A pilgrim is a traveler, on a journey to a holy place. This is a physical journey to some place of special significance to the adherent of a particular religious belief system. In the spiritual literature of Christianity, the concept of pilgrim and pilgrimage may refer to the experience of life in the world or to the inner path of the spiritual aspirant from a state of wretchedness to a state of beatitude. Pilgrims and the making of pilgrimages are common in many religions, including the faiths of ancient Egypt, Persia in the Mithraic period, India and Japan; the Greek and Roman customs of consulting the gods at local oracles, such as those at Dodona or Delphi, both in Greece, are known. In Greece, pilgrimages could either be state-sponsored. In the early period of Hebrew history, pilgrims traveled to Shiloh, Dan and Jerusalem. While many pilgrims travel toward a specific location, a physical destination is not always a necessity. One group of pilgrims in early Celtic Christianity were the Peregrinari Pro Christ, or "white martyrs", who left their homes to wander in the world.
This sort of pilgrimage was an ascetic religious practice, as the pilgrim left the security of home and the clan for an unknown destination, trusting in Divine Providence. These travels resulted in the founding of new abbeys and the spread of Christianity among the pagan population in Britain and in continental Europe. Many religions still espouse pilgrimage as a spiritual activity; the great Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, is an obligatory duty at least once for every Muslim, able to make the journey. Other Islamic devotional pilgrimages to the tombs of Shia Imams or Sufi saints, are popular across the Islamic world; as in the Middle Ages, modern Christian pilgrims may choose to visit Rome, where according to the New Testament the church was established by St. Peter, sites in the'Holy Land' connected with the life of Christ or places associated with saints and miracles such as Lourdes, Santiago of Compostela and Fatima. Places of pilgrimage in the Buddhist world include those associated with the life of the historical Buddha: his supposed birthplace and childhood home and place of enlightenment, other places he is believed to have visited and the place of his death, India.
Others include the many temples and monasteries with relics of the Buddha or Buddhist saints such as the Temple of the Tooth in Sri Lanka and the numerous sites associated with teachers and patriarchs of the various traditions. Hindu pilgrimage destinations may be holy cities. Beginning in 1894, Christian ministers under the direction of Charles Taze Russell were appointed to travel to and work with local Bible Students congregations for a few days at a time. International Bible Students Association pilgrims were excellent speakers, their local talks were well-publicized and well-attended. Prominent Bible Students A. H. Macmillan and J. F. Rutherford were both appointed pilgrims before they joined the board of directors of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. A modern phenomenon is the cultural pilgrimage which, while involving a personal journey, is secular in nature. Destinations for such pilgrims can include historic sites of national or cultural importance, can be defined as places "of cultural significance: an artist's home, the location of a pivotal event or an iconic destination".
An example might be a baseball fan visiting New York. Destinations for cultural pilgrims include Auschwitz concentration camp, Gettysburg Battlefield or the Ernest Hemingway House. Cultural pilgrims may travel on religious pilgrimage routes, such as the Way of St. James, with the perspective of making it a historic or architectural tour rather than – or as well as – a religious experience. Under communist regimes, devout secular pilgrims visited locations such as the Mausoleum of Lenin, the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong and the Birthplace of Karl Marx; such visits were sometimes state-sponsored. Sites such as these continue to attract visitors; the distinction between religious, cultural or political pilgrimage and tourism is not always clear or rigid. Pilgrimage could refer symbolically to journeys on foot, to places where the concerned person expect to find spiritual and/or personal salvation. In the words of adventurer-author Jon Krakauer in his book Into The Wild, Christopher McCandless was'a pilgrim perhaps' to Alaska in search of spiritual bliss.
Many national and international leaders have gone on pilgrimages for both personal and political reasons. Benedict XVI Bridget of Sweden Columba Rangjung Rigpe Dorje Egeria El-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz Ruslan Gelayev Godric of Finchale Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama Ignatius of Loyola James, son
Regional airlines are airlines that operate regional aircraft to provide passenger air service to communities without sufficient demand to attract mainline service. There are two main ways for a regional airline to do business: As an affiliated airline, contracting with a major airline, operating under their brand name, filling two roles: delivering passengers to the major airline's hubs from surrounding towns, increasing frequency of service on mainline routes during times when demand does not warrant use of large aircraft, known as commuter flights. Operating as an independent airline under their own brand providing service to small and isolated towns, for whom the airline is the only reasonable link to a larger town. Examples of this are PenAir, which links the remote Aleutian Islands to Anchorage and Mokulele Airlines, which operates in the Hawaiian islands. Small regional airlines operating in the U. S. during the 1960s and 1970s were known as commuter airlines and were classified as such in the Official Airline Guide.
