1988, Digital Equipment Corporation joined with IBM, Hewlett-Packard, others to form the Open Software Foundation. A primary aim was to develop a version of Unix, named OSF/1, to compete with System V Release 4 from AT&T Corporation and Sun Microsystems. After DEC's first release in January 1992 for their line of MIPS-based DECstation workstations, DEC ported OSF/1 to their new Alpha AXP platform, this was the first version of what is most referred to as OSF/1.

DEC OSF/1 AXP Release 1.2 was shipped on March 1993. OSF/1 AXP was a full 64-bit operating system and the native UNIX implementation for the Alpha architecture. After OSF/1 AXP V2.0 onwards, UNIX System V compatibility was integrated into the system. In 1995, starting with release 3.2, DEC renamed OSF/1 AXP to Digital UNIX to reflect its conformance with the X/Open Single UNIX Specification. After Compaq's purchase of DEC in early 1998, with the release of version 4.0F, Digital UNIX was renamed to Tru64 UNIX to emphasise its 64-bit-clean nature and de-emphasise the Digital brand. In April 1999, Compaq announced that Tru64 UNIX 5.0 ran on Intel's IA-64 simulator. However, this port was cancelled a few months later. A Chinese version of Tru64 UNIX named COSIX was jointly developed by Compaq and China National Computer Software & Technology Service Corporation, it was released in 1999. From release V5.0 Tru64 UNIX offered a clustering facility named TruCluster Server. TruCluster utilised a cluster-wide filesystem visible to each cluster member, plus member specific storage and an optional quorum disk.

Member specific files paths were enhanced symbolic links incorporating the member id of the owning member. Each member had one or zero votes, combined with a possible quorum disk, implemented a cluster formation algorithm similar to that found in OpenVMS. With their purchase of Compaq in 2002, HP announced their intention to migrate many of Tru64 UNIX's more innovative features to HP-UX. In December 2004, HP announced a change of plan: they would instead use the Veritas File System and abandon the Tru64 advanced features. In the process, many of the remaining Tru64 developers were laid off; the last maintenance release, 5.1B-6 was released in October 2010. In October 2010, HP stated that they would continue to support Tru64 UNIX until 31 December 2012. In 2008, HP contributed the AdvFS filesystem to the open-source community; these versions were released for Alpha AXP platforms. Tru64 UNIX - HP's official Tru64 UNIX site Tru64 FAQ from UNIXguide.net comp.unix.tru64 - Newsgroup on running and administering Tru64 UNIX comp.unix.osf.osf1 - Newsgroup on running and administering OSF/1 HP Tru64 Unix man pages and shell accounts provided by Polarhome

PS Norah Creina (1878)

PS Norah Creina was a paddle steamship operated by the Drogheda Steam Packet Company from 1878 to 1902 and the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway from 1902 to 1912. She was built by A. & J. Inglis of Glasgow for the Drogheda Steam Packet Company for service between Drogheda and Liverpool, her arrival in Drogheda on Sunday 23 June 1878 was witnessed by a large crowd. The steam tug, Black Eagle, went out to meet her with some Boyne Commissioners on board; the Norah Creina grounded twice in the river, the tide only half in, on the second occasion, the Black Eagle was required to tow her free. As she arrived at the quay, the steamers Tredagh and Lord Athlumney fired salutes of welcome from their cannon, she transferred to the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway in 1902 when they took over the business of the Drogheda company. Unlike the Tredagh and Kathleen Mavourneen, which were scrapped following the arrival of the new screw steamers Colleen Bawn and Mellifont in 1903, the Norah Creina and Iverna remained in service until they were sold for scrap in 1912.

In April 1912 the Norah Creina was sold and scrapped in France

Quasi-constitutionality

In Canada, the term quasi-constitutional is used for laws which remain paramount when subsequent statutes, which contradict them, are enacted by the same legislature. This is the reverse of the normal practice, under which newer laws trump any contradictory provisions in any older statute; the normal practice, under which the more recent statute has the effect of nullifying any contradictory rules laid out in all earlier statutes, is known as "implied repeal." Implied repeal is the traditional way of ensuring that two contradictory laws are never in effect at the same time. The practice of implied repeal reinforces the concept of parliamentary sovereignty or supremacy---that is, it reinforces the idea that the parliament or legislature cannot be restricted by any external limit, including past actions of the legislature itself. A quasi-constitutional statute uses a "primacy clause" to achieve the contradictory goals of respecting parliamentary sovereignty whilst retaining primacy in the face of contradictory statutes.

