Trump Tower is a 58-floor, 664-foot-tall mixed-use skyscraper at 721–725 Fifth Avenue, between 56th and 57th Streets, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Trump Tower serves as the headquarters for the Trump Organization. Additionally, it houses the penthouse condominium residence of the building's namesake and developer, U. S. president Donald Trump, a businessman and real estate developer. Several members of the Trump family live, or have resided, in the building; the tower stands on a plot where the flagship store of department-store chain Bonwit Teller was located. Der Scutt of Poor, Hayden & Connell designed Trump Tower, Trump and the Equitable Life Assurance Company developed it. Although it is in one of Midtown Manhattan's special zoning districts, the tower was approved because it was to be built as a mixed-use development. Trump was permitted to add more stories to the tower because of the atrium on the ground floor. There were controversies during construction, including the destruction of important sculptures from the Bonwit Teller store.
Construction on the building began in 1979. The atrium, apartments and stores opened on a staggered schedule from February to November 1983. At first, there were few tenants willing to move in to the retail spaces. Since 2016, the tower has seen a large increase in visitation because of Trump's 2016 presidential campaign and subsequent election—both his 2016 and 2020 campaigns are headquartered in the tower. Donald Trump—the son of Fred Trump, a real estate developer in Queens and Brooklyn—had envisioned building a tower at 56th Street and Fifth Avenue in Manhattan since childhood, but formulated plans to develop the site only in the mid-1970s, when he was in his thirties. At the time, the Bonwit Teller flagship store, an architecturally renowned building built in 1929, occupied the lot; the site was next to Tiffany's flagship store on 57th Street, which Trump considered the city's best real-estate property. Twice every year, Trump contacted Bonwit Teller's parent company, Genesco, to ask whether they were willing to sell Bonwit Teller's flagship store.
Trump said the first time he contacted Genesco, "they laughed at me." Genesco continued to decline his offers and, according to Trump, "they thought I was kidding."In 1977, John Hanigan became the new chairman of Genesco. He looked to sell off some assets to pay debts, Trump approached him with an offer to buy the Bonwit Teller building. In February 1979, Genesco sold off many of the Bonwit Teller locations to Allied Stores, sold the brand's flagship building to the Trump Organization. At the time, the Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States owned the land, while Genesco had a long-term lease on the land, with 29 years remaining. If Trump were to buy the land, his tower's ownership could be transferred to Equitable in 2008, once the lease expired. Equitable refused to sell the land to Trump, but the Trump Organization bought the lease instead, Equitable exchanged the land in return for a 50% stake in the construction project itself; this was more profitable for Equitable, since they were getting only $100,000 per year from Genesco for the use of the land, while a single condominium in the tower could be sold for millions of dollars.
Trump bought the air rights around Tiffany's flagship store to prevent another developer from tearing down the store and building a taller building. Trump needed to convince the New York City Department of City Planning, Manhattan Community Board 5, the New York City Board of Estimate to rezone the area for his planned tower. In 1979, the New York Committee for a Balanced Building Boom had opposed the planned rezoning over fears Fifth Avenue's character would be changed by the construction of skyscrapers. Trump said a positive review of the building by the famed architectural critic Ada Louise Huxtable had played a part in securing the support of some of the more skeptical members on each committee; the deal attracted some criticism from the media. A writer for New York magazine said the approval of Trump Tower has "legitimized a pushy kid nobody took seriously," while The Wall Street Journal wrote that Trump combined "a huckster's flair for hyperbole with a shrewd business and political sense," and The Village Voice said Trump "turn political connections into private profits at public expense."
The Trump Organization closed Bonwit Teller's flagship store in May 1979, the store was demolished by 1980. Trump hired Der Scutt, the architect of Trump Tower, in July 1978, a year before the Bonwit Teller site was purchased. Scutt had collaborated with Trump before to develop several other projects; the architect proposed a design similar to Boston's John Hancock Tower, but Trump objected strongly. He preferred a building, both expensive and tall, with a design critics and potential tenants would approve of; the real-estate mogul stated that "the marble in Trump Tower would cost more than the entire rent from one of my buildings in Brooklyn."Two major factors affected Trump Tower's construction. One was the decision to build it around a concrete frame, in contrast to many other skyscrapers, which were built on steel frames. Scutt said a concrete frame was more rigid than a steel frame was. More it employed a concrete tube structure, pioneered by Bangladeshi-American structural engineer Fazlur Rahman Khan in the 1960s.
The other was the decision to design Trump Tower as a mixed-use bui
The Fokker F. XX was a 1930s Dutch three-engined airliner built by Fokker, it was the first Fokker design to use an elliptical-section fuselage instead of the traditional square fuselage and the first Fokker aircraft with retractable landing gear. The F. XX was a high-wing thick-section cantilever monoplane with a retractable tailwheel landing gear, it was powered by three Wright Cyclone radial engines, one in the nose and one under each wing on struts. The main landing gear retracted into the engine nacelles; the F. XX registered PH-AIZ and named Zilvermeeuw first flew in 1933, it was delivered to KLM for services from Amsterdam to Berlin. Although the F. XX was a more advanced design both in aerodynamics and looks than earlier Fokkers, the arrival of the twin-engined low-wing Douglas DC-2 and DC-3 soon rendered it obsolete. Only one aircraft was built, after service with KLM was sold to French airline Air Tropique. Air Tropique had ties with the Spanish Republican government, that used the plane to operate a liaison service between Madrid and Paris.