Regional airlines began by operating propeller-driven aircraft over short routes, sometimes on flights of less than 100 miles. In the early days of commercial aviation few aircraft had ranges greater than this, airlines were formed to serve the area in which they formed; that is, there was no strong distinction between a regional airline and any other airline. This changed with the introduction of long-range aircraft, which led to the development of the flag carrier airlines, such as British Overseas Airways Corporation and Trans-Canada Airlines; as the flag carriers grew in importance with increasing long-range passenger traffic, the smaller airlines found a niche flying passengers over short routes to the flag carrier's airport. This arrangement was formalized, forming the regional airlines. Through the 1960s and 1970s, war surplus designs, notably the DC-3, were replaced by much more capable turboprop or jet-powered designs like the Fokker F27 Friendship or BAC One-Eleven; this extended the range of the regionals causing a wave of consolidations between the now overlapping airlines.
In the United States, regional airlines were an important building block of today's passenger air system. The U. S. Government encouraged the forming of regional airlines to provide services from smaller communities to larger towns, where air passengers could connect to a larger network; some of the original regional airlines sanctioned by the Civil Aeronautics Board in the 1940s and 1950s include: None of these airlines survive today. A history and study of regional airlines was published by the Smithsonian Institution Press in 1994 under the title Commuter Airlines of the United States, by R. E. G. Davies and I. E. Quastler. One of the first independently owned and managed airlines in the world that rebranded its aircraft to match a larger airline's brand was Air Alpes of France. During 1974, Air Alpes painted its newly delivered short range regional jets in the livery of Air France. NLM's KLM style branding does however pre-date the Air France efforts though by a number of years; the success of the "rebranding" or "pseudo branding" of a much smaller airline into the name recognition of a much larger one soon became clear as passenger numbers soared at Air Alpes, it was soon decided to paint other aircraft such as the Fokker F-27 into full Air France colours as well.
Since the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, the US federal government has continued support of the regional airline sector to ensure many of the smaller and more isolated rural communities remain connected to air services. This is encouraged with the Essential Air Service program that subsidizes airline service to smaller U. S. communities and suburban centers, aiming to maintain year-round service. Although regional airlines in the United States are viewed as small, not lucrative "no name" subsidiaries of the mainline airlines, in terms of revenue, many would be designated major airline carrier status based on the only actual definition of "major airline," in the United States, the definition from the U. S. Department of Transportation; this definition is based on annual revenue and not on any other criterion such as average aircraft seating capacity, pilot pay, or number of aircraft in the fleet. It is common in the U. S. to incorrectly associate aircraft size with the Department of Transportation's designation of major and regional airline.
The only corollary is the Regional Airline Association, an industry trade group, defines "regional airlines" as "...operat short and medium haul scheduled airline service connecting smaller communities with larger cities and connecting hubs. The airlines' fleet consists of 19 to 68 seat turboprops and 30 to 100 seat regional jets." To be clear there is no distinction in the Department of Transportation definition of major and regional airlines by aircraft size. The definition is based on revenue; the clash of definitions has led to confusion in the public. Beginning around 1985, a number of trends have become apparent. Regional aircraft are getting larger and are flying longer ranges. Additionally, the vast majority of regionals within the United States with more than ten aircraft within their fleet, have lost their individual identities and now serve only as feeders, to Alaska Airlines, American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, or United Airlines major hubs. Regional aircraft in the US have been getting more comfortable with the addition of better ergonomically designed aircraft cabins, the addition of varying travel classes aboard these aircraft.
From small, less than 50-sea
Madhya Pradesh is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal, the largest city is Indore, with Jabalpur, Gwalior and Sagar being the other major cities. Nicknamed the "Heart of India" due to its geographical location, Madhya Pradesh is the second largest Indian state by area and the fifth largest state by population with over 75 million residents, it borders the states of Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the west, Rajasthan to the northwest. Its total area is 308,252 km2. Before 2000, when Chhattisgarh was a part of Madhya Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh was the largest state in India and the distance between the two furthest points inside the state and Konta, was 1500 km. Konta is presently in Sukma district of Chhattisgarh state; the area covered by the present-day Madhya Pradesh includes the area of the ancient Avanti Mahajanapada, whose capital Ujjain arose as a major city during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE.