A primacy clause is a provision stating that the statute can only be repealed or limited by a statute if that statute contains a primacy clause of its own stating that the new law is overriding the earlier, quasi-constitutional statute. For example, subsection 1 of the Alberta Human Rights Act reads "Unless it is expressly declared by an Act of the Legislature that it operates notwithstanding this Act, every law of Alberta is inoperative to the extent that it authorizes or requires the doing of anything prohibited by this Act." The human rights codes of some other provinces use similar language. Canadian constitutional scholar Peter Hogg provides this summary: A quasi-constitutional law may be repealed or amended by means of an ordinary Act of the parliament or legislature, just like any other law. In this respect, such laws are not genuinely constitutional laws, which require some higher form of approval, such as the approval of multiple provincial legislatures, in order to be amended. At the federal level, such laws include the Canadian Bill of the Official Languages Act.

In Quebec, the Charter of the French Language and the Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms contain primacy clauses asserting quasi-constitutional status. The primacy clause in the Canadian Bill of Rights asserts that no provision of a statute, which contradicts the Bill of Rights may prevail unless "it is expressly declared... that it shall operate notwithstanding the Canadian Bill of Rights." The Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms states that contradictory acts are do not apply "unless such Act expressly states that it applies despite the Charter." Subsection 82 of the Official Languages Act states that "in the event of any inconsistency" between Parts I - V of that Act, any part of any Act of Parliament, the provisions of the Official Languages Act will prevail. The first Canadian law to establish a claim to quasi-constitutional status was the Interpretation Act, enacted in November 1867 at the first session of the Parliament of Canada. Section 3 of this law stated: However, the term "quasi-constitutional" was not coined until 1974.

The term was invented in a dissenting opinion written by Bora Laskin, a future Chief Justice of Canada. Laskin observed, "The Canadian Bill of Rights is a half-way house between a purely common law regime and a constitutional one. Laws acquire quasi-constitutional status either by means of a provision in their text, or through court interpretation as such; the Supreme Court of Canada has held that quasi-constitutional statutes are to be interpreted using the same principles of statutory interpretation as are employed for all other statutes. A quasi-constitutional statute must, like any other statute, be interpreted purposively; this means that conflicts in interpretation should be resolved in favour of the underlying purposes of the Act. Additionally, when the quasi-constitutional law is a rights-protecting measure such as a human rights act, the protected rights are to be interpreted broadly and exceptions and the limitations on these rights are to be construed narrowly. In 2008 the Court ruled, in New Brunswick v. Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan Inc.: This ruling was consistent with an earlier decision, in which the Court stated: Quasi-constitutional laws are considered "more important than other laws," and are therefore paramount to, or supersede, laws enacted before or after.

The effect of paramountcy is to render the conflicting law inoperative as to the conflict. A quasi-constitutional law may not be used to invalidate the provisions of any statute that contains a provision, stating that this new law applies notwithstanding the quasi-constitutional law. For example, section 2 of the Canadian Bill of Rights, a quasi-constitutional law states: Section 12 of the Public Order Temporary Measures Act, enacted on November 2, 1970, at the height of the October Crisis, overrode the Canadian Bill of Rights by stating, "It is hereby declared that this act shall operate notwithstanding the Canadian Bill of Rights." The Public Order Temporary Measures Act is the only law that has overridden the Canadian Bill of Rights by means of such a clause—and

2002 VFL season

The 2002 Victorian Football League season was the 121st season of the Australian rules football competition. The premiership was won by the Geelong Football Club reserves team, after defeating Port Melbourne by 22 points in the Grand Final on 22 September; the Jim'Frosty' Miller Medal was won for the fourth consecutive year by Nick Sautner, who kicked 93 goals. The J. J. Liston Trophy was won by Sam Mitchell. In the most dominant Liston Trophy performance in history, Mitchell polled 31 votes in only eleven games, including ten best-on-ground performances. Dean Talbot was second with 19 votes, Mark Bradley was third with 18 votes; the Fothergill-Round Medal was won by Michael Firrito. Williamstown won the reserves premiership. Williamstown 11.15 defeated Werribee 10.14 in the Grand Final, held as a curtain-raiser to the Seniors Grand Final on 22 September. List of VFA/VFL premiers Australian Rules Football Victorian Football League Australian Football League 2002 AFL season