In 1937 it went to LAPE in Spain, was registered EC-45-E. The plane crashed in Spain February 1938 near Barcelona at Prat de Llobregat Airport. Licence production in the UK as the Airspeed AS.21 was not proceeded with. NetherlandsKLM SpainSpanish Republican Air Force Data from The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, 1985, Orbis Publishing, Page 1895General characteristics Crew: 2 Capacity: 12 passengers Length: 16.70 m Wingspan: 25.70 m Height: 4.80 m Wing area: 96 m2 Empty weight: 6,455 kg Gross weight: 9,400 kg Powerplant: 3 × Wright R-1820-F Cyclone 9-cylinder radial piston engine, 477 kW eachPerformance Maximum speed: 305 km/h Range: 1,410 km Service ceiling: 6,200 m Armament "The Fokker F. XX". Flight, 5 October 1933, pp. 993–995. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, 1985, Orbis Publishing, Page 1895
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles are four fictional teenaged anthropomorphic turtles named after Italian Renaissance artists. They were trained by their anthropomorphic rat sensei in the art of ninjutsu. From their home in the sewers of New York City, they battle petty criminals, evil overlords, mutated creatures, alien invaders while attempting to remain hidden from society, they were created by Peter Laird. The characters originated in comic books published by Mirage Studios and expanded into cartoon series, video games and other merchandise. During the peak of the franchise's popularity in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it gained worldwide success and fame; the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles first appeared in an American comic book published by Mirage Studios in 1984 in Dover, New Hampshire. The concept arose from a humorous drawing sketched out by Eastman during a casual evening of brainstorming and bad television with Laird. Using money from a tax refund, together with a loan from Eastman's uncle, the young artists self-published a single-issue comic intended to parody four of the most popular comics of the early 1980s: Marvel Comics’ Daredevil and New Mutants, Dave Sim’s Cerebus, Frank Miller’s Ronin.
The TMNT comic book series has been published in various incarnations by various comic book companies since 1984. The Turtles started their rise to mainstream success when a licensing agent, Mark Freedman, sought out Eastman and Laird to propose wider merchandising opportunities for the franchise. In 1986, Dark Horse Miniatures produced a set of 15-mm lead figurines. In January 1987, Eastman and Laird visited the offices of Playmates Toys, a small California toy company that wanted to expand into the action-figure market. Development was undertaken by a creative team of companies and individuals: Jerry Sachs, advertising agent of Sachs-Finley Agency, brought together the animators at Murakami-Wolf-Swenson headed by Fred Wolf. Wolf and his team combined concepts and ideas with the Playmates marketing crew, headed by Karl Aaronian, vice president of sales Richard Sallis, VP of Playmates Bill Carlson. Aaronian brought on several designers and concepteur and writer John C. Schulte, worked out the simple backstory that would live on toy packaging for the entire run of the product and show.
Sachs called the high concept pitch "Green Against Brick". The sense of humor was honed with the collaboration of the Murakami-Wolf-Swenson animation firm's writers. Playmates and their team served as associate producers and contributing writers to the miniseries, first launched to sell-in the toy action figures. Phrases like "Heroes in a half shell" and many of the comical catch phrases and battle cries came from the writing and conceptualization of this creative team; as the series developed, veteran writer Jack Mendelsohn came on board as both a story editor and scriptwriter. David Wise, Michael Charles Hill, Michael Reaves wrote most of the scripts; the miniseries was repeated. Once the product started selling, the show got syndicated and picked up and backed by Group W, which funded the next round of animation; the show went network, on CBS. Accompanied by the popular Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 1987 TV series, the subsequent action figure line, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles became a mainstream success.
At the height of the frenzy, in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Turtles' likenesses could be found on a wide range of children's merchandise, from Pez dispensers to skateboards, breakfast cereal, video games, school supplies, towels and toy shaving kits. While the animated TV series, which lasted for 10 seasons until 1996, was more light-hearted, the comic-book series continued in a much darker and grittier tone. In 1990, a live-action feature film was released, with the Turtles and Splinter being portrayed by actors in animatronic suits created by Jim Henson's Creature Shop; the independent film was successful spawning two sequels, as well as inspiring a three-dimensional animated film set in the same continuity, released in 2007 under the title TMNT. After the end of the cartoon series, a live-action series in the vein of the films was created in 1997 in conjunction with Saban Entertainment; the series was called Ninja Turtles: The Next Mutation and introduced a fifth, female turtle called Venus de Milo.
However, the series was unsuccessful and was canceled after one season. The property lay dormant until 2003, when a new animated TV series entitled Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles began to air on Fox Box; the series storyline stuck much closer to the original Mirage comic book series, but was still less violent. It lasted for seven seasons and 156 episodes, ending in February 2009. On October 21, 2009, it was announced that cable channel Nickelodeon had purchased all of Mirage's rights to the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles property. Mirage retains the rights to publish 18 issues a year, though the future involvement of Mirage with the Turtles and the future of Mirage Studios itself is unknown. Nickelodeon developed a new CGI-animated TMNT television series and partnered with fellow Viacom company Paramount Pictures to bring a new TMNT movie to theaters; the TV show premiered on Nickelodeon on September 29, 2012. The live-action film, produced by Platinum Dunes, Nickelodeon Movies, Paramount Pictures, directed by Jonathan Liebesman, produced by Michael Bay, was released on August 8, 2014.
Leonardo – The tactical, level-headed, courageous leader and devoted student of his sensei, Leonardo wears a blue mask and wields two katana. As the most conscientious of the four, he bears the burden