Subsequently, the region was ruled by the major dynasties of India. By the early 18th century, the region was divided into several small kingdoms which were captured by the British and incorporated into Central Provinces and Berar and the Central India Agency. After India's independence, Madhya Pradesh state was created with Nagpur as its capital: this state included the southern parts of the present-day Madhya Pradesh and northeastern portion of today's Maharashtra. In 1956, this state was reorganised and its parts were combined with the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal to form the new Madhya Pradesh state, the Marathi-speaking Vidarbha region was removed and merged with the Bombay State; this state was the largest in India by area until 2000, when its southeastern Chhattisgarh region was made as a separate state. Rich in mineral resources, MP has the largest reserves of copper in India. More than 30% of its area is under forest cover, its tourism industry has seen considerable growth, with the state topping the National Tourism Awards in 2010–11.
In recent years, the state's GDP growth has been above the national average. Isolated remains of Homo erectus found in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley indicate that Madhya Pradesh might have been inhabited in the Middle Pleistocene era. Painted pottery dated to the mesolithic period has been found in the Bhimbetka rock shelters. Chalcolithic sites belonging to Kayatha culture and Malwa culture have been discovered in the western part of the state; the city of Ujjain arose as a major centre in the region, during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE. It served as the capital of the Avanti kingdom Tejas. Other kingdoms mentioned in ancient epics—Malava, Karusha and Nishada—have been identified with parts of Madhya Pradesh. Chandragupta Maurya united northern India around 320 BCE, establishing the tejas Mauryan Empire, which included all of modern-day Madhya Pradesh. Ashoka the greatest of Mauryan rulers brought the region under firmer control. After the decline of the Maurya empire, the region was contested among the Sakas, the Kushanas, the Satavahanas, several local dynasties during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE.
Heliodorus, the Greek Ambassador to the court of the Shunga king Bhagabhadra erected the Heliodorus pillar near Vidisha. Ujjain emerged as the predominant commercial centre of western India from the first century BCE, located on the trade routes between the Ganges plain and India's Arabian Sea ports; the Satavahana dynasty of the northern Deccan and the Saka dynasty of the Western Satraps fought for the control of Madhya Pradesh during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE. The Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni inflicted a crushing defeat upon the Saka rulers and conquered parts of Malwa and Gujarat in the 2nd century CE. Subsequently, the region came under the control of the Gupta empire in the 4th and 5th centuries, their southern neighbours, the Vakataka's; the rock-cut temples at Bagh Caves in the Kukshi tehsil of the Dhar district attest to the presence of the Gupta dynasty in the region, supported by the testimony of a Badwani inscription dated to the year of 487 CE. The attacks of the Hephthalites or White Huns brought about the collapse of the Gupta empire, which broke up into smaller states.
The king Yasodharman of Malwa defeated the Huns in 528. Harsha ruled the northern parts of the state. Malwa was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty from the late 8th century to the 10th century; when the south Indian Emperor Govinda III of the Rashtrakuta dynasty annexed Malwa, he set up the family of one of his subordinates there, who took the name of Paramara. The Medieval period saw the rise of the Rajput clans, including the Paramaras of Malwa and the Chandelas of Bundelkhand; the Chandellas built the majestic Hindu-Jain temples at Khajuraho, which represent the culmination of Hindu temple architecture in Central India. The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty held sway in northern and western Madhya Pradesh at this time, it left some monuments of architectural value in Gwalior. Southern parts of Madhya Pradesh like Malwa were several times invaded by the south Indian Western Chalukya Empire which imposed its rule on the Paramara kingdom of Malwa; the Paramara king Bhoja was a renowned polymath.