Choe U

Choe U was the second Choe dictator of the Ubong Choe Military regime. He himself went out on the battlefield to lead in fighting off the Mongolian invasions, he realized that the government was no longer safe at the capital city of Kaesong, so he forced the king and his officials to flee to Ganghwa island. He went to Ganghwa island with them, he did this. Therefore, the Goryeo government was kept safe for several decades after the Choe regime. Choe U was the son of the Goryo Dynasty military regime's founder, Choe Chung-Heon, grandson of the Grand General Choe Won-Ho. Choe U's birthdate is unknown, but it is known that the Choe family lived in the capital of Kaesong at the time when Choe Chung-Heon assassinated Yi Ui-Min. Choe U was around the age of seventeen when his father assassinated the tyrant Yi in 1196, saw how his father amassed and wielded power. Choe U was said to have been a skilled fighter as well as an exceptional statesman, he joined the Imperial army at the age of eighteen and served for about twenty years, continued to serve while he was dictator.

Not much is known about Choe U's early life. There was the incident of succeeding his father; when the time came for Choe Chung-Heon to select a successor, he had two choices. He selected U because he was the first son, he was the more talented and capable of the two. U's brother, did not take this and so the two brothers faced each other in a sword duel, it ended in U's victory. U put his fate in his father's hands. Choe Chung-Heon announced that U would be his successor, U became the Royal protector/prime minister, leader of the Imperial Council. Choe U controlled the Goryeo government with King Gojong as his puppet, he was able to preserve the Goryeo empire by hiding the government on Ganghwa island. At the same time, Choe U did a better of appeasing the people, he that his father had taken and distributed it to the people. With this, the people of Goryeo became more willing to live under a dictatorship. Choe U's rule was composed of Mongolian Invasions, he directly led Goryeo forces to fight off the first Mongol Invasion.

Choe U died of disease during the first Mongol invasion attempt of Goryeo, he was succeeded by his son Choe Hang. Father: Choi Chung-heon Grandfather: Choi Won-ho Grandmother: Lady Yu Mother: Lady Song Wife: Lady Jeong of the Hadong Jeong clan Daughter: Lady Choi of the Ubong Choi clan Son-in-law: Kim Yak-seon Grandson: Kim Mi Grandson: Kim Wi-hang Grandson: Kim Pil-yeong Granddaughter: Queen Jeongsun of the Gyeongju Kim clan Daughter: Lady Choi of the Ubong Choi clan Wife: Lady Dae of the Hyeopgye Dae clan Stepson: Oh Seung-jeok Concubine: Lady Choi of the Cheolwon Choi clan Concubine: Seo Ryeon-bang Son: Choi Man-jeong Son: Choi Hang Concubine: An Shim Portrayed by Jung Jae-gon and Lee David in the 2003-2004 KBS TV series Age of Warriors. Portrayed Jeong Bo-seok in the 2012 MBC TV series God of War. History of Korea List of Goryeo people

Council Learned in the Law

The Council Learned in the Law was a controversial tribunal of Henry VII of England's reign. The brainchild of Sir Reginald Bray, the Council Learned was introduced in 1495 to defend Henry's position as a feudal landlord, maintain the King's revenue and exploit his prerogative rights, it enforced payments of debts. It proved to be much more efficient than the Exchequer; the council was a secondary department to the Star Chamber, but it was the Council Learned in Law that made the system of bonds and recognisances work so effectively. Following Bray's death in 1503, he was replaced with Edmund Dudley. Dudley, along with Empson, formed a feared combination of able bureaucrats who raised the extraction of money from the King's associates into a fine art and created many enemies amongst key advisors of the King. By the end of Henry VII's reign, the Council Learned had become unpopular, after his death in 1509, it was abolished, its most prominent councilors, Edmund Dudley and Sir Richard Empson, were imprisoned.

Though evidence was scarce, both were convicted of treason and executed in 1510. The downfall of the pair brought rejoicing in the streets. There is much controversy about the Council Learned in the Law because most existing sources date after 1509 when it had been condemned. Bray's associate, maintained a ruthless approach that seemed to define the behavior of the Council. In the Tower, Dudley confessed to having issued harsher penalties than lawful in several cases, a statement which has given the Council a negative connotation, it bypassed the normal legal system since it was not a court and those summoned had no chance of appeal. It was an expression of the King's will and as such was as important for maintaining authority as it as raising finances