The small Gond kingdoms emerged in the Mahakoshal regions of the state. Northern Madhya Pradesh was conquered by the Turkic Delhi Sultanate in the 13th century. After the collapse of the Delhi Sultanate at the end of the 14th century, independent regional kingdoms re-emerged, including the Tomara kingdom of Gwalior and the Muslim
The ATR 72 is a twin-engine turboprop, short-haul regional airliner developed and produced in France and Italy by aircraft manufacturer ATR, a joint venture formed by French aerospace company Aérospatiale and Italian aviation conglomerate Aeritalia. The number "72" in its name is derived from the aircraft's standard seating configuration in a passenger-carrying configuration, which could seat 72–78 passengers in a single-class arrangement. During the 1980s, French aerospace company Aérospatiale and Italian aviation conglomerate Aeritalia merged their work on a new generation of regional aircraft. For this purpose, a new jointly owned company was established, ATR, for the purpose of developing and marketing their first airliner, designated as the ATR 42. On 16 August 1984, the first model of the series, designated as the ATR 42-300, performed the type's maiden flight. During the mid-1980s, the ATR 72 was developed as a stretched variant of the ATR 42. On 27 October 1989, Finnish airline Finnair became the first airline to operate the type in revenue service.
The ATR 72 has been used as a corporate transport, cargo aircraft, maritime patrol aircraft. To date, all of the ATR series have been completed at the company's final assembly line in Toulouse, France. Successive models of the ATR 72 have been developed. Typical updates have included new avionics, such as a glass cockpit, the adoption of newer engine versions to deliver enhanced performance, such as increased efficiency and reliability and reductions in operating costs; the aircraft continues to share a high degree of commonality with the smaller ATR 42. The ATR 42 and ATR 72 have been produced side-by-side for decades. During the mid-1980s, ATR sought to introduce a larger airliner with capacity; this new regional airliner, designated as the ATR 72, was directly developed from the earlier ATR 42 and continued to share many commonalities with it. This was principally achieved by stretching the fuselage by 4.5 m, along with an increase of the wingspan, the use of more powerful engines, increased fuel capacity by about 10%.
On 15 January 1986, the launch of the stretched ATR 72 programme was announced. On 27 October 1988, the first prototype performed its maiden flight. During the following month, on 27 October 1989, Finnish airline Finnair became the first airline to introduce the aircraft into service. Since the ATR 72 is assembled on the same production line as the smaller ATR 42, along with sharing the majority of subsystems and manufacturing techniques, the two types support each other to remain in production; this factor may have been crucial as, by 2015, the ATR 42 was the only 50-seat regional aircraft, still being manufactured. During 2000, the combined global ATR fleet reached its 10,000,000th flight, during which a distance around 4 billion km had been flown and around 450 million passengers had flown on board ATR-built aircraft; the 2007 production set a new record for the programme's sales. By the end of 2014, ATR had received 1,000 orders for the type and delivered a total of 754, leaving a backlog of 246 aircraft.
Within the ATR company, various organisational changes were implemented. On 10 July 1998, ATR launched its new Asset Management Department. In June 2001, EADS and Alenia Aeronautica, ATR's parent companies, decided to reinforce their partnership, regrouping all industrial activities related to regional airliners into the ATR consortium. On 3 October 2003, ATR became one of the first aircraft manufacturers to be certified under ISO 9001-2000 and EN/AS/JISQ 9100, the worldwide quality standard for the aeronautics industry. During July 2004, ATR and Brazilian aircraft manufacturer Embraer announced a co-operation agreement on the AEROChain Portal for the purpose of delivering improved customer service. During April 2009, ATR announced the launch of its'Door-2-Door' service as a new option in its comprehensive customer services range. Since 2008, ATR has been a participant in the European Clean Sky Joint Technology Initiative. On 8 July 2015, a ATR 72-600'green' technology demonstrator performed its first flight.
ATR's senior vice-president for engineering Alessandro Amendola indicated that the elimination of all uses of bleed air was a key aim in the designing of an all-electric architecture as well as improving engine efficiency. During March 2016, a second round of flight trials dedicated the testing of all-electric systems architecture using the demonstrator was completed; the current production version is the ATR 72-600 series. On 2 October 2007, ATR CEO Stéphane Mayer announced the launch of the −600 series aircraft. While broadly similar to the earlier -500 model.
Dabolim Airport or Goa Airport is the sole international airport in Goa. It operates as a civil enclave in a military airbase named INS Hansa, it is 4 km from the nearest city Vasco da Gama, 23 km from Margao, about 30 km from the state capital Panjim. The airport's integrated terminal was inaugurated in December 2013. In fiscal year 2017–18, the airport handled over 7.6 million passengers. Due to capacity constrains at the terminal and air traffic congestion due to strong military and naval presence, a second airport at Mopa was proposed and is under early stage of construction with scheduled completion in 2020; the airport was built, in 1955, by the Government of the Estado da Índia Portuguesa, on 249 acres of land, as the Aeroporto de Dabolim, officially renamed to Aeroporto General Bénard Guedes. Until 1961, the airport served as the main hub of the Portuguese India's airline TAIP, which on a regular schedule served Daman, Karachi, Portuguese Timor, other destinations. During the Indian annexation of Goa, in December 1961, the airport was bombarded by the Indian Air Force with parts of the infrastructure being destroyed.
Two civilian planes that were in the airport – a Lockheed Constellation from TAP and a Douglas DC-4 from TAIP – managed to escape with refugees, during the night, to Karachi. In April 1962, it was occupied by the Indian Navy's air wing when Major General K. P. Candeth, who had led the successful military operation into Goa, "handed over" the airport to the Indian Navy before relinquishing charge as its military governor to a Lieutenant Governor of the Union Territory of Goa and Diu in June 1962. For civilian air travel out of Vasco da Gama and Goa, the Indian Navy and the Government of India invited the public sector airline to operate at Dabolim from 1966 after the runway was repaired and jet-enabled. A new domestic terminal building was built in 1983, designed to process 350 arrivals and departures while the international terminal, built in 1996 was designed for 250. Once two vital road bridges across the main waterways of Goa were built in the early 1980s, Goa hosted the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in 1983, the charter flight business began to take off at Dabolim a few years pioneered by Condor Airlines of Germany.
In 2006, the Indian Civil Aviation Ministry announced a plan to upgrade Dabolim Airport. This involved constructing a new international passenger terminal and adding several more aircraft stands over an area of about 4 hectares; the construction was scheduled to be completed by the end of 2007. However delays in transfer of the required land from the Navy held up proceedings; the modernisation project of Goa Airport was one of 35 airport expansion projects undertaken by the AAI and, in terms of size and money, was its third largest project after the ones at Chennai and Kolkata airports. It included the construction of an integrated terminal building to replace the older terminals, a multi-level car parking facility to accommodate between 540 and 570 cars and construction of additional parking stands for aircraft, among others; the AAI acquired additional land from the Indian Navy and the State Government for apron expansion and the expansion of the older international terminal building complex.
The foundation stone for the terminal was laid on 21 February 2009, the project work began in May 2010 and construction of the terminal began in May 2011. The terminal can handle 2,750 peak hour passengers, cost ₹3.45 billion and was inaugurated on 3 December 2013. The airport is spread over 688 hectares and consists of a civil enclave of nearly 14 hectares, an increase from its original size of 6 hectares; the civil enclave is operated by the AAI. The Navy's premises straddle the Dabolim runway and its personnel cross at one point between flights. One point near the terminal constrains the enlargement of aircraft parking space. Of the 130–140 flights daily, there is a large concentration of civilian traffic in the period between 1:00 pm and 9:00 pm during weekdays, with the balance in the early morning hours; this is because of naval restrictions for military flight training purposes throughout the year. The huge demand during the peak Christmas/New Year tourist season results in the sharp spiking of air fares during this period.
Night operations have been permitted and enabled since October 2007 but they have taken place only an ad hoc basis subject to the mandatory clearance of the naval ATC. The airport's integrated terminal building handles both domestic passengers, it was opened in December 2013. The building design features large steel span structures and frameless glazing; the 62,000 square metre terminal is designed to cater to five million passengers annually. It is equipped with 8 aerobridges; the terminal features an in-line baggage scanning system and a state-of-the-art sewage treatment plant. It has 75 check-in counters, 22 immigration counters for departures, 18 immigration counters for arrivals, 14 security check booths and 8 customs counters; the basement of the four-level terminal has utilities like cargo handling. The check-in counters are placed on the ground floor while the first floor has security check booths; the second floor has the security hold area. The old terminal buildings were shut down after the commissioning of the new terminal.
Several European charter airlin
Airline hubs or hub airports are used by one or more airlines to concentrate passenger traffic and flight operations at a given airport. They serve, it is part of the hub-and-spoke system. An airline operates flights from several non-hub cities to the hub airport, passengers traveling between spoke cities need to connect through the hub; this paradigm creates economies of scale that allow an airline to serve city-pairs that could otherwise not be economically served on a non-stop basis. This system contrasts with the point-to-point model, in which there are no hubs and nonstop flights are instead offered between spoke cities. Hub airports serve origin and destination traffic. In the airline industry, a focus city is a destination from which an airline operates limited point-to-point routes. Ergo, a focus city caters to the local market rather than to connecting passengers. However, with the term's expanded usage, a focus city may function as a small-scale or total hub. Allegiant Air, JetBlue and Southwest Airlines are examples of US-based airlines that consider some of their focus cities run like a hub.
The hub-and-spoke system allows an airline to serve fewer routes, so fewer aircraft are needed. The system increases passenger loads. However, the system is costly. Additional employees and facilities are needed to cater to connecting passengers. To serve spoke cities of varying populations and demand, an airline requires several aircraft types, specific training and equipment are necessary for each type. In addition, airlines may experience capacity constraints. For the passenger, the hub-and-spoke system offers one-stop air service to a wide array of destinations. However, it requires having to make connections en route to their final destination, which increases travel time. Additionally, airlines can come to monopolise their hubs, allowing them to increase fares as passengers have no alternative. Airlines may operate banks of flights at their hubs, in which several flights arrive and depart within short periods of time; the banks may be known as "peaks" of activity at the hubs and the non-banks as "valleys".
Banking allows for short connection times for passengers. However, an airline must assemble a large number of resources to cater to the influx of flights during a bank, having several aircraft on the ground at the same time can lead to congestion and delays. In addition, banking could result in inefficient aircraft utilisation, with aircraft waiting at spoke cities for the next bank. Instead, some airlines have debanked their hubs, introducing a "rolling hub" in which flight arrivals and departures are spread throughout the day; this phenomenon is known as "depeaking". While costs may decrease, connection times are longer at a rolling hub. American Airlines was the first to depeak its hubs, trying to improve profitability following the September 11 attacks, it rebanked its hubs in 2015, feeling the gain in connecting passengers would outweigh the rise in costs. The hub-and-spoke system is used by some cargo airlines. FedEx Express established its main hub in Memphis in 1973, prior to the deregulation of the air cargo industry in the United States.
The system has created an efficient delivery system for the airline. Other airlines that use this system include UPS Airlines, TNT Airways, Cargolux and DHL Aviation, which operate their primary hubs at Louisville, Liège, Luxembourg and Leipzig respectively. Although the term focus city is used to refer to an airport from which an airline operates limited point-to-point routes, its usage has loosely expanded to refer to a small-scale hub as well. For example, JetBlue's New York–JFK focus city runs like a hub, although in reality it is still deemed as a focus city. A fortress hub exists when an airline controls a significant majority of the market at one of its hubs. Competition is difficult at fortress hubs. Examples include Delta hubs at Atlanta, Salt Lake City and Minneapolis–Saint Paul. Flag carriers have enjoyed similar dominance at the main international airport of their countries and some still do. Examples include Lufthansa at Frankfurt Airport, Air Canada at Toronto Pearson Airport, Alitalia at Rome Fiumicino Airport, KLM at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, Garuda Indonesia at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, British Airways at London Heathrow, Air China at Beijing Capital Airport, Iberia at Madrid-Barajas Airport and Air France at Paris Orly and Charles de Gaulle Airports.
A primary hub is the main hub for an airline. However, as an airline expands operations at its primary hub to the point that it experiences capacity limitations, it may elect to open secondary hubs. Examples of such hubs are Turkish Airlines' Istanbul–Sabiha Gökçen hub, British Airways' hub at London-Gatwick, Air India's hub at Mumbai and Lufthansa's hub at Munich. By operating multiple hubs, airlines can expand their geographic reach, they can better serve spoke–spoke markets, providing more itineraries with connections at different hubs. A given hub's capacity may become exhausted or capacity shortages may occur during peak periods of the day, at which point airlines may be compelled to shift traffic to a reliever hub. A reliever hub has the potential to serve several functions for an airline: it can bypass the congested hub, it can absorb
History of kadapa( Kadapa is a city in the Rayalseema region of the south-central part of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is the district headquarters of Kadapa district; as of 2011 Census of India, the city had a population of 344,078. It is located 8 kilometres south of the Penna River; the city is surrounded on three sides by the Nallamala and Palkonda Hills lying on the tectonic landscape between the Eastern and Western ghats. Black and Red ferrous soils occupy the region; the city is nicknamed "Gadapa" since it is the gateway from the west to the sacred hills of Tirumala. Kadapa has been under different rulers in its history, including the Nizams and Cholas, the Vijayanagara Empire and Kingdom of Mysore; the city's name originated from the Telugu word "Gadapa" meaning gate. It acquired this name with its relation to the Tirumala Hills. In old Telugu the word Kadapa meant a threshold which in modern standard Telugu is evolved to Gadapa while the city's name retained the old flavour, it was spelled "Cuddapah" but was changed to "Kadapa" on 19 August 2005 to reflect the local pronunciation of the name.
Some of the inscriptions found have mentioned about this place as Hiranyanagaram. The history of Kadapa dates back to the 2nd century BC; the evidences of Archaeological Survey of India suggest that it started with Mourya and Satavahana dynasty. And since it has been under the rule of numerous dynasties including Chalukya and Pallava. Among all of these dynasties, first one to rule over Kadapa was Pallava dynasty. Pallava kings ruled over the city during the 5th century after penetrating into North of Kadapa. After that Cholas ruled till the 8th century after defeating Pallavas. Banas ruled over Kadapa. History As the Muslim rulers rullled the South India, it was brought under the control of the Nawab of Cuddapah. With the advent of British, it was ceded to them by the Nawab. Under the rule of British, Siddavatam served as the headquarters of the district briefly; the city of Cuddapah serves as the headquarters and Siddavatam was reduced to a Mandal in the district.ruled by late king Yaseen khan BA.
BL..and khamruddin and Gayasuddin are stared the work of tobacco leaf now they leave in kadapa. Ameen peer dargah the masjid is believed to be constructed in 1683, it was a grave place for the two Sufi saints Perullah Hussaini and Arufulla Hussaini II. The Nawab of Sidhout Taluk, Nawab Nek nam Khan changed the name of this place to Neknamabaad on the advice of Perullah Hussaini. Neknamabaad became Kadapa. After Banas, Rashtrakutas ruled Kadapa region Among the popular rulers of Kadapa was King Indra III, who served during the period of 915 AD. In his period, Kadapa gained a lot of influence, which declined with his death later. Telugu Cholas, were the next one to rule Kadapa. Ambadeva ruled Kadapa in the latter half of the 13th century when he established the capital at Vallur, located at a distance of about 15 km from Kadapa. After the death of Ambadeva, the Kakatiya king Prataparudra II ruled until early 14th century. Prataparudra was defeated by Muslims in the reign of Khalji emperor Alla Uddin.
In the mid-14th century, Hindus of Vijayanagar dynasty drove the Muslims out of Warangal and subsequently Kadapa and ruled for around two centuries till they were defeated by the Nawab of Golkonda. The most illustrious ruler during this time was Pemmasani Thimma Nayudu who developed the region and constructed many tanks and temples here. Muslims of Golkonda conquered the region in 1594 when Mir Jumla II raided Gandikota fort and defeated Chinna Thimma Nayudu by treachery. Marathas took over the city in 1740 after defeating the Nawab of Cuddapah. Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan ruled the city before it fell in the hands of Nizam by the Treaty of Seringapatam in 1792; the British took control of Kadapa District in 1800 CE. Although the town is an ancient one, it was extended by Neknam Khan, the Qutb Shahi commander, who called the extension as "Neknamabad"; the name "Neknamabad" was used for the town for some time but fell into disuse and the records of the 18th century refer to the rulers not as Nawabs of Kadapa.
Except for some years in the beginning, Kadapa District was the seat of the Mayana Nawabs in the 18th century. With the British occupation of the tract in 1800 CE, it became the headquarters of one of the four subordinate collectorates under the principal collector Sir Thomas Munro. In 2004, Kadapa was recognised as a municipal corporation. Kadapa is located at 14.47°N 78.82°E / 14.47. The city is situated in the Bugga vanka or Ralla Vanka rivers bordered by the Palakondas to the south and to the east by a patch of hills casting north for the Lankamalas on Penna's other side, it has an average elevation of 138 metres. The hills of western and eastern ghats stand on either sides, shielding it from the extreme winds of summer and winter Kadapa has a tropical wet and dry climate characterised by year round high temperatures, it has a record of reaching more than 50 degree Celsius. Summers are uncomfortable with hot and humid climate. During this time temperatures range from a minimum of 34 °C and can rise up to a maximum of 40 °C.
Temperatures are range in the mid thirties during the day. Humidity is around 75% during the summer months. Monsoon season brings substantial rain to the area. Kadapa gets rainfall from both the South west monsoon as well as the North East Monsoon. June to October is the monsoon. Winters are comparatively milder and the temperatures are lower after the